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1.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(8): 606-615, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474720

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk of cumulative exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg, and iAs through aquatic products consumed by Chinese people. Methods: Heavy metal concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2013-2017. Consumption data were derived from the China National Food Consumption Survey in 2014 and the relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to estimate cumulative exposure for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Results: The results demonstrated that the cumulative exposure based on neurotoxicity was below the lower confidence limit on benchmark doses of lead (BMDL 01) for nephrotoxicity and the cumulative exposures were all lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of Cd. However, the margin of exposure values (MOEs) of the cumulative exposures for neurotoxicity in the 2-6 year-old group was close to 1 and the cumulative exposure level for nephrotoxicity accounted for 90.21 % of the PTMI. Conclusion: The cumulative exposures of the 2-6 year-old group to the four heavy metals did not reach (but came close to) the corresponding safety threshold for both neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Given that there are still other food sources of these four heavy metals, it is necessary to more closely study their cumulative health effects.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 574, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392425

RESUMO

In fish consumption advisories pertaining to Hg, grouper species in the family Serranidae are often lumped together and labeled generically as Grouper. However, grouper species vary considerably in growth rate, maximum age, and maximum size. This study examined the variability of Hg concentrations and bioaccumulation rates (increase of Hg concentrations in relation to age) for populations of three long-lived, slow-growing, protogynous hermaphrodite grouper species, gag Mycteroperca microlepis, scamp M. phenax, and red grouper Epinephelus morio, which are commercially and recreationally important in the offshore waters of the US southeastern region. A total of 268 samples from the three grouper species were processed for Hg analysis from 2013-2015. Concentrations of Hg ranged from 0.03 to 0.87 ppm wet weight, with a mean of 0.30 ppm. Gag accumulated Hg at a faster rate (as measured by the increase of Hg with fish age) than the other two species. Size, age, and δ15N were significant predictors for Hg in the two Mycteroperca species, while size and age were significant predictors for Hg in red grouper. Two of the three species had mean Hg concentrations within the one meal per week "Good Choices" consumption category (red grouper and scamp), and one species (gag) had a mean Hg level within the two meals per week "Good Choices" consumption category as advised by the US EPA and US FDA. These results support the separation of grouper species in advisories.


Assuntos
Bass , Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Mercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Se Pu ; 39(1): 34-45, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227357

RESUMO

Aquatic products, which are among the most important sources of animal protein, contain proteins, vitamins, and a variety of trace elements, thus occupying an indispensable part of a reasonable diet. China is the largest consumer market of aquatic products in the world. The quality and safety of aquatic products are closely related not only to the healthy development of the aquaculture industry, but also to people's health. However, the presence of harmful substances has a bearing on the quality and safety of aquatic products in the overall process, including breeding, processing, storage, and transportation. These harmful substances are enriched in aquatic products and are transferred to humans via the food chain. Accurate determination of such harmful substances in aquatic product samples is imperative because of their complex matrices and extremely low concentrations. Many efficient sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, and QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method) with different configurations have been developed and widely employed for preconcentration in different matrices of aquatic products. Meanwhile, solid-phase microextraction has been demonstrated to be advantageous for some volatile and ultra-trace harmful substances. Suitable sample preparation techniques are important for effectively removing matrix interferences as well as for improving the sensitivity and accuracy of the method. It is important to develop appropriate sample preparation techniques for different target compounds in aquatic products. The harmful substances in aquatic products can be segregated into three categories according to their sources: (1) environmental pollutants in aquatic products; (2) substances acquired during aquaculture, transportation, and processing; (3) biotoxins in aquatic products. This article reviews the progress in sample pretreatment techniques for three harmful substances in aquatic products over the past decade. Various sample pretreatment techniques have been summarized and described, including liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, QuEChERS, and magnetic solid-phase extraction. In addition, the merits and demerits of these techniques and future research directions are discussed. Finally, we reviewed the progress in functionalized materials for the preparation of aquatic product samples. With the increasing demand for aquatic products, quick, sensitive, and practical detection methods, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are gaining importance. SERS has great potential for fast and accurate on-site detection of harmful substances in aquatic products. Several nondestructive sample pretreatment techniques have also been developed for harmful substances in aquatic products. The application and development of these techniques will guarantee the safety of aquatic products. Moreover, in vivo solid-phase microextraction is a potential method for aquatic product analysis. This technique integrates sampling, extraction, and enrichment into a single step, thus significantly reducing the processing time, labor, and cost. Overall, with the development and application of sophisticated materials and techniques, we can expect theoretical and practical advances in aquatic product analysis.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , China , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Extração em Fase Sólida , Microextração em Fase Sólida
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209984

RESUMO

Iodine is a trace chemical element fundamental for a healthy human organism. Iodine deficiency affects about 2 billion people worldwide causing from mild to severe neurological impairment, especially in children. Nevertheless, an adequate nutritional intake is considered the best approach to prevent such disorders. Iodine is present in seawater and seafood, and its common forms in the diet are iodide and iodate; most iodide in seawater is caused by the biological reduction of the thermodynamically stable iodate species. On this basis, a multisensor instrument which is able to perform a multidimensional assessment, evaluating iodide content in seawater and seafood (via an electrochemical sensor) and discriminating when the seafood is fresh or defrosted quality (via a Quartz Micro balance (QMB)-based volatile and gas sensor), is strategic for seafood quality assurance. Moreover, an electronic interface has been opportunely designed and simulated for a low-power portable release of the device, which should be able to identify seafood over or under an iodide threshold previously selected. The electrochemical sensor has been successfully calibrated in the range 10-640 µg/L, obtaining a root mean square error in cross validation (RMSECV) of only 1.6 µg/L. Fresh and defrosted samples of cod, sea bream and blue whiting fish have been correctly discriminated. This proof-of-concept work has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed application which must be replicated in a real scenario.


Assuntos
Iodetos , Iodo , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Iodatos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Água do Mar
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112672, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218037

RESUMO

Shellfish can absorb and accumulate contaminants. The consumption of shellfish could expose humans to pollutants and increase related health risk. Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a ubiquitous pollutant and could affect thyroid functions, especially for children and pregnant women. However, knowledge on the contamination of perchlorate in aquatic food such as shellfish remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the abundances of perchlorate in shellfish from South China Sea and to assess human exposure risks. A total of 178 shellfish samples from eight species were collected from offshore aquaculture waters in South China Sea. Perchlorate was detected in 99.4% of them, suggesting widespread pollution in coastal waters. Concentrations of perchlorate ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 71.5 µg kg-1, with a median value of 4.33 µg kg-1. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were used to assess human exposure dose and health risks, respectively. The HQ values were determined to be less than 1, indicating no significant health risks to local residents via shellfish consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate perchlorate contamination in South China shellfish and assess potential human risks.


Assuntos
Percloratos , Frutos do Mar , Criança , China , Poluição Ambiental , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Percloratos/análise , Gravidez , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise
7.
Se Pu ; 39(6): 624-632, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227323

RESUMO

Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are common antibacterial drugs used in aquaculture, and their residues may pose a risk to human health. The low concentration of drug residues and complex matrixes such as fats and proteins in aquatic products necessitate the urgent development of efficient sample pretreatment methods. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is the most common sample pretreatment method, in which the core is an adsorbent. Compared with traditional SPE adsorbents, nanofiber mat (NFsM) has more interaction sites because of their large specific surface area. Furthermore, NFsMs modified with specific functional groups can significantly improve the extraction efficiency of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. Polydopamine (PDA) is spontaneously synthesized by the oxidative self-polymerization of dopamine-hydrochloride in alkaline solutions (pH>7.5). Because of its rich amino and catechol groups, PDA can form π-π stacking, electrostatic attraction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonding interactions with target molecules. By exploiting the above advantages, polystyrene (PS) NFsM, as a template, was prepared by the electrostatic spinning method, and PDA-PS NFsM was obtained by functional modification of PDA through self-polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the synthesized PS NFsM and PDA-PS NFsM. It was proved that PDA was successfully modified on the PS NFsM, with the SEM images revealing a rough outer core shell structure and an inner honeycomb structure. Subsequently, the handmade SPE column with PDA-PS NFsM was completed. A novel and efficient screening analytical method based on PDA-PS NFsM for the simultaneous determination of three tetracyclines (tetracycline (TET), chlortetracycline (CTC), and oxytetracycline (OTC)) and three fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and norfloxacin (NOR)) in fish by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established. The SPE procedure was optimized to develop an efficient method for sample preparation. Evaluate parameters including the amount of NFsM usage, ionic strength, flow rate of the sample solution, composition of eluent, and breakthrough volume were investigated. Only (20±0.1) mg of PDA-PS NFsM was sufficient to completely adsorb the targets, and the analytes retained on NFsM could be eluted by 1 mL of formic acid-ethyl acetate (containing 20% methanol) (1∶99, v/v). The residues were redissolved in 0.1 mL 10% methanol aqueous solution containing 0.2% formic acid. In addition, no adjustment of the pH and ionic strength of the sample solutions was required, and the breakthrough volume was 50 mL. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the six target compounds were measured at 3 times and 10 times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), respectively. The LODs and LOQs were 0.3-1.5 µg/kg and 1.0-5.0 µg/kg, respectively. The linear ranges of the six target compounds were LOQ-1000 µg/kg, and the coefficient of determination (R2) was greater than 0.999. To evaluate the accuracy and precision, blank spiked samples at three levels (low, medium, and high) were prepared for the recovery experiments, and each level with six parallel samples (n=6). The recoveries ranged from 94.37% to 102.82%, with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations of 2.38% to 8.06% and 4.10% to 9.10%, respectively. To evaluate the purification capacity of PDA-PS NFsM, the matrix effects before and after SPE were calculated and compared. Matrix effects before SPE were -12.98% to -38.68%. After the completion of SPEbased on PDA-PS NFsM, the matrix effect of each target analyte was significantly reduced to -2.15% to -7.36%, which proved the significant matrix removal capacity of PDA-PS NFsM. Finally, the practicality of this method was evaluated by using it to analyze real samples. This SPE method based on PDA-PS NFsM is efficient, practical, and environmentally friendly, and it has great potential for use in the routine monitoring of drug residues in fish.


Assuntos
Fluoroquinolonas , Nanofibras , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Tetraciclina/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Peixes , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Indóis , Polímeros , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(24): 6879-6887, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105975

RESUMO

DNA-based detection methods are highly promising for risk assessment in the food sector, such as tracing the existence of food allergens. However, due to the complexity of food matrices, cumbersome protocols are often needed to isolate the DNA components, which hinder the achievement of rapid and on-site detection. Herein, an instant and multiple DNA extraction method was developed based on the poly(vinyl alcohol) microneedle (MN) patch. With simple press and peel-off operations within 1 min, samples suitable for DNA-based analysis such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could be collected. By further combining with the recombinase polymerase amplification assay, rapid screening of the allergenic risks in complex samples such as shrimp ball and cheesecake could be achieved within 30 min. The MN-based DNA extraction method not only was a potential alternative to the traditional DNA extraction method but provided a transformative approach in realizing rapid, on-site detection of foodborne hazards in collaborating with fast DNA-based assays.


Assuntos
DNA , Alimentos Marinhos , Alérgenos , DNA/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
9.
N Z Med J ; 134(1536): 100-104, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140716

RESUMO

Ciguatera poisoning has caused illnesses in New Zealand through the consumption of contaminated reef fish imported from Pacific Islands. In May 2020 five people became ill and one was hospitalised following the consumption of Fiji Kawakawa (camouflage grouper; Epinephelus polyphekadion). The fish was purchased in New Zealand but imported from Fiji. The meal remnants were analysed for ciguatoxins, the causative compounds of ciguatera poisoning, and showed the presence of the three main toxic fish metabolites. Other fish tested from the same shipment did not contain detectable levels of ciguatoxins, indicating they were likely not toxic.


Assuntos
Bass , Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Animais , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/terapia , Fiji , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto Jovem
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(52): 6380-6383, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081065

RESUMO

A unique and highly water-soluble ICT-based fluorescent probe is developed for efficient detection and discrimination of reactive monocarbonyl formaldehyde (FA) from dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MGO)/glyoxal (GO) by modulating the ICT process, which was confirmed by photophysical and TD-DFT analysis. The probe is applied in cellular imaging and quantifying FA in preserved food and MGO in manuka honey.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Formaldeído/análise , Glioxal/análise , Aldeído Pirúvico/análise , 2-Naftilamina/análogos & derivados , 2-Naftilamina/química , Animais , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Células Hep G2 , Mel/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Solubilidade
11.
Environ Res ; 200: 111447, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102163

RESUMO

Mining and processing of minerals produce large quantities of tailings as waste. Some countries, including Norway, allow disposal of mine tailings in the sea. In this study we investigated the impacts of tailings from a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) processing plant on early live stages of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Fish eggs (3 days post fertilisation; dpf) were exposed for 48 h to three concentrations of tailings, nominally 1 mg L-1 (low, L); 10 mg L-1 (medium, M) and 100 mg L-1 (high, H); with L and M representing concentrations occurring at tailing release points. Results show that tailings rapidly adhered to eggs of both species, causing negative buoyancy (sinking of eggs) in M and H exposures. While tailings remained on egg surfaces in both species also after exposure termination, adhesion seemed more pronounced in cod, leading to larger impacts on buoyancy even after exposure. Tailing exposure further induced early hatching and significantly reduced survival in M and H exposed embryos in both fish species, and in cod from the L exposure group. Moreover, tailing exposure caused reduced survival and malformations in larvae, potentially related to premature hatching. This study shows that mineral particles adhere to haddock and cod eggs, affecting egg buoyancy, survival and development.


Assuntos
Gadiformes , Gadus morhua , Animais , Peixes , Larva , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
12.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067234

RESUMO

There is consistent evidence that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) belonging to the n-3 series, i.e., eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3, DHA) acids, decrease the risk of heart, circulatory and inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, the bioavailability of such fatty acids has been shown to depend on their location in triacylglycerol (TG) molecules at the sn-2 position. Consequently, great attention has been accorded to the synthesis of structured acylglycerols (sAG), which include EPA or DHA at the sn-2 position. The aim of this work was to synthesize sAG starting from deodorized refined commercial salmon oil. For this, immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (nonspecific) was used as a catalyst for the intra-interesterification process under CO2 supercritical conditions (CO2SC). According to the CO2SC reaction time, three different fractions including sAG compounds were obtained. The location of EPA and DHA at the sn-2 position in the resulting glycerol backbone was identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis. In all fractions obtained, a marked decrease in the starting TG content was observed, while an increase in the DHA content at the sn-2 position was detected. The fraction obtained after the longest reaction time period (2 h) led to the highest yield of sn-2 position DHA in the resulting sAG molecule.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Glicerídeos/síntese química , Triglicerídeos/química , Animais , Basidiomycota , Catálise , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Chile , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Esterificação , Ésteres/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Hidrólise , Lipase/química , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Probabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112446, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175823

RESUMO

Lipophilic shellfish toxins (LSTs) can cause human illness and therefore represent a serious threat to public health. Shellfish are the main dietary source of LSTs, but very few studies have appraised dietary exposure to LSTs through shellfish consumption in China. We measured levels of multiple LSTs in shellfish samples sold in the principal wholesale seafood market in the southern coastal city of Shenzhen, and we estimated the potential for acute and chronic LST exposure of the Shenzhen population via ingestion of shellfish. LST contamination data were obtained from a total of 14 species of 188 commercial samples. Eleven individual LSTs, namely okadaic acid (OA), dinophysis toxin-1 and -2 (DTX1 and DTX2), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), yessotoxin and homo yessotoxin (YTX and hYTX), azaspiracid-1, -2 and -3 (AZA1, AZA2, AZA3), spirolides (SPXs), and gymnodimine (GYM), were determined using liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). More than two thirds of samples showed undetectable LSTs, while the detection rates (the proportion of samples with detectable LSTs) of individual LSTs ranged from 0% to 45.7%. Most shellfish samples had lower levels of LST contamination than the corresponding limits of detection (LODs), while some samples had levels of hYTX and GYM that exceeded the limits of quantification (LOQs). Overall, levels of LSTs in the 188 samples were below the regulatory limits set by most countries. Acute and chronic exposures of LST were estimated by a point-estimate modeling method that combined sample contamination data with consumption data from dietary survey of Shenzhen residents and consumption figures proposed by EFSA, the European Food Safety Authority. Seasonal variations in LST concentrations were noted in some instances. Overall, the estimated acute exposure to LSTs based on consumption of large-size shellfish portions and the maximum LSTs contamination level were below the provisional acute reference doses (ARfDs) proposed by the EFSA. Chronic exposure estimates based on mean and 99th percentile consumption of shellfish by Shenzhen residents and mean LSTs contamination levels in the collected samples were from 2452 to 74 times lower than those associated with estimated acute exposure levels.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Dinoflagelados/química , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(26): 35305-35315, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128164

RESUMO

This study assesses the PAH and heavy metal levels in muscle of warty crabs (Eriphia verrucosa), from the northern coast of the Campania region improving the data on toxic contaminants in this crustacean. The results showed a minimal PAH contamination; the mean concentrations were as follows: 0.2, 1.6 and 1.7 µg kg-1 wet weight (ww) for BaP, PAH4 and PAH6, respectively. Regarding the levels of the two PAHs not included in the European regulations, the BkF mean concentration was 0.1 µg kg-1 ww, while DahA was detected only in 10.7% of samples. Pb and Cr were also detected at low levels with mean values of 0.068 and 0.468 mg kg-1 ww, respectively; instead, high As levels, with a mean value of 5.021 mg kg-1 ww, were found. Considering the EWIs and the ILCRs calculated in this study, the PAH, Pb and Cr contamination levels found in the edible part of the crabs resulted safe for human consumption. Contrariwise, the ILCR calculated for the As exceeded the acceptable level of cancer risk, although the calculation did not refer to the inorganic form which is the only one recognized as carcinogenic. Hence, this study shows that warty crabs can accumulate environmental contaminants in their muscle tissue representing an important route of exposure to these toxics for the local population that regularly consumes them. This finding highlights the importance of monitoring the presence of these pollutants in crabs and in general in all fish and seafood in order to ensure food safety for consumers.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Braquiúros , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Cromo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Chumbo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 362: 130214, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082293

RESUMO

The ionic covalent organic framework (TPB-BFBIm-iCOF) was facilely synthetized by the size-controllable confinement method and chosen as the online solid phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent. This adsorbent showed fast adsorption equilibrium (5 min) and high adsorption capacity (87.7-140.8 mg g-1) for the per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). The TPB-BFBIm-iCOF microsphere revealed the satisfactory enrichment performance for PFASs by means of the electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic effect and ordered channel structure. After extraction, the loaded TPB-BFBIm-iCOF-online SPE column was eluted and applied to the ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Under the optimum conditions, the method displayed satisfactory linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9910) and low limits of detection (≤0.0017 ng g-1) for five seafoods. The relative recoveries of PFASs were 85.3%-109.4% with the relative standard deviation ≤ 9.9%. The method exhibited potential value in monitoring the toxicokinetics and environmental behaviors of PFASs.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/química , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1651: 462328, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153733

RESUMO

Paralytic shellfish toxins and tetrodotoxin (puffer-fish toxin), the latter of which was recently found in bivalves from Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, are potent neurotoxins. A simple and effective clean-up procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten paralytic shellfish toxins (gonyautoxins 1-6, decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3, and N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3) and tetrodotoxin in the scallop, Mizuhopecten (Patinopecten) yessoensis, and the short-necked clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. To reduce matrix effects, 1% aqueous acetic acid extracts of the bivalves were cleaned up by ion-pair solid-phase extraction using a graphite carbon cartridge with tridecafluoroheptanoic acid as the volatile ion-pair reagent, followed by fourfold dilution. The ten paralytic shellfish toxins and tetrodotoxin were then separated on a hydrophilic interaction chromatography column and quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification for the ten PSTs ranged from 0.09 to 13.0 µg saxitoxin equivalents/kg and from 0.26 to 39.4 µg saxitoxin equivalents/kg, respectively. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for tetrodotoxin ranged from 27.4 to 27.9 µg/kg and from 83.1 to 84.4 µg/kg, respectively. The proposed method yielded minimal matrix effects for the 11 analytes, thus allowing their quantification by simple external calibration. The proposed method also gave good mean recoveries of the 11 analytes ranging from 75.7 to 96.2% with relative standard deviations less than 16% at three fortification levels for the ten paralytic shellfish toxins (total concentrations of 277, 554, and 1107 µg saxitoxin equivalents/kg) and tetrodotoxin (100, 200, and 400 µg/kg) in the two bivalve samples. Finally, the proposed method was applied for the determination of the ten paralytic shellfish toxins and tetrodotoxin in scallop and short-necked clam samples.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Pectinidae/química , Saxitoxina/análogos & derivados , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tetrodotoxina/análise , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Grafite/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Saxitoxina/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Tetrodotoxina/isolamento & purificação
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 349: 109227, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022613

RESUMO

The present work mainly investigated the effects of prepared chitosan­sodium alginate-nisin (CS-SA-N) preservatives on the quality and bacterial phase of Penaeus vannamei shrimp during cold storage. Results showed that CS-SA-N preservatives treated samples had the lower pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), total viable count (TVC), and freeness (K) values than those of untreated ones during cold storage. The sensory evaluation results indicated that CS-SA-N preservatives treated shrimps had the higher comprehensive scores than those of untreated ones during whole storage. Microbial community of all samples was dominated by Proteobacteria. The initial predominant bacteria of fresh shrimps were Sphingomonas, Carnobacterium and Psychrobacter. Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas, and Shewanella, Acinetobacter and Vibrio were the predominant bacteria of untreated samples. CS-SA-N preservatives significantly decreased predominant microbial numbers by inhibiting the growth of Psychrobacter, Vibrio, Acinetobacter and Carnobacterium during cold storage. Therefore, the CS-SA-N preservatives could be used to prolong the shelf life of shrimp and guarantee its quality.


Assuntos
Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitosana/farmacologia , Nisina/farmacologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
18.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 2075-2090, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931849

RESUMO

White hepatopancreas syndrome has recently emerged in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) aquaculture, causing considerable economic loss. The hepatopancreas color of diseased crabs becomes gradually lighter, turning from yellow to yellow-white to white. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the changes in nutrient composition in three edible parts (hepatopancreas, ovaries, and muscle) of adult females with different colored hepatopancreases. Three groups were assessed in this study, including a yellow hepatopancreas group (control, L * = 63.92, a * = 22.14, b * = 60.95), a yellow-white hepatopancreas group (YWHG, L * = 65.06, a * = 22.35, b * = 57.80), and a white hepatopancreas group (WHG, L * = 65.72, a * = 10.70, b * = 30.52). No statistically significant differences in average weight, tissue indices, and total edible yield were observed among the three crab groups (P >0.05). The moisture content of the hepatopancreases and ovaries in WHG was 56.12% and 9.23% higher than the control values (P <0.05), whereas hepatopancreas crude fat and ovary crude protein levels were 62.23% and 11.45% lower than the control values (P < 0.05). The total carbohydrate levels of the three edible tissues were significantly higher and the crude protein content of ovaries was significantly lower in YWHG (P < 0.05). Most amino acid levels in the WHG muscle and ovaries were significantly lower than the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, the hepatopancreas levels of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-6PUFA in WHG were 24.88% and 31.83% lower than in control group, whereas the hepatopancreas levels of total PUFA and n-6PUFA in YWHG were also 21.88% and 23.20% lower compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Overall, the growth and the edible parts were not affected in YWHG and WHG. Moreover, YWHG crabs exhibited few effects on nutritional value; however, the fatty acid composition of crabs was significantly changed. In contrast, WHG crabs exhibited poor nutritional quality. Nonetheless, the consumption of crabs with yellow-white or white hepatopancreases is not recommended since the animal also referred to as diseased crabs.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/química , Braquiúros/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Hepatopâncreas/química , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , China , Feminino
19.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110325, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053529

RESUMO

Lipids such as furan fatty acids (F-acids) are the valuable minor bioactive components of food such as fatty fish and plants. They are reported to have positive health benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite their importance, limited studies are focusing on F-acid determination in dietary seafood. This study aimed to identify and profile non-esterified F-acids and free fatty acids in total lipid extract of seafood such as shellfish and salmon. The lipidomic analysis using liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry led to identifying seven types of free F-acids in shellfish (n = 5) and salmon (n = 4). The identified F-acids were confirmed by their high-resolution masses and acquired mass spectra. The relative concentrations of F-acids in shellfish range from 0.01 to 10.93 mg/100 g of the fillet, and in salmon, 0.01 to 14.21 mg/100 g of the fillet. The results revealed the highest abundance of F-acids in Sakhalin surf clam, Japanese scallop, and a fatty salmon trout. Besides, relative levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in these seafoods were compared with each other, suggesting basket clams and salmon trout to have significantly higher levels of PUFAs. The dietary seafoods enriched with F-acids and PUFAs may have possible health benefits. Hence, the applied technique could be a promising tool for rapid detection and analysis of non-esterified fatty acids in food.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Salmão , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Furanos , Lipidômica , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar
20.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(2): 296-300, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of contamination degree of biotoxins in seafood in Ningbo City from 2017 to 2019 and the assessment of dietary exposure was conducted. METHODS: Samples were extracted and purified with optimized pretreatment process and then injected for analysis. According to the result of the measurements, an international point estimate model was used to evaluate the dietary exposure of the population. RESULTS: For tetrodotoxin and 16 shellfish toxins monitored routinely, gonyautoxin5(GTX5), tetrodotoxin and homo-yessotoxin(hYTX) had higher detection rate, other toxins including okadaic acid(OA), dinophysistoxin1(DTX1), decarbamoyl gonyautoxin2(dcGTX2) and decarbamoyl gonyautoxin3(dcGTX3) were detected sporadically. The detection rates of TTX、GTX and hYTX were 27%, 52% and 12%, respectively. The concentration ranges of TTX, GTX and hYTX in polluted samples were 0. 003-0. 535, 0. 008-0. 189 and 0. 032-0. 110 mg/kg. The exposure risk indices(ERI) of TTX, GTX5, hYTX, dcGTX2 and dcGTX3 were 2. 5, 0. 026, 0. 0080, 0. 79 and 0. 32, respectively. CONCLUSION: Marine biotoxins have a lower dietary health risk to the population. It is must be given great attention that in the season of toxic red tide, the detection rates of higher toxic toxins, dcGTX2 and dcGTX3 increased significantly with high risks to human. Moreover, the dietary health risk of tetrodotoxin in routine surveillance in 2019 was higher.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Toxinas Marinhas , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
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