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1.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(1): 8-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147629

RESUMO

Natto is a well-known traditional Japanese food produced by fermenting soybeans with Bacillus subtilis var natto. Here we found that the water-soluble viscous fraction of natto inhibits sucrose- or glucose-induced hyperglycemia in silkworms. The water-soluble viscous fraction treated with DNase I, RNase A, and proteinase K, followed by phenol extraction also suppressed sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in silkworms. The enzyme-treated polysaccharide fraction of natto inhibits glucose uptake by Caco-2 cells, human intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest that the polysaccharide components of natto selected on the basis of their suppressive effects on sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in silkworms inhibit glucose uptake by human intestinal cells.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Bombyx , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/terapia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja , Sacarose
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2757-2764, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026695

RESUMO

Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 was mutagenized using atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) technology to enhance its salt-tolerant proteases activity. Compared to the starting strain, mutant H8 subjected to 180 s of ARTP treatment exhibited excellent genetic stability (15 generations), growth rate, and significantly increased activities of neutral proteases, alkaline proteases, and aspartyl aminopeptidase during fermentation. Mutant H8 significantly enhanced the contents of 1-5 kDa peptides, aspartic acid, serine, threonine, and cysteine in soy sauce by 16.61, 7.69, 17.30, 8.61, and 45.00%, respectively, but it had no effects on the contents of the other 14 free amino acids (FAAs) due to its slightly enhanced acidic proteases activity. Analyses of transcriptional expressions of salt-tolerant alkaline protease gene (AP, gi: 217809) and aspartyl aminopeptidase gene (AAP, gi: 6165646) indicated that their expression levels were increased by approximately 30 and 27%, respectively. But no mutation was found in the sequences of AP and AAP expression cassettes, suggesting that the increased activities of proteases in mutant H8 should be partially attributed to the increased expression of proteases. ARTP technology showed great potential in enhancing the activities of salt-tolerant proteases from A. oryzae.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Aspergillus oryzae/química , Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Mutagênese , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia
4.
BMJ ; 368: m34, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between several types of soy products and all cause and cause specific mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study, which includes 11 public health centre areas in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 92 915 participants (42 750 men and 50 165 women) aged 45 to 74 years. EXPOSURES: Intake of total soy products, fermented soy products (natto and miso), non-fermented soy products, and tofu from a five year survey questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality (cancer, total cardiovascular disease, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and injury) obtained from residential registries and death certificates. RESULTS: During 14.8 years of follow-up, 13 303 deaths were identified. In the multivariable adjusted models, intake of total soy products was not significantly associated with total mortality. Compared with the lowest fifth of total soy product intake, the hazard ratios in the highest fifth were 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.06, Ptrend=0.43) in men and 0.98 (0.89 to 1.08, Ptrend=0.46) in women. Intake of fermented soy products was inversely associated with all cause mortality in both sexes (highest versus lowest fifth: 0.90 (0.83 to 0.97), Ptrend=0.05 in men, and 0.89 (0.80 to 0.98), Ptrend=0.01 in women). Natto showed significant and inverse associations with total cardiovascular disease related mortality in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study a higher intake of fermented soy was associated with a lower risk of mortality. A significant association between intake of total soy products and all cause mortality was not, however, observed. The findings should be interpreted with caution because the significant association of fermented soy products might be attenuated by unadjusted residual confounding.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Mortalidade , Alimentos de Soja/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/mortalidade , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 89, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902034

RESUMO

Soybeans, as legumes, belong among food items that contribute most to the dietary intake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). The consumption of soy-based foods may contribute significantly to Cd intake in vegetarians as probably the most frequent consumers of these foods. In this research, the weekly dietary intake of Cd from soy-based foods was investigated in 119 participants (including vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians) in the Czech Republic by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) with personal assistance and the measurement of body weight. Cd content in soy-based foods available on the market was determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. Tofu, as the most frequently consumed food item in the vegetarian/vegan group, contributed most to the total dietary Cd intake. It contained 7.6 ± 0.1 µg Cd/kg, while the highest Cd content was observed in tempeh (18.1 ± 0.4 µg/kg). The highest mean dietary Cd intake per week from soy-based foods was 0.4 µg/kg b.w. and was found in the vegan group. The consumption of soy-based foods was the lowest in the non-vegetarian group as was the dietary intake of Cd, which was 0.04 µg/kg b.w. per week.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Peso Corporal , República Tcheca , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fabaceae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Verduras , Vegetarianos
6.
Food Chem ; 312: 126054, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874409

RESUMO

In this work, a total of 35 important aroma compounds with odor activity values (OAVs) greater than 1 were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in traditional Chinese-type soy sauce. Of these, fragrant compounds with aromatic rings (20 compounds) accounted for a large proportion, over 57%. Combining principal component analysis and GC-olfactometry-MS (GC-O-MS), 5-methyl-2-furanmethanethiol (OAV: 284-467), 3-methylbutanal (OAV: 409-938), phenylacetaldehyde (OAV: 47.4-566), 2-phenylethanol (OAV: 7.41-14.3), phenylethyl acetate (OAV: 7.00-18.1) and ethyl phenylacetate (OAV: 12.7-21.3) were confirmed as the typical fragrant compounds among all samples. Furthermore, full two-dimensional gas mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TQMS) was applied and 414 aroma compounds were identified, which included another 85 fragrant compounds with aromatic rings.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Olfatometria/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 298: 122553, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846852

RESUMO

Deacidification of high-acid soy sauce residue (SSR) oil is crucial to utilization of SSR oil. Aspergillus niger lipase (ANL) has been widely applied for such purpose while its immobilization still has large room for improvement. ANL was immobilized onto six different macroporous acrylic resins, accounting the effect of the different textural properties of resins on stability and their potential for application in enzymatic deacidification. The resin MARE with lower porosity, higher bulk density, and medium hydrophobicity, was chosen as the best carrier for the best thermostability and reusability. ANL-MARE is a promising catalyst than Novozym 40086, which not only exhibited higher deacidification activity and good thermostability, but also was continuously reused for 15 cycles and efficiently catalyzed from high-acid SSR oil into diacylglycerol-enriched oil. Therefore, immobilized ANL was a novel, low-cost and recyclable biocatalyst that could be used as a good alternative to higher-cost commercial lipases in industrial applications.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Alimentos de Soja , Resinas Acrílicas , Biocatálise , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Lipase
8.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103340, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703864

RESUMO

Red sufu is a traditional food produced by the fermentation of soybean. In this study, sufu samples were periodically collected during the whole fermentation to investigate the dynamic changes of fungal and bacterial communities using high-throughput sequencing technology. The overall process can be divided into pre- and post-fermentation. During post-fermentation, the pH value showed a gradual decrease over time while the amino nitrogen content increased. Trichosporon, Actinomucor and Cryptococcus were the main genera in pre-fermentation while Monascus and Aspergillus were dominant in post-fermentation. This huge shift in fungal composition was caused by process procedure of pouring dressing mixture. However, the bacterial composition was not greatly changed after pouring dressing mixture, the Acinetobacter and Enterobacter were the predominant genera throughout the whole process. Furthermore, Bacillus species were first detected after adding dressing mixture, but declined abruptly to a very low level (0.07%) by the end of the fermentation. Our work demonstrates the dynamic changes of physicochemical properties and microbial composition in every fermentation stage, the knowledge of which could potentially serve as a foundation for improving the safety and quality of sufu in the future.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/metabolismo
9.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103329, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703874

RESUMO

Four sets of doenjang (traditional Korean fermented soybean paste) with 9%, 12%, 15%, and 18% solar salt concentrations were prepared and their pH, microbial abundances and communities, metabolites, and volatile compounds were analyzed periodically during the entire fermentation. The speeds of decrease in pH and increase in microbial abundances, representing microbial activity, were higher during early fermentation in lower (9% and 12%) salt doenjang. Microbial abundances in 15% and 18% salt doenjang were significantly lower than in the 9% and 12% salt doenjang, indicating low microbial activity. Community analysis revealed that Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Clostridium and Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Mucor, and Penicillium, which might be derived from doenjang-meju used for preparing doenjang, were identified as major bacterial and fungal genera, respectively, in all doenjang samples. Weissella, Tetragenococcus, Oceanobacillus, and Debaryomyces, not dominant in doenjang-meju, were also identified as major groups in low salt doenjang. Metabolite analysis showed that amino acid profiles were relatively similar independent of salt concentrations and microbial growth, indicating important roles of indigenous proteases present in doenjang-meju, not microbial activity during doenjang fermentation, in amino acid production. The metabolism of free sugars to organic acids and biogenic amine production were greater in lower salt doenjang, which might be associated with the growth of microbes, particularly lactic acid bacteria. A higher level of and more diverse volatile compounds were identified in lower salt doenjang, indicating close association with microbial growth. This study provides a deeper understanding of doenjang fermentation and insight into the development of low salt doenjang.


Assuntos
/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Soja/microbiologia , Ácidos/análise , Ácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia
10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 373, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tempeh is a widely known fermented soybean that contains elevated level of bioactive contents. Our previous study has shown that anaerobic fermented Nutrient Enriched Soybean Tempeh (NESTE) with increase amino acid and antioxidant levels possessed better hepatoprotective effect than raw soybean. METHODS: In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of the NESTE aqueous extract and raw soybean aqueous extract (SBE) were evaluated by quantifying the inhibition of IL-1ß, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) secretion in LPS treated RAW 264.7 cell in vitro. On the other hand, in vivo oral acute toxicity effect of the extract was tested on mice at the dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. In vivo oral analgesic effect of both aqueous extracts at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was evaluated by the hot plate test. RESULTS: In the in vitro anti-inflammatory study, 5 mg/mL NESTE was able to inhibit 25.50 ± 2.20%, 35.88 ± 3.20% and 28.50 ± 3.50% of NO, IL-1ß and TNF-α production in LPS treated RAW 264.7 cells without inducing cytotoxic effect on the cells. However, this effect was lower than 4 µg/mL of curcumin, which inhibited NO, IL-1ß and TNF-α production by 89.50 ± 5.00%, 78.80 ± 6.20% and 87.30 ± 4.00%, respectively. In addition, 1.5 to 2.5-fold increase of latency period up to 120 min for mice in the hot plate test was achieved by 1000 mg/kg NESTE. The analgesic effect of NESTE was better than 400 mg/kg of acetyl salicylic acid, which only increased ~ 1.7-fold of latency period up to 90 min. Moreover, NESTE did not show acute toxicity (no LD50) up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. CONCLUSION: NESTE is a nutritious food ingredient with potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Alimentos de Soja , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico , Células RAW 264.7 , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
11.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(5): 714-719, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To select and identify the bacterium which highly produces protease and ß-D-glucosidase from 72 strains of Shuidouchi from Sichuan, and to provide evidence for further research on its nutritional value and fermentation strain exploiting. METHODS: Casein degradation test and pNPG chemical test were applied respectively to detect the capacity to produce protease and ß-D-glucosidase of each strain. Characteristics of morphology, biochemistry, 16S rRNA and MALDI-TOF-MS were used to identify the fermentation strain, which genetic stability, curves of growth and enzyme producing were also obtained. RESULTS: The strain with the highest enzyme activity of ß-D-glucosidase (0.084 U/L) among the top 10 strains for producing protease was selected as the fermentation strain and was identified as Bacillus subtilis, which curves of growth and enzyme producing conformed as well. The result of genetic stability showed that capacity of enzyme producing was stable until the 10th generation. CONCLUSIONS: The fermentation strain which highly produced protease and ß-D-glucosidase was selected from 72 strains of shuidouchi from Sichuan and was identified as Bacillus subtilis.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/enzimologia , Glucosidases/biossíntese , Peptídeo Hidrolases/biossíntese , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , China , Fermentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(12): 180, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728755

RESUMO

Derived from RNA, 5'-ribonucleotides, especially Inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP), can enhance the umami taste of soy sauce. In this study, the RNA content of three different salt-tolerant yeasts was examined. The most valuable strain was subjected to atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis, which improved its RNA content by 160.54%. Regular fermentation with RNA-enhanced strain failed to increase the amount of 5'-ribonucleotides in the soy sauce due to hydrolysis by phosphatase. A two-stage fermentation strategy was then carried out. Aroma compounds were mainly synthesized in the first stage, and RNA-enriched biomass was massively produced in the second stage followed by heat treatment to inactivate phosphatase. After the proposed strategy was applied, IMP and GMP in the soy sauce reached 68.54 and 89.37 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of key aroma compounds and organic acids significantly increased. Results may provide new insights for improving the quality of soy sauce through microorganism breeding and fermentation control.


Assuntos
Mutagênese , Gases em Plasma , RNA , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos da radiação , Alimentos de Soja , Zygosaccharomyces/genética , Zygosaccharomyces/efeitos da radiação , Cruzamento , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio , Paladar , Temperatura Ambiente , Zygosaccharomyces/fisiologia
13.
Se Pu ; 37(10): 1048-1052, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642282

RESUMO

A method for the rapid screening of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol, 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol,3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol, and 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol in soy sauce was developed based on dispersive solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). The samples were extracted by ethyl acetate, cleaned up using N-propylethylenediamine and detected by GC-HRMS. The chloropropanols were quantified by the internal standard method. The results demonstrated that the limits of quantitation of the four chloropropanols were in the range of 0.5-10 µg/kg. The recoveries of the four chloropropanols in soy sauce spiked with three levels varied from 78% to 103%, and the relative standard deviations were no more than 8.8%. The proposed method is simple, accurate, sensitive and suitable for the rapid screening of the four chloropropanols in soy sauce.


Assuntos
Propanóis/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Extração em Fase Sólida
14.
Se Pu ; 37(9): 996-1003, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642305

RESUMO

A method of gradient elution ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection for simultaneous determination of twenty amino acids and six carbohydrates in soy sauce was established. The effects of column temperature, pH value of solution, and standing time were studied, and then the suitable gradient elution conditions were found for the determination. In the conditions that the flow rate is 0.25 mL/min, pH value of solution is in the range of 5.2-6.7, temperature of column is 35℃, the linear relationships of the 26 components are good and the correlation coefficients are not less than 0.995. Except glutamine, leucine, isoleucine and methionine, the limits of detection (S/N=3) of the other 22 components are less than 0.03 mg/L. The recoveries of the 26 components in soy sauce are 84.2%-109% at the spiked levels of 0.20, 0.50, 2.00 mg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) are in the range of 2.7%-7.8%. The method is efficient, easy, sensitive, and accurate for simultaneous determination of amino acids and carbohydrates in soy sauce, and can provide an effective research technique for adulterated soy sauce.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica
15.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2758-2776, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509249

RESUMO

The changes of volatile compounds in soy sauce during long-term fermentation (12 months) were investigated using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). A total of 144 and 129 compounds were identified in soy sauce with long-term fermentation by SPME and SBSE, respectively. The contents of most compounds, such as acids, aldehydes, benzene and benzene derivatives, esters, lactones, pyrazines, pyrones, and pyrroles, showed a tendency to increase, whereas those of alcohols and ketones decreased according to long-term fermentation. In addition, principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were applied to discriminate soy sauce samples according to fermentation periods and determine key volatile compounds related to long-term fermentation. The initial fermentation stages were mainly associated with some alcohols, ketones, and lactones, whereas the later stages were strongly associated with most esters, some phenols, benzene and benzene derivatives, and pyrroles. Moreover, the key volatile compounds associated with long-term fermentation in soy sauce samples were ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (ethyl isovalerate), ethyl pentanoate (ethyl valerate), 1-octen-3-yl acetate, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), ethyl benzoate, ethyl 2-phenylacetate, 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)ethanone (2-acetylpyrrole), and 5-pentyl-2-oxolanone (γ-nonalactone). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study investigated changes of volatile compounds in soy sauce during long-term fermentation (12 months) using solid-phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction. In addition, the key volatile compounds associated with long-term fermentation in soy sauce samples were determined. These results may help to predict the effective contributors related to long-term fermentation of soy sauce and improve the quality of soy sauce during long-term fermentation.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Cetonas/química , Cetonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Soja/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
16.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017, we conducted a multistate investigation to determine the source of an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 infections, which occurred primarily in children. METHODS: We defined a case as infection with an outbreak strain of STEC O157:H7 with illness onset between January 1, 2017, and April 30, 2017. Case patients were interviewed to identify common exposures. Traceback and facility investigations were conducted; food samples were tested for STEC. RESULTS: We identified 32 cases from 12 states. Twenty-six (81%) cases occurred in children <18 years old; 8 children developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. Twenty-five (78%) case patients ate the same brand of soy nut butter or attended facilities that served it. We identified 3 illness subclusters, including a child care center where person-to-person transmission may have occurred. Testing isolated an outbreak strain from 11 soy nut butter samples. Investigations identified violations of good manufacturing practices at the soy nut butter manufacturing facility with opportunities for product contamination, although the specific route of contamination was undetermined. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation identified soy nut butter as the source of a multistate outbreak of STEC infections affecting mainly children. The ensuing recall of all soy nut butter products the facility manufactured, totaling >1.2 million lb, likely prevented additional illnesses. Prompt diagnosis of STEC infections and appropriate specimen collection aids in outbreak detection. Child care providers should follow appropriate hygiene practices to prevent secondary spread of enteric illness in child care settings. Firms should manufacture ready-to-eat foods in a manner that minimizes the risk of contamination.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli O157 , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Recall e Retirada de Produto , Alimentos de Soja/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121938, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398541

RESUMO

This study focused on the feasibility of using different concentrations of tofu wastewater (TW) as alternative media for Tribonema minus cultures to produce valuable biorefinery feedstock. T. minus grew mixotrophically in 100% TW with larger carbohydrate (30.99% of dry weight (DW)), protein (15.56% of DW) and chrysolaminarin (6.93% of DW) accumulations than that of in mBG-11 medium. The highest biomass concentration, 7.77 g/L, was achieved in 100% TW, and nutrient removal efficiencies of T. minus at this concentration ranged from 60.49% to 93.60%. Although smaller neutral lipid and palmitoleic acid amounts were detected in 100% TW, their productivities reached 133.77 and 67.19 mg/L/d, respectively, due to the largest biomass yield contribution, which were comparable to those in mBG-11 medium. These findings demonstrated that TW is a promising alternative medium, and an integrated TW biotransformation and biomass valorization process is proposed to achieve better economic performance and environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Alimentos de Soja , Biomassa , Biotransformação , Águas Residuárias
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(18): 7519-7535, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378837

RESUMO

Bacillus subtilis natto is a GRAS bacterium. Nattokinase, with fibrinolytic and antithrombotic activities, is one of the major products of this organism. It is being gradually recognized that B. subtilis natto can also be used as a biosynthetic strain for vitamin K2, which has phenomenal benefits, such as effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis along with antitumor effects. Knocking out of the aprN gene by homologous recombination could improve the redox potential and slightly increase the concentration of MK-7. By detecting the change in redox potential during the growth of B. subtilis natto, a good oxygen supply and state of the cell membrane were found to be beneficial to vitamin K2 synthesis. A two-step RSM was used to optimize the operation parameters and substrate concentration in the new residue-free fermentation culture. The optimal conditions for the residue-free medium and control were determined. The optimum concentrations of soybean flour, corn flour, and peptone were 78.9, 72.4, and 24.8 g/L, respectively. The optimum rotational speed and volume of the culture medium using a shaking flask were 117 rpm and 10%, respectively. The state and composition of the cell membranes were more stable when engineered bacteria were cultured in this residue-free fermentation medium. Finally, the concentration of MK-7 increased by 37% to 18.9 mg/L, and the fermentation time was shortened by 24 h.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/enzimologia , Fermentação , Oxirredução , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Recombinação Homóloga , Microbiologia Industrial , Subtilisinas/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/metabolismo
19.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1270-1277, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381237

RESUMO

The slope-ratio assay for rat was used to determine whether tryptophan (Trp) availability in soybean meal (SBM) is affected by the presence of other amino acids (AAs). In a preliminary study, rats were fed graded levels of Trp-supplemented diets to establish the Trp concentration range over which the weight gain response was linear. This range was found to be from 0.04% to 0.12% Trp. Subsequently, rats were fed basal (0.045% Trp) or Trp-supplemented diets from three different sources: l-Trp alone, SBM, or l-Trp mixed with other AAs to reflect AA levels in the test SBM (AA-mix). Weight gain in rats increased linearly with supplemental Trp intake (p < .05) for all Trp sources. Compared to the slope achieved with l-Trp alone, the estimated availability of Trp in SBM was 84.4%, while for the AA-mix it was 93.4%. It is evident that the 6.6% reduction in l-Trp availability in AA-mix is due to metabolic costs derived from excess levels of other AAs beside Trp, given that the absorption of crystalline l-Trp in the small intestine is 100%. In conclusion, the Trp availability of SBM was estimated to be around 90.4% (i.e., 84.4/93.4 × 100) after correcting for the effects of the other AAs in SBM.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Triptofano , Ração Animal , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Ratos , Ganho de Peso
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110729, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381944

RESUMO

The present study aimed to develop a consortium of nutritive fermented food products, supplemented with phytochemicals, with reduced toxicological contents. We developed new flavored Doenjang products (protein rich) fermented with lotus, ginkgo, and garlic plant extract-based Meju (termed as EMD) as the starter culture and by using traditional Meju (termed as TMD), where these plant extracts were added later during the fermentation process. Fermented Doenjang samples were analyzed for reduced levels of biogenic amines (BAs), aflatoxins, and microbial hazards, (including Bacillus cereus) as well as for their nutritive contents and antioxidant potential, after varying periods of fermentation (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months). All Doenjang samples prepared using plant extracts and their mixtures (1% and 10%) showed desired reduction in B. cereus counts, BAs, aflatoxins, and other foodborne pathogens as well as showed potent antioxidant abilities, including phenolic/flavonoid contents. Based on the higher efficiency in reducing various toxicants, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract added TMD samples were selected for the development of Doenjang products as an innovative approach, with great potential to improve the quality and safety of soybean fermented products in the Korean market, offering enhanced health benefits and reduced risks of toxicity.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Carga Bacteriana , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Cor , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Alho/química , Ginkgo biloba/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Coreia (Geográfico) , Lotus/química , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/química , Soja/microbiologia
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