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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110957, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888620

RESUMO

Due to growing commercial interest as a fishing resource and its intermediate position in the marine trophic chains as both prey and predator, cephalopods can play an important role in mercury (Hg) transfer along the marine food webs, since they can bioaccumulate this metal in its tissues. Our study aims to analyze Hg accumulation in Loligo forbesi caught in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal) quantifying Hg in different tissues (mantle and stomach), as well in the squid stomach content, in order to evaluate the efficiency of Hg transfer from prey to predator. Hg data from the tissues was used to estimate the weekly tolerable Hg intake due to squid consumption. Overall data indicate that Hg measured in the stomach tissue (0.1 ± 0.01 µg g-1) was significantly higher than Hg levels found in the mantle (0.04 ± 0.001 µg g-1) and stomach contents (0.01 ± 0.001 µg g-1). BMF (bioaccumulation factor) was >1 for all the samples, indicating a biomagnification process from prey to predator. Hg concentration in the mantle tissue was correlated with mantle size; although females present higher Hg levels than males, the difference was found to be not related to gender but rather to the fact that females had larger bodies. Finally, considering the Hg concentration found in the mantle and the permitted Hg levels, it is advisable to consume up to 1050-1890g of squid per week, according to the regulatory agencies. Thus, our results indicate that, since these doses are respected, consumption of squids from the Azorean waters do not pose a risk to humans.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Loligo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Portugal , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745115

RESUMO

Element bioaccessibility consists of the fraction of the element that is mobilized from food matrices into digestive extractants. The degree of bioaccessibility of a toxic metal is a fundamental consideration in estimating its bioavailability. In addition, gaining a better understanding of the essential elements released into the gastro intestinal fluids allows a more thorough assessment of the health benefits of food matrices in the field of nutrition science. In the present study, an in vitro digestion model simulating gastro-intestinal digestion (GID) was used to investigate the bioaccessibility of stable elements in mixed leaf salad and 210Po in various foods (meat, seafood, vegetables). The simulation was carried out over three phases: after a pre-treatment with a saliva solution, raw and cooked seafood samples were subjected to a complete simulated gastrointestinal digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion). The 210Po bioaccessibility was found to range from 16.2±9.39% to 62.8±17.7% and from 6.26±2.15% to 67.5±13.1% for raw and cooked food respectively. Moreover, bioaccessibility could not be determined for As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Hg, La, Pb, Sb, Sn, Te, Th, Tl, Ti, U. It proved to be poor (1-16%) for Al, Fe and S; fair (40-50%) for Cu, P, and Si; and high (>50%) for Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zn. The results show that bioaccessibility varies according to the chemical form of the element in the food as well as the matrix composition.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Polônio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Digestão , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Carne/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Verduras/química
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111355, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753169

RESUMO

This study assesses the microplastics (MPs) levels in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and seawater from a southern Mediterranean lagoon (Bizerte lagoon, Northern Tunisia) and discusses the potential effects of its consumption on human health. Polyethylene was the most abundant in mussels and seawater, followed by polypropylene and cellophane. The lowest and highest average MPs concentrations were recorded in the lagoon channel and southern area of the lagoon, respectively, for both mussels (2.6 ± 1.7-12.0 ± 1.4 items mussel-1) and seawater (0.2 ± 0.1-0.7 ± 0.2 items L-1). Mussels in areas highly polluted with fibers and polyethylene were found to have higher potential to ingest and/or adhere higher numbers of these particles. The annual dietary intake of MPs by Tunisians through the consumption of local mussels was estimated at 4.2 items capita-1 year-1. Even though MPs are not biodegraded and can be excreted by humans, their potential human health risks are discussed in this paper.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Água do Mar , Tunísia
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111512, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777545

RESUMO

Swordfish is a widely consumed fish worldwide. The aim of this work was to evaluate levels of As, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Al, Cr, Ni, Se, Cd, Pd and Hg in 28 samples of swordfish muscles, coming from zone of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) namely 37.1 and 37.2, in order to assess potential public health risks. 100% of the samples had Cd levels not detectable, 32.14% of samples exceeded European maximum limits set for Hg. Health risk assessment showed a not dangerous condition for Al (0.65% of Tolerable Weekly Intake), Ni (0.27% of Tolerable Daily Intake) and Pb (0.68% of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake), but very hazardous states for Hg (159.69% of Tolerable Weekly Intake) and As (1099.45% for minimum value of Benchmark Dose Limit). Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) showed dangerous values only for As and Hg. Analytical data of the present study suggest a swordfish prudent consumption.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 333: 127524, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679418

RESUMO

Semicarbazide (SEM) is a protein-bound nitrofurazone metabolite that is detrimental to human health. Therefore, to ensure food safety, it is necessary to detect SEM in food samples. To this end, we developed a novel electrochemical sensor to detect SEM by using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as the recognition element. Computer-aided molecular modelling was performed to guide the synthesis of the MIP, and subsequently, MIP/carboxylated single-walled carbon-nanotubes/chitosan (MIP/SWNTs-COOH/CS) was prepared as the sensing platform to develop the electrochemical sensor. The linear range of the sensor was 0.04-7.6 ng mL-1, with a detection limit of 0.025 ng mL-1. The sensor was successfully applied to detect SEM in four different real samples, with recoveries ranging from 83.16% to 93.40%. The results indicated that the fabricated electrochemical sensor can be widely applied to detect SEM in the environment and in agri-food products.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Impressão Molecular , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Semicarbazidas/análise , Eletrodos , Mel/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Carne/análise , Polímeros/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
6.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115151, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673992

RESUMO

Microplastics (MP) are omnipresent contaminants in the oceans, however little is known about the MP transfer between marine compartments and species. Three connected laboratory experiments using the filter-feeding mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the omnivorous polichaete Hediste diversicolor were conducted to evaluate whether the filtering action by mussels affects the vertical transfer of MP of different sizes (MPSMALL = 41 µm; MPLARGE = 129 µm) and densities (polyamide = 1.15 g cm-3; polypropylene = 0.92 g cm-3) across compartments and species with different feeding modes. Mussels significantly removed MP from the water column by incorporating them into biodeposits. This effect was particularly evident for the MPSMALL, whose deposition from the water column to the bottom was enhanced (about 15%) by the action of mussels. The incorporation of MP into faecal pellets increased the particles' sinking velocity by about 3-4 orders of magnitude. Conversely, the MP presence significantly decreased the depositional velocities of faecal pellets, and the magnitude of this effect was greater with increasing MP size and decreasing density. The MP incorporation into mussels' biodeposits also more than doubled the amount of MP uptake by H. diversicolor. We conclude that detrital pathways could be a transfer route of MP across marine compartments and food webs, potentially affecting the distribution of MP in sediments and creating hot-spots of bioavailable MP.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 332: 127389, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645674

RESUMO

Food allergens that cause anaphylactic reactions have become an important health problem worldwide. Among them, shrimp is a popular seafood in many cuisines. The best way to avoid allergic reactions is to mitigate the intake of food allergens. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of shrimp DNA. Using LAMP primers, the identification of shrimp DNA by the LAMP assay was specific and rapid (within 30 min). It exhibited no cross-reaction with the DNA of other Crustacea, including crabs and lobster, and at least 0.01% shrimp DNA existed in the test sample. Additionally, the sensitivity of LAMP for detecting shrimp DNA was 100-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. LAMP for the detection of shrimp DNA was reproducible regardless of whether the genomic DNA was extracted from boiled, steamed or roasted shrimp samples. In summary, the LAMP assay established herein not only could be potentially used for diagnosing shrimp DNA but could also be applicable for identifying shrimp allergens in commercial food products in marketplaces.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Penaeidae/genética , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alérgenos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Braquiúros/genética , Primers do DNA/metabolismo , Nephropidae/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140795, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-cholera Vibrio bacteria are a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Raw oysters are commonly implicated in gastroenteritis caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In response to outbreaks in 1997-1998, the US Food and Drug Administration developed a nation-wide quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in 2005. The QMRA identified information gaps that new research may address. Incidence of sporadic V. parahaemolyticus illness has recently increased and, as oyster consumption increases and sea temperatures rise, V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks may become more frequent, posing health concerns. Updated and region-specific QMRAs will improve the accuracy and precision of risk of infection estimates. OBJECTIVES: We identify research to support an updated QMRA of V. parahaemolyticus from oysters harvested in Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound, focusing on observational and experimental research on post-harvest practices (PHPs) published from 2004 to 2019. METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied to PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science.gov, NAL Agricola, and Google Scholar. Study eligibility criteria were defined using a population, intervention, comparator, and outcome statement. Reviewers independently coded abstracts for inclusion/exclusion using predefined criteria. Data were extracted and study quality and relevance evaluated based on published guidance for food safety risk assessments. Findings were synthesized using a weight of evidence approach. RESULTS: Of 12,174 articles retrieved, 93 were included for full-text review. Twenty-seven studies were found to be high quality and high relevance, including studies on cold storage, high hydrostatic pressure, depuration, and disinfectant, and other PHPs. High hydrostatic pressure consistently emerged as the most effective PHP in reducing abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. DISCUSSION: Limitations of the knowledge base and review approach involve the type and quantity of data reported. Future research should focus on PHPs for which few or no high quality and high relevance studies exist, such as irradiation and relaying.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Ostreidae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 332: 127397, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645675

RESUMO

Polyphosphates are permitted as food additives (Regulation EC No 1129/2011) but their undeclared utilisation is considered fraudulent. They improve water holding capacity of the seafood, preventing biochemical/physical changes during commercialization. The key objective of this study was the detection of polyphosphate in various seafood categories, by means of high-performance ion-exchange chromatography with suppressed conductometry (HPIEC-SCD) coupled to Q-Exactive Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS-Orbitrap). Ten frozen cuttlefish samples did not reveal any treatment, while in ten frigate tunas, high concentration of orthophospate was found. Unambiguous hexametaphosphate presence was demonstrated in four prawn samples, while triphosphate was quantified (11.2 ± 4 ug/g) in another four prawn samples that contained orthophosphate (10225 ± 1102 ug/g), as well. Other samples sporadically encompassed polyphosphates profiles that varied according species and processing type. This analytical approach provided sustenance in better understanding regarding utilization of polyphosphates through HRMS fingerprinting of anionic species that would be specific in food safety control.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Polifosfatos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Decapodiformes , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646069

RESUMO

Women of childbearing age who are susceptible to mercury exposure were studied to understand the relation between mercury intake through fish and shellfish consumption and mercury exposure indices from blood, hair, and urine samples. A total of 711 women of childbearing age from coastal areas with a high concentration of mercury exposure in Korea were studied. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, dietary intake of fish and shellfish using the simple Food Frequency Questionnaire. Mercury concentration was estimated from the collected samples of blood, hair, and urine. The geometric mean of blood methyl mercury concentration of mercury exposure through seafood was 3.06 µg/L for the low tertile, 3.12 µg/L for the middle tertile, and 3.60 µg/L for the high tertile, indicating a clear tendency of blood methyl mercury to increase as the mercury exposure by fish and shellfish intake ascended. For total blood mercury and hair mercury, the middle and high tertiles had higher values than the low. Mercury exposure through fish and shellfish intake is a main factor for an increase of blood methyl mercury concentration in women of childbearing age. More attention needs to be paid to mercury exposure through seafood intake, considering the serious effect mercury concentration has on women of childbearing age.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cabelo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Mercúrio/sangue , Mercúrio/urina , República da Coreia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111003, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678765

RESUMO

Consumption of fish is one of the predominant sources of human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling and frying) on the levels of PFASs in fish muscle and the intake of PFASs was explored by using grass carp collected from Tangxun Lake, Wuhan, China. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFASs in raw fish fillets, with the concentrations ranging from 59.6 to 136 ng/g ww, followed by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (7.73-51.9 ng/g ww). The concentrations of long-chain PFASs in fish increased after cooking, while those of short-chain PFASs decreased. The amounts of PFASs in the cooked fish fillets decreased except PFOS. Short-chain PFASs, including PFBS and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), were dominant in cooking juice. The highest amounts of PFBS in the juices were observed after boiling and frying, even higher than those in cooked fish fillets, suggesting that the release of short-chain PFASs to the cooking juices could not be neglected. Based on these results, the intake of short-chain PFASs amount through cooked fish fillets slightly decreased, but the intake of PFOS amount increased. However, consumption of cooking juice (fish soup) could increase the exposure risk of PFBS. Comprehensively considering the increase of PFOS and decrease of total PFASs, boiling may be the relatively better method to cook fish. As PFASs are ubiquitous and inevitable in aquatic food, it is thus important to choose appropriate cooking processes and dietary habits for reducing the intake of different PFASs from fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Culinária/métodos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , China , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Humanos , Lagos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
12.
Food Chem ; 332: 127380, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603916

RESUMO

The occurrence of 46 antibiotics (amphenicols, cephalosporins, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluroquinolones, macrolides, nitrofurans, penicillins, quinolones, sulfamides and tetracyclines) in Argentinean market fish were investigated by UPLC-MS/MS. Veterinary and human antimicrobials enrofloxacin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, doxycycline and oxytetracycline were detected in 100% of the samples, being to our knowledge the first report of clarithromycin in edible fish muscle. Maximum Residual Limits were exceeded for at least one antibiotic in 82% of pacú, 57% of shad, 57% of trout and 50% of salmon samples. Chloramphenicol, furazolidone and nitrofurantoin (banned compounds in food items) were detected in 41%, 22% and 4% of the samples, respectively. Based on the estimated daily intake calculation, samples do not pose a serious risk to public health. Further investigation on the chronic impact and risk calculation of the mixture of antibiotics on the aquatic environment and human health is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Peixes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Argentina , Resíduos de Drogas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139797, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521366

RESUMO

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the marine environment is a growing problem of global importance. Although awareness of the significance of this issue is increasing, many questions related to the ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals remain unclear. Diclofenac is one of the drugs most commonly detected in the marine environment and its potential toxicity has been previously highlighted, thus its impact on organisms deserves a special attention. Therefore, in this study, a thorough analysis of the effects of diclofenac on a condition and tissue level of a model representative of marine invertebrates - Mytilus trossulus - was performed. During the 25-day experiment, divided into exposure and depuration phases, bivalves were exposed to two environmentally relevant drug concentrations of 4 and 40 µg/L. The study showed that mussels absorb diclofenac in their tissues and the highest recorded concentration was 1.692 µg/g dw on day 8. Moreover, the content of diclofenac metabolites (4-OH and 5-OH diclofenac) was also examined, but they were not detected either in water or in tissues. Although exposure to low diclofenac concentrations did not significantly affect the condition index of organisms, changes in numerous histopathological parameters were noted. Performed histological examination provided additional valuable information on the influence of drugs on the functioning of invertebrates. Nevertheless, applicability of histopathological techniques in ecotoxicology of drugs requires additional evaluation in future studies.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Diclofenaco , Ecotoxicologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 331: 127276, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540696

RESUMO

The inclusion on the label of packed foods of any ingredient or technological adjuvant causing allergies is required by EU food legislation. In this study a targeted proteomics method for detecting four allergens in animal-derived food matrices was developed. Liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) was used to select marker peptides from four allergens and develop a quantitative method able to simultaneously detect the presence of milk, egg, crustaceans and soy. The method was validated on fish or swine processed food products contaminated at 5 µg g-1 for milk and egg and 10 µg g-1 for soy and crustaceans. The method was tested by analyzing commercial food products with high protein content and was compared to the ELISA technique. Our results indicated the presence of soy not reported on the food label of some products, pointing out the need for efficient controls to protect allergic consumers.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Limite de Detecção , Leite/química , Peptídeos/análise , Carne de Porco/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Suínos
15.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127311, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540547

RESUMO

The bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) in the food chain may pose a threat to human health. The risk of dietary Hg intake is mostly caused by the consumption of fish and seafood, therefore the knowledge on the exposure from land animal products is limited. In our article, we summarized the results of analyses of Hg in muscle tissue and liver of different livestock and game animals obtained during ten years of official monitoring that was carried out in Poland from 2009 to 2018. The majority of the results in muscle tissue were below the limits of quantification (LOQs). The mean Hg concentrations in muscle tissue ranged from 0.6 to 5.6 µg kg-1 of wet weight and the mean liver Hg concentrations were within the range of 0.8-16.4 µg kg-1 of wet weight, with lowest levels in chickens and highest in wild boars. The results revealed decreasing trends in liver Hg in cattle and cervids over the years, which was congruous with decreasing emission of Hg in Europe. Our results showed that the consumption of meat and liver of livestock and game animals in Poland may be considered to be safe for human health, which was confirmed by the low number of noncompliant samples relative to the applicable legal limits, as well as by estimated dietary exposure.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Gado , Carne/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Exposição Dietética/análise , Europa (Continente) , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Fígado/química , Músculos/química , Polônia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
16.
Rev Environ Health ; 35(3): 257-263, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598327

RESUMO

Water pollution by heavy metals due to discharge from gold mining activity has threatened the aquatic environment and human health of the community around Kao Bay. This report review explores the level of mercury and arsenic in the fish and the health risk of fish consumption within the community around Kao Bay. Fish from 10 spots in the bay were analyzed for mercury and arsenic using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Community members around Kao Bay were interviewed for details of their fish consumption. Daily intake of metals and health risk level were also calculated. All of the fish caught contained mercury (mean of 0.2110 ug/g) and arsenic (mean of 0.422 ug/g). This heavy metal concentration exceeds the allowable level for food standard. The human health risk assessment showed that the fish caught from Kao Bay were not safe for human consumption (RQ>1). The hazard risk quotient based on cancer and non-cancer was more than one. As many as 49 of 52 people living around Kao Bay have a risk from mercury and arsenic exposure via fish consumption. The magnitude of HQ and ECR values for most fish indicates that it is not safe for consumption.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Indonésia , Medição de Risco
17.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127232, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540539

RESUMO

Humans are exposed to methylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, mainly through the consumption of marine fish. Several studies showed that high MeHg exposure can lead to neurological damage. This is particularly relevant for pregnant women, because MeHg exposure negatively impacts foetal development. Populations living near the sea are generally at increased exposure risk due to higher consumption of fish and seafood. Here, we present the first study of MeHg exposure levels of the population living at the French Riviera, using mercury (Hg) concentrations in hair as a proxy for MeHg exposure. We found that older people that consume more fish presented the highest hair Hg concentrations. Compared to other Mediterranean bordering countries and other European countries, the southern France population is among those with high MeHg exposure (median for women of childbearing age is 0.56 µg g-1). A global implementation of the Minamata Convention is necessary to lower MeHg exposure of the population.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bioacumulação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Peixes/metabolismo , França , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Gravidez , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 328: 126999, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474236

RESUMO

The thermal degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) was investigated in water and fish (cod, basa) fillets. Ultrasound assisted solvent extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) was used to analyze residues in fish. Good instrumental linearity (r2 > 0.99) and recoveries (83.3-128.4%) were achieved. BPA and BPS did not degrade (1 h; 100 °C) in water (<0.1% degradation) but degraded in fish matrices. The degradation percentage of BPA was 33.0 ± 1.5% and 35.4 ± 1.2% in incurred and spiked cod, respectively; and the degradation percentage of BPS was 34.7 ± 1.7% and 37.5 ± 1.4% in incurred and spiked basa, respectively. The degradation products in spiked samples were different from those in the incurred group under the same conditions. This first study on the thermal degradation of plastic-related chemicals in food using a non-targeted approach will contribute to the refining of food safety risk assessments.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Sulfonas/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Peixes , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Medição de Risco , Água/química
20.
Molecules ; 25(9)2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141530

RESUMO

The cytokine storm is an abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines, due to the over-activation of the innate immune response. This mechanism has been recognized as a critical mediator of influenza-induced lung disease, and it could be pivotal for COVID-19 infections. Thus, an immunomodulatory approach targeting the over-production of cytokines could be proposed for viral aggressive pulmonary disease treatment. In this regard, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, a member of the PPAR transcription factor family, could represent a potential target. Beside the well-known regulatory role on lipid and glucose metabolism, PPAR-γ also represses the inflammatory process. Similarly, the PPAR-γ agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs), like pioglitazone, are anti-inflammatory drugs with ameliorating effects on severe viral pneumonia. In addition to the pharmacological agonists, also nutritional ligands of PPAR-γ, like curcuma, lemongrass, and pomegranate, possess anti-inflammatory properties through PPAR-γ activation. Here, we review the main synthetic and nutritional PPAR-γ ligands, proposing a dual approach based on the strengthening of the immune system using pharmacological and dietary strategies as an attempt to prevent/treat cytokine storm in the case of coronavirus infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , PPAR gama/agonistas , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Especiarias/análise
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