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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125351, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466027

RESUMO

The ability of vegetables to inhibit methylmercury absorption was verified, with the aim of lowering the mercury level in cultured fish. Vegetable juice was obtained from 17 varieties of commercial vegetables. A test solution containing 1 µg/g methylmercury, 10% vegetable juice, and 90% physiological saline (v/v) was introduced into the intestinal tract of red sea bream, and the mercury absorption rate was measured. A significant inhibitory effect was observed for green pepper, burdock, and red shiso, mainly in the fraction with a molecular weight >3 kDa. Frozen storage for one month did not affect the inhibitory effect of green pepper; however, the inhibitory effect of frozen burdock and red shiso were destroyed after one week and one month, respectively. During one month of storage in frozen conditions, the inhibitory effect of green pepper was observed in fractions larger than 100 kDa. Molecular weight distribution of the effective fraction varied among the vegetables.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Dourada , Animais , Mercúrio/química , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
2.
Se Pu ; 37(9): 946-954, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642298

RESUMO

A method was established to rapidly determine 20 kinds of veterinary drug residues including three catagories of antibiotics (sulfonamides, quinolones, and chloramphenicols) and two kinds of triphenylmethanes (malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG)) in fish and shrimp, based on dispersive solid phase extraction purification-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The samples were first hydrolyzed using a dipotassium hydrogen phosphate solution, and then extracted using acetonitrile. Afterward, the extraction solution was dehydrated and salted out with sodium chloride and condensed to nearly dry using a rotating evaporator. This residue was dissolved in 1.0 mL methanol. The resulting solution was purified by dispersive solid phase extraction method with C18 and PSA sorbents, and filtered through a filter. The target compounds were separated employing a ZORBAX C18 column. The mass spectrometer datas were acquired by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of positive and negative modes and quantitated applying the isotope internal standard method. The 20 veterinary drugs showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0.2-300 µg/L. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.1-0.6 and 0.3-1.8 µg/kg, respectively, while the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99. The average recoveries at the three spiked levels (1, 5, and 20 times of quantitative limits) ranged between 72.5%-118%, with the relative standard deviations of 1.9%-9.8%. The advantages of method include a simple pretreatment, a high detection efficiency, and a low cost. Moreover, it is suitable for the simultaneous determination of multiple veterinary drug residues in fish and shrimp.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Compostos de Tritil/análise
3.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(3): 52-60, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391411

RESUMO

We developed an analytical method for determining 15 antifungal drugs, 2 antiparasitic drugs, and 3 veterinary drugs in fish and livestock products using LC-MS/MS. First, 50% ethanol was added to their products, and the mixture was homogenized to reduce drug degradation. Thereafter, 20 drugs were extracted from the pretreated sample mixture using acetonitrile. Cleanup was performed using an alumina-N SPE cartridge. Finally, chromatographic separation was performed using a fully porous octadecyl silanized silica column. The new method is applicable to fish in which the matrix hampers accurate analysis. It was validated on 8 fish and livestock products. Drug recovery rates ranged from 70.2 to 109.3%, RSDs of repeatability were <18.0%, and RSDs of within-laboratory reproducibility were <18.7%. It fulfills the Japanese guideline criteria. The limits of quantification were estimated as 3 ng/g.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Food Chem ; 301: 125263, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377622

RESUMO

The nutritional and sensory quality of a fish fillet is subject to alterations depending on the culinary method used for preparation. The current study aimed to explore the effects of custom culinary preparation methods (steaming, oven-cooking, frying) on the fillet lipid and sensory quality of two important Mediterranean farmed fish species varying in their tissue fat content. These included, lean meagre and medium-fat gilthead seabream. The results indicated that culinary treatment effects on lipid quality differed among species, especially for frying. Frying created unique sensory profiles, whereas steam- and oven-cooking resulted in similar sensory profiles per species. The variable effects of culinary treatments on the lipid and sensory quality indicate that the choice of preparation method should be related to the fish species and its fat content.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Lipídeos/análise , Dourada , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Paladar , Animais , Culinária , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 25399-25413, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302893

RESUMO

Human and animals are exposed to heavy metals such as arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) through atmospheric depositions, industrial effluents, chemical pesticides and fertilizers, erosion of geological beds, and mining wastes which can result in the contamination of food chains. The aim of the current study was to review the available papers reporting contamination levels of As and Hg in commonly consumed foods in Iran. A descriptive search was carried out with specific keywords and entry criteria in databases of Science-Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Scientific Iranian Database (SID) published from January 2000 to July 2018. All articles were assessed by two reviewers, and final decision was made through discussions or a third reviewer arbitration. The articles were categorized based on the type of food groups including rice, fruit, vegetable, fish, seafood, drinking water, tea, and miscellanies. Of 221 identified articles on As and Hg contaminations in foods, 92 articles were selected using defined criteria. Published articles were reviewed to report contamination (mean and rate) of each food group in Iran. Results showed that rice and fish included the highest contamination rates of As and Hg, respectively. In general, As and Hg contents in Iranian foods cause serious health concerns due to the consumption quantities of the main foods. Further risk-based surveillance studies must be carried out to decrease exposure to As and Hg from dietary and non-dietary sources.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Mineração , Oryza , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Verduras
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9423-9431, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329442

RESUMO

A high-throughput lipid analysis method was established to comprehensively investigate the lipid profiles of three marine (Scomberomorus niphonius, Scophthalmus maximus, and Oncorhynchus keta) and one freshwater (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fish species using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Over 700 molecular species from 12 major lipid subclasses were identified. Glycerolipids (73.7-85.6%) and phospholipids (PLs, 13.7-25.6%) were dominant components in total lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acid PLs, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, 16:0-22:6), PE (18:1-22:6), and phosphatidylcholine (16:0-22:6), were the major molecular species in PLs. The lipid composition of three marine fish (mainly C22:5) was significantly different from that in C. idellus (mainly C20:4 and C20:5). A unique long-chain base of sphingolipids was found in fish (mainly d19:3). These bioactive lipids were proposed to be potential biomarkers for distinguishing different fish species and evaluating nutritional values.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cyprinidae , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Linguados , Espectrometria de Massas , Oncorhynchus keta , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Atum
7.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 966-973, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351305

RESUMO

In present study, the analyses of essential [copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn)] and non-essential elements [mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As)] in 7 fish species consumed by the indigenous people of the European Russia Arctic were conducted. The Nenets Autonomous Region, which is located in the north-eastern part of European Russia, was chosen as a Region of interest. Within it, the Nenets indigenous group (n = 6000) constitutes approximately 10% of the total population. Nearly all of the Nenets live a traditional life with fish caught in the local waters as a subsistence resource. We found that northern pike contained twice the amount of Hg compared with roach, and 3-4 times more than other fish species commonly consumed in the Russian Arctic (namely, Arctic char, pink salmon, navaga, humpback whitefish and inconnu). Fish Hg concentrations were relatively low, but comparable to those reported in other investigations that illustrate a decreasing south-to-north trend in fish Hg concentrations. In the current study, northern pike is the only species for which Hg bioaccumulated significantly. In all fish species, both Cd and Pb were present in considerably lower concentrations than Hg. The total As concentrations observed are similar to those previously published, and it is assumed to be present primarily in non-toxic organic forms. All fish tissues were rich in the essential elements Se, Cu and Zn and, dependent on the amount fish consumed, may contribute significantly to the nutritional intake by indigenous Arctic peoples. We observed large significant differences in the molar Se/Hg ratios, which ranged from 2.3 for northern pike to 71.1 for pink salmon. Values of the latter <1 may increase the toxic potential of Hg, while those >1 appear to enhance the protection against Hg toxicity.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Peixes/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Cobalto/análise , Cobre/análise , Cyprinidae , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Federação Russa , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Selênio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zinco/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 300: 125175, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323606

RESUMO

Despite the ban of nitrofurans (NFs) for use in food production in many countries in the 1990s, NF metabolites in food are still regularly detected during import control testing. We have developed a confirmatory routine method for the detection and quantification of NF metabolites in seafood using LC-MS/MS and validated the method according to the strict criteria in European legislation and Codex Alimentarius. Method characteristics were found to fulfill the criteria. We report for the first time a new false positive for 1-amino-2,4-imidazolidinedione (AHD), the metabolite of Nitrofurantoin (NFT). By using optimized washing procedures, the non tissue bound false positives can be minimized. The results from the validation on both lean and fatty fish and crustaceans, results from proficiency tests and routine use over many years, demonstrates that the method is fit for purpose to determine NF metabolites in the seafood category.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nitrofurantoína/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Reações Falso-Positivas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Nitrofurantoína/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8253-8267, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294564

RESUMO

The study focused on the determination of arsenic species in the top ten most consumed seafoods in the United States. Fifty-four samples were collected from local supermarkets, and their species identities were confirmed by DNA barcoding. The total arsenic in the samples varied greatly in the range of 8-22200 ng/g (wet mass). Speciation analysis based on extraction of water-soluble and nonpolar arsenic showed that inorganic arsenic (iAs) was found only in clams and crabs, while arsenobetaine (AsB) predominates in most samples. Among the other arsenicals, trimethylarsoniopropionate (TMAP) was found in most matrices with higher concentrations in crabs, and arsenosugars existed in most clams and crabs. Nonpolar arsenic accounted for 1-46% of the total arsenic in the samples. The accuracy of the analytical results was evaluated using standard reference materials and spike recovery tests. The survey showed that the iAs concentrations in America's most consumed seafood products are much lower than the tolerable intake set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee, even at the highest levels found in this study.


Assuntos
Arsênico/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Bivalves/química , Braquiúros/química , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Espectrometria de Massas , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Estados Unidos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287378

RESUMO

A rapid and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, in conjunction with multiwalled carbon nanotube purification, was developed to determine the mefentrifluconazole levels in grapes, cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, wheat, maize, eggs, milk, pork, chicken, and fish. After purification, tandem mass spectrometry of mefentrifluconazole required <3.0 min. Matrix-matched external standard curves were used to quantify the residual mefentrifluconazole. The method meets the requirements of the European Union Document SANTE/11813/2017. Quantification was linear between 5 and 500 µg/kg (R2 ≥ 0.9988), and both the intra- and interday relative standard deviations were ≤13.7%. Analyte recovery ranged from 81.5% to 107.6%. The limit of mefentrifluconazole quantification was 5 µg/kg for all matrices. The method successfully detected and quantified mefentrifluconazole that had been applied to cucumbers and tomatoes grown in a test field. These results imply that the proposed method is effective and reliable for detecting mefentrifluconazole residues in plant- and animal-derived foods.


Assuntos
Fluconazol/análogos & derivados , Fluconazol/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Capsicum/química , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cucumis sativus/química , Ovos/análise , Peixes , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Leite/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo , Triticum/química , Vitis/química , Zea mays/química
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 493, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300901

RESUMO

Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia fish) from the right North bank of the Senegal River in Mauritania (Rosso, Boghé, and Kaédi) were sampled during 1-year monitoring and tested for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) levels. Fishing from the Senegal River is an essential source of food for the local population and these two species are the most common. Muscle presents higher Hg concentrations than liver and gills for both species. Gill Hg concentrations from Kaédi are higher than Boghé and Rosso for both species. The Cd levels measured in gills were low in the different locations and revealed high variation throughout the 1-year study. No significant differences were observed between concentrations of Cd in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus parts. Statistical treatment did not show a considerable variation of Pb concentration between the different parts, revealing lower levels in gills from Boghé than the ones from Kaédi and Rosso. The associated human health risk was calculated from the concentration levels using the target hazard quotient (THQ) approach. Even though all the THQ values and the hazard index were lower than 1 for the determined trace metals when the exposure frequency was not greater than three times a week, eating frequency in the studied locations sometimes is greater than five, thus posing a health risk, especially at Kaédi and Boghé.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brânquias/química , Humanos , Fígado/química , Mauritânia , Músculos/química , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
12.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1448-1454, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265955

RESUMO

The Keban Reservoir, which is the second man-made waterbody in Turkey, has the biggest rainbow trout production in the country. In this study, the impacts of rainbow trout farms on water and sediment chemistry were investigated. Water and sediment samples were taken at distances of 0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 m from the edge of the cages at the three fish farms, and at the respective reference stations. Samples were also taken at 0 m stations and reference stations in the late August when there were no fish in the cages. Physico-chemical variables and trace metals were analysed in all samples. Due to likely high dilution rates and recycling processes in the water column of the reservoir, little changes in the water quality parameters associated with wastes of the fish farms were noticed. When compared with those in the sediment samples at the stations near the edge of cages, the lower concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), organic matter (OM), total carbon (TC), sulfide (S2-), arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn), and higher values of redox potential (Eh) were found at the reference stations. According to organic enrichment classification based on S2- and Eh values, sediments of the three fish farms in the period when there were fish in the cages fell into the oxic category, whereas sediments in the August (no fish farming activity) fell into the normal category. Also, it was found in the August that most of sediment quality parameters at the 0 m stations had close values to those at the reference stations. These results revealed that a three-month period when there were no fish in the cages allows for sediments to return to reference station conditions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Pesqueiros , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Carbono/análise , Cobre/análise , Fazendas , Peixes , Nitrogênio/análise , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Fósforo/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Turquia , Qualidade da Água , Zinco/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 233: 532-541, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185337

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a screening method for highly accurate and sensitive analysis of 12 illicit drugs and metabolites in fish tissues. The approach was based on ultrasonic-assisted extraction and solid phase extraction, followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The homogenized samples were ultrasonic-assisted extracted with 1% acetic acid in methanol followed by SPE cleanup with Oasis MCX cartridge. The method was validated in accordance with the European Medicines Agency guidelines by evaluating the following required parameters: the limits of detection and limits of quantification, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, recovery of extraction, and matrix effect. For the tissues involved in this study, the recoveries ranged from 60% to 127%, and the matrix effect ranged from -19% to 83% with the inter- and intra-day variability below 12%. The method has been successfully applied to wild fish caught from six sampling sites of four urban rivers in Beijing, China. The analysis showed that the target compounds, including amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, codeine and heroin were detected with high detection frequencies. Codeine exhibited the highest bioaccumulation factor (up to 73,986) in the muscle of Crucian carp, while ketamine tended to accumulate in the skin, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and heroin tended to accumulate in gastrointestinal tract, respectively.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Pequim , China , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Músculos/química , Rios/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
14.
Food Chem ; 297: 124944, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253283

RESUMO

The presence of the pyrethroids residues in different samples and the impact on human health is an increasing concern due to their widespread use. So, a method to determine eighteen pyrethroids in fish samples using a modified QuEChERS was developed. The clean-up procedure was performed by freezing samples overnight followed by dispersive solid phase extraction. The combination of C18, PSA and Z-Sep+ was optimized using a mixture design approach and samples were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The method was validated using trahira samples and a scope extension was performed for tilapia and tainha. Recoveries were within 63-129%, relative standard deviation was ≤21.5% and the quantification limits were 5 µg kg-1 or 10 µg kg-1. The applicability of the method was assessed by analysis of fourteen real samples, in which residues were detected in four samples. Such detections demonstrate the importance of this sensitive method.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Congelamento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Piretrinas/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 742-748, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152988

RESUMO

Little data are available on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine fish associated with oil and gas activities from the South China Sea (SCS). Twenty-one wild marine fish species from the northern South China Sea were collected for analysis of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentration of the PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 199 to 606 ng·g-1 d.w., indicating moderate contamination. PAHs in fish species found in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were significantly higher than those from the Yachen (YC) gas fields (p < 0.05). Planktivorous fish exhibited significantly higher concentrations of PAHs than carnivorous and omnivorous fish (p < 0.05). The PAHs were dominated by three ring compounds. Source identification analyses indicated that the PAH pollution originated from petroleum inputs. The cancer and non-cancer risk assessments concluded that the probable risk associated with the intake of PAHs via fish consumption is minimal. Long-term monitoring is necessary to determine the ecological impacts of PAHs associated with oil and gas activities.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , China , Humanos , Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 295: 520-529, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174791

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of stunning stress on textural properties and water-holding capacity (WHC) of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets and its underlying mechanisms based on intrinsic proteases activity, myofibril microstructure, and myowater dynamic measurements. The results suggested that compared with the non-stressful percussion, ice/water and gill cut stunning resulted in accelerated muscle tenderization with intensive myofibril disintegration and sarcolemma-myofibril detachments. Myowater mobility and distribution were altered by stunning stress, in which gill cut facilitated the migration of immobilized water and free water, thus enhancing the centrifugation loss. In addition, stunning stress promoted the activation of endogenous proteases and the release of cathepsin B and L from lysosomes to myofibrils, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlations with decreased shear force and elevated myofibril fragmentation index of fillets. Therefore, faster accumulation of cathepsins and myofibril disintegration together contributed to the weakening of texture and WHC in stunning-stressed fish fillets.


Assuntos
Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Carpas , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/ultraestrutura , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 295: 569-578, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174797

RESUMO

Fish scales are usually discarded or used to produce fish meal, etc. In order to enhance their utility, we produced the gelatin hydrolysates from fish scales (FSGH) and they were heated with glucose, xylose, and ribose to prepare sugar-FSGH Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The antioxidant capacity and sensory property of MRPs were evaluated. The results showed that ribose-FSGH MRPs exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than glucose- and xylose-FSGH MRPs. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, the DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity of ribose-FSGH MRPs were 25.32 µM and 193.37 µM Trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, and the reducing power was 0.509. Flavor compounds (such as butanal, benzaldehyde, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and maltol) of ribose-FSGH MRPs were produced in abundance after 5 h of heating and ribose-FSGH MRPs exhibited flavor enhanced effect on caramel-like and mouthfulness sensory attributes. These results suggest that ribose-FSGH MRPs can be potentially used as food antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Carpas/metabolismo , Gelatina/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Chemosphere ; 232: 415-423, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158636

RESUMO

A range of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was analysed in marine fish, farmed fish, crustaceans, bivalves and European eel caught in (mostly) Dutch waters, or purchased at Dutch markets (approximately 250 samples, collected between 2012 and 2018). ΣPFAS levels were highest in eels collected from rivers and lakes (average 43.6 ng/g and max 172 ng/g), followed by shrimps collected near the Dutch coast (average 6.7 and max. 33 ng/g ww), and seabass (average 4.5 and max. 9.4 ng/g ww). Most of the farmed fish (e.g. trout, catfish, turbot, salmon, tilapia, pangasius) were among the lowest contaminated samples in this study (averages ranged from 0.06 to 1.5 ng/g ww). Geographically, levels in marine fish from the northern North Sea (e.g. haddock, whiting, herring) were lower than in the central and southern North Sea (e.g. cod and flatfish). Concerning eel, no substantial geographical differences were found (apart from two distinct locations). The contamination pattern was similar in all species, where PFOS mostly dominated the profile, and other long-chain PFASs being frequently detected. Short-chain PFASs were rarely found. PFOS concentrations in eel varied from 3.3 ng/g (close to the North Sea) to 67 ng/g ww in eel caught from Ghent-Terneuzen canal. The majority of detected PFOS levels in eels (93%) and 1 shrimp sample from Eems-Dollard exceeded the EU Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for surface water of 9.1 µg/kg ww. Other samples (e.g. shrimps, bivalves, flounder), subject to the EQS, did not exceed this level.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Pesqueiros , Peixes/metabolismo , Lagos/química , Países Baixos , Rios/química
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109358, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247395

RESUMO

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, while their correlations with δ15N values and fatty acids (FAs) in fish tissues remain largely unexplored. In the present study, six species of fish for daily consumption were collected from Dongting Lake, and they were dissected to tissue samples to analyze the δ15N values, FAs and OCPs. The results showed that the δ15N values of fish were ranked in the same order in different fish tissues. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) had a different distribution pattern in fish tissues, while the saturated fatty acid (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were not. The composition of HCHs in fish tissues exhibited a tissue-specific and species-specific manner, while such pattern was not detected for DDTs. The correlation analysis indicated that the ratio of DHA/EPA was increased with the increase of δ15N value in the muscle, liver, gill, skin and intestine, indicating the substance flow in freshwater ecosystem. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between the concentrations of some PUFAs and OCPs in the muscle, suggesting that people should pay attention to co-intake of OCPs when they supplemented the PUFAs needed by the human body through fish.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , China , Correlação de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Lagos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 813-824, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200207

RESUMO

This study critically evaluated the native pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) as a biomonitor of the key metal contaminants in the highly urbanised Sydney Estuary, south-eastern Australia. Five metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were identified as key contaminants, based on their enrichment factors (EFs) in the whole soft tissue of X. securis at 24 sampling sites, relative to baseline values from near-pristine reference sites in the adjacent Hawkesbury Estuary. Inverse relationships established between mussel size (dry tissue weight) and tissue concentrations of each metal were used to reduce variance (by 4-fold) among individuals; gender and reproductive status had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on tissue metal concentrations in X. securis. Metal concentrations in three environmental matrices - filtered (<0.2 µm) surface water (operationally defined as the dissolved/colloidal phase), suspended particulate matter (SPM; >0.2 µm) and surface sediment (<2 mm particle size), which are most relevant to a suspension-feeding estuarine bivalve, were also determined at each sampling site. For each of the five metals, highly significant (p < 0.01) positive linear regressions were established between metal EFs for mussel tissue and each environmental matrix. Metals in surface sediment and SPM explained 80-91% and 81-90%, respectively, of the variability in metal concentrations in mussel tissue, with filtered surface water explaining 74-86%. Cumulative mussel tissue EFs of all five metals, when regressed against each environmental matrix, showed that surface sediment concentrations explained 93% of their variability between sites, SPM 94% and filtered surface water 87-90%. Hence, X. securis very closely reflects the metal concentrations in its aquatic environment. The study provides a quality-assured benchmark of key metal contamination in the Sydney Estuary, and an appropriate methodology that may be used to discern any changes in metal contaminant status using X. securis.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Austrália do Sul , Urbanização
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