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1.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110645, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507720

RESUMO

To investigate the general fermentation features of doenjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste, eleven batches of doenjang were prepared. The bacterial and fungal communities and the metabolites such as free sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and volatile compounds were analyzed during fermentation. Tetragenococcus, Aspergillus, and Debaryomyces were the most common microbes; galactose, fructose, and glucose were the major sugars; and lactate and acetate were the major organic acids. Spearman correlation analyses showed that the quantity of meju was correlated with only Pediococcus and Halomonas abundance, while solar salt concentration was correlated with the relative abundance of many microbial taxa and the amount of glycerol and total volatile compounds. The abundance of heterolactic acid bacteria, such as Tetragenococcus, Pediococcus, Weissella, and Enterococcus, was positively correlated with the levels of lactate, acetate, and ethanol, suggesting that heterolactic acid fermentation may be a major metabolism pathway during the fermentation of doenjang. The abundance of Weissella, Hyphopichia, and Wickerhamomyces was positively correlated with ethyl acetate levels, whereas the abundance of Staphylococcus and Bacillus was positively correlated with the concentration of major volatile compounds, 3-methylbutanoic acid and tetramethylpyrazine, respectively, suggesting that they may play important roles in the production of flavor compounds during fermentation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Alimentos de Soja , Bactérias , Fermentação , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja
2.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(5): e531-e532, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507940

RESUMO

We present a case of black pleural fluid following thoracic trauma. The unusual dark colour most strikingly resembled soy sauce as independently commented upon by multiple treating physicians. The black colouration could not be fully accounted for by haemothorax or cholethorax, so other differential diagnoses were investigated, including Aspergillus niger infection and malignant melanoma. The cause, however, was thought to be due to staining of the fluid with carbon deposited in the pleural space from the non-volatilised impurities from smoking crack cocaine. A novel use of a point-of-care urine toxicology assay confirmed the presence of cocaine in the pleural fluid. Considering a broad range of differential diagnoses is needed to avoid missing important causes of unusual pleural effusions.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Derrame Pleural , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110473, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399470

RESUMO

The aroma compounds and the microbial community of oil furu, a specific fermented soybean curd, during fermentation were investigated using HS-SPME-GC/MS and high-throughput sequencing, respectively, and their correlations and the predicted functional roles of the microbiota in oil furu were analyzed. Twenty two volatile flavor compounds (relative odor activity value ≥1) were identified that contributed to the aroma profile, which were mainly associated with the aroma attributes. Lactobacillales, Trichosporon and Mucor racemosus were the predominant genera during pre-fermentation, while Candida and Tetragenococcus were predominant during ripening. Correlation analysis showed significant correlation between the microbiota and aroma profiles, and Candida, Empedobacter, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Trichosporon and Mucor racemosus were significantly and strongly correlated with the characteristic volatile aroma compounds of oil furu (P < 0.05, r > 0.6). Functional analysis showed that metabolic pathways showed higher activity in oil furu, which mainly included amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The results allowed identification of the important aroma compounds and understanding the contribution of the microbiota, and would be useful for designing starter cultures to produce oil furu with desirable aroma properties and understanding its aroma formation pathways.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Alimentos de Soja , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , China , Mucor , Odorantes , Alimentos de Soja/análise
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10272-10280, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436886

RESUMO

Salt is very important for human health and food seasoning. Recently, several peptides isolated from natural food products have been reported exhibiting a salty taste or a saltiness-enhancing function. In this investigation, taste-active peptides occurring in commercial Chinese fermented soybean curd were isolated and identified using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and nano-LC/Q-TOF MS/MS. The salty taste-enhancing function of the target fractions was confirmed by both a rat taste cell model and/or human sensory evaluation. Four decapeptides were found as taste-active compounds. Among them, peptide E (EDEGEQPRPF) was the most potent saltiness-enhancing peptide: 0.4 mg/mL in 50 mmol/L NaCl solution could increase its salty perception equivalent to the salt level of 63 mmol/L NaCl reference solution. The sequence of the peptide has been found in the α'-subunit of ß-conglycinin [Glycine max]. The remaining peptides V (VGPDDDEKSW), DD (DEDEQPRPIP), and DG (DEGEQPRPFP) showed umami and kokumi tastes as well as a weak saltiness-enhancing sensation. These findings suggest that the decapeptide EDEGEQPRPF could be a possible alternative to partially reduce the amount of sodium intake without compromising for saltiness.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Alimentos de Soja , Animais , China , Peptídeos , Ratos , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Paladar
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371819

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies suggest that high intake of soy isoflavones may protect against breast cancer, but causal relationships can only be established by experimental trials. Thus, we aimed to provide a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of an isoflavone intake on risk factors of breast cancer in healthy subjects. After a systematic literature search in PubMed, 18 different RCTs with pre- and/or postmenopausal women were included and investigated for details according to the PRISMA guideline. In these studies, isoflavones were provided by soy food or supplements in amounts between 36.5-235 mg/d for a period of 1-36 months. Breast density, estrogens including precursors, metabolites, estrogen response such as length of menstrual cycle, and markers of proliferation and inflammation were considered. However, in most studies, differences were not detectable between isoflavone and control/placebo treatment despite a good adherence to isoflavone treatment, irrespective of the kind of intervention, the dose of isoflavones used, and the duration of isoflavone treatment. However, the lack of significant changes in most studies does not prove the lack of effects as a sample size calculation was often missing. Taking into account the risk of bias and methodological limitations, there is little evidence that isoflavone treatment modulates risk factors of breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. Future studies should calculate the sample size to detect possible effects and consider methodological details to improve the study quality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Idoso , Viés , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443655

RESUMO

To identify and analyze the characteristics of the microorganisms involved in the formation of the desirable flavor of Doenjang, a total of 179 strains were isolated from ninety-four Doenjang collected from six regions in South Korea, and fourteen strains were selected through a sensory evaluation of the aroma of each culture. The enzyme activities of amylase, protease and lipase was shown in the various strains. Bacillus sp.-K3, Bacillus sp.-K4 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-J2 showed relatively high protease activity, at 317.1 U, 317.3 U and 319.5 U, respectively. The Bacillus sp.-K1 showed the highest lipase activity at 2453.6 U. In the case of amylase, Bacillus subtilis-H6 showed the highest activity at 4105.5 U. The results of the PCA showed that Bacillus subtilis-H2, Bacillus subtilis-H3, and Bacillus sp.-K2 were closely related to the production of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (23.51%~43.37%), and that Bacillus subtilis-H5 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-J2 were significantly associated with the production of phenethyl alcohol (0.39% and 0.37%). The production of peptides was observed to vary among the Bacillus cultures such as Val-Val-Pro-Pro-Phe-Leu and Pro-Ala-Glu-Val-Leu-Asp-Ile. These peptides are precursors of related volatile flavor compounds created in Doenjang via the enzymatic or non-enzymatic route; it is expected that these strains could be used to enhance the flavor of Doenjang.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/enzimologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Biossíntese Peptídica/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/genética , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443659

RESUMO

The content of protein, moisture content and essential amino acids in conventional and genetically modified soybean grain and selected soybean products (soybean pâté, soybean drink, soybean dessert, tofu) was analyzed in this paper. The following comparative analysis of these products has not yet been carried out. No differences were observed in the amino acid profiles of soybeans and soybean products. The presence of essential amino acids was confirmed except for tryptophan. Its absence, however, may be due not to its absence in the raw material, but to its decomposition as a result of the acid hydrolysis of the sample occurring during its preparation for amino acid determination. Regardless of the type of soybean grain, the content of protein, moisture content and essential amino acids was similar (statistically insignificant difference). Thus, the type of raw material did not determine these parameters. There was a significant imbalance in the quantitative composition of essential amino acids in individual soybean products. Only statistically significant variation was found in genetically modified and conventional soybean pâté. Moreover, in each soy product their amount was lower irrespective of the raw material from which they were manufactured. Therefore, the authors indicate the necessity of enriching soybean products with complete protein to increase their nutritional value.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais/química , Grão Comestível/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Soja/química , Aminoácidos , Humanos , Nutrientes/química , Valor Nutritivo , Alimentos de Soja/análise
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444977

RESUMO

Past research using hepatic rat microsomes showed that soy protein suppressed delta-6 desaturase activity (D6D) compared to casein (a dairy protein). The effects of soy and dairy on desaturase pathway activity in humans remain poorly investigated. The objective of this analysis was to investigate the association between soy and dairy consumption with plasma fatty acids and estimate the desaturase pathway activity in a multiethnic Canadian population of young adults. We analyzed data from men (n = 319) and women (n = 764) previously collected for the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Food frequency questionnaires and plasma fatty acids were assessed. Relationships between soy and dairy beverages and food consumption with estimated desaturase activities were assessed by regression models and by grouping participants according to beverage and food intake data. Weak inverse associations (p ≤ 0.05) were found between soy consumption and the overall desaturation pathway activity, specifically D6D activity. When participants were grouped based on soy and dairy consumption habits, omega-6 LC-PUFAs, as well as various estimates of the desaturase pathway activity, were significantly lower in individuals consuming soy (with or without dairy) compared to individuals consuming only fluid milk and dairy products. In conclusion, soy consumption, not dairy consumption, appears to suppress desaturase pathway activity.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos de Soja , Animais , Canadá , Caseínas/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Ontário , Leite de Soja/farmacologia , Proteínas de Soja/farmacologia , Soja , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443447

RESUMO

Okara is a soybean transformation agri-food by-product, the massive production of which currently poses severe disposal issues. However, its composition is rich in seed storage proteins, which, once extracted, can represent an interesting source of bioactive peptides. Antimicrobial and antifungal proteins and peptides have been described in plant seeds; thus, okara is a valuable source of compounds, exploitable for integrated pest management. The aim of this work is to describe a rapid and economic procedure to isolate proteins from okara, and to produce an enzymatic proteolyzed product, active against fungal plant pathogens. The procedure allowed the isolation and recovery of about 30% of okara total proteins. Several proteolytic enzymes were screened to identify the proper procedure to produce antifungal compounds. Antifungal activity of the protein digested for 24 h with pancreatin against Fusarium and R. solani mycelial growth and Pseudomonas spp was assessed. A dose-response inhibitory activity was established against fungi belonging to the Fusarium genus. The exploitation of okara to produce antifungal bioactive peptides has the potential to turn this by-product into a paradigmatic example of circular economy, since a field-derived food waste is transformed into a source of valuable compounds to be used in field crops protection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Liofilização , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peso Molecular , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos de Soja , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Tripsina/metabolismo , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
10.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 860-865, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406879

RESUMO

Bacillus subtilis fermented soybeans (natto) contain high vitamin K2 levels, mostly as menaquinone-7 (MK-7), and must be avoided by warfarin-dependent patients. This is the first report which demonstrates the characteristics and clinical relevance of a low MK-7 natto for such patients. We generated a novel, mutant B. subtilis strain TTCC2051 with short-term fermentation and reduced MK-7 production, yielding 19-24% of the normal MK-7 content. After functional assessments and a preclinical trial, 10 warfarin-dependent patients underwent a clinical trial with a 7-day ingestion test of the low MK-7 natto. Functional assessments were satisfactory, and the preclinical trial showed no increases in plasma MK-7 levels after 7 days of ingestion. In the clinical trial, 20 g/day of the low MK-7 natto significantly increased plasma MK-7 levels while 10 g/day did not. However, neither dose of low MK-7 natto changed international normalized ratio of prothrombin time (PT-INR) values in either group. The low MK-7 natto neither changed PT-INR values nor precipitated adverse events if ingested with a once-daily maximum of 20 g (46 µg of MK-7). Thus, this novel food product has potential for consumption by warfarin-dependent patients.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Varfarina , Bacillus subtilis , Fermentação , Humanos , Soja , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444673

RESUMO

Randomized controlled trials showed that soy intervention significantly improved blood lipids in people with diabetes. We sought to prospectively examine the association of soy consumption with the risk of cardiovascular death among individuals with diabetes. A total of 26,139 participants with a history of diabetes were selected from the Chinese Kadoorie Biobank study. Soy food consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Causes of death were coded by the 10th International Classification of Diseases. The Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compute the hazard ratios. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, a total of 1626 deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) were recorded. Compared with individuals who never consumed soy foods, the multivariable-adjusted risks (95% confidence intervals) of CVD mortality were 0.92 (0.78, 1.09), 0.89 (0.75, 1.05), and 0.77 (0.62, 0.96) for those who consumed soy foods monthly, 1-3 days/week, and ≥4 days/week, respectively. For cause-specific cardiovascular mortality, significant inverse associations were observed for coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. Higher soy food consumption was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular death, especially death from coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction, in Chinese adults with diabetes.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Dieta , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444874

RESUMO

This study was designed to examine the association of soy isoflavones (SI) intake with different body measurements indicative of obesity in Chinese adults of Shanghai, a population consuming foods rich in SI. This study used baseline data from the Shanghai Gaofeng cohort study. SI intake was measured by using a self-reported food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A restricted cubic spline (RCS) was performed to examine the possible nonlinear relationship of SI intake with obesity. A logistic regression model was applied to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Compared with the lowest tertile group of SI intake, the highest tertile group had a lower prevalence of obesity and central obesity. The OR for overall obesity was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.98) in the highest versus the lowest SI tertile group; the associations differed by sex and menopausal status. A negative association was also observed between SI intake and central obesity, and a significant modifying effect of sex was found on the association. No significant interactions were observed between SI intake and physical activity (PA) levels. Our results suggest that Chinese adults with higher dietary intake of SI may be less likely to be obese, particularly for postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Dieta , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444905

RESUMO

Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is marketed in the U.S. as a dietary supplement. USP conducted a comprehensive safety evaluation of GABA by assessing clinical studies, adverse event information, and toxicology data. Clinical studies investigated the effect of pure GABA as a dietary supplement or as a natural constituent of fermented milk or soy matrices. Data showed no serious adverse events associated with GABA at intakes up to 18 g/d for 4 days and in longer studies at intakes of 120 mg/d for 12 weeks. Some studies showed that GABA was associated with a transient and moderate drop in blood pressure (<10% change). No studies were available on effects of GABA during pregnancy and lactation, and no case reports or spontaneous adverse events associated with GABA were found. Chronic administration of GABA to rats and dogs at doses up to 1 g/kg/day showed no signs of toxicity. Because some studies showed that GABA was associated with decreases in blood pressure, it is conceivable that concurrent use of GABA with anti-hypertensive medications could increase risk of hypotension. Caution is advised for pregnant and lactating women since GABA can affect neurotransmitters and the endocrine system, i.e., increases in growth hormone and prolactin levels.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/uso terapêutico , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Masculino , Leite/química , Gravidez , Ratos , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Estados Unidos
14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 570: 21-25, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271432

RESUMO

Natto, a traditional Japanese fermented soybean food, is well known to be nutritious and beneficial for health. In this study, we examined whether natto impairs infection by viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as well as bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). Interestingly, our results show that both SARS-CoV-2 and BHV-1 treated with a natto extract were fully inhibited infection to the cells. We also found that the glycoprotein D of BHV-1 was shown to be degraded by Western blot analysis and that a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) was proteolytically degraded when incubated with the natto extract. In addition, RBD protein carrying a point mutation (UK variant N501Y) was also degraded by the natto extract. When the natto extract was heated at 100 °C for 10 min, the ability of both SARS-CoV-2 and BHV-1 to infect to the cells was restored. Consistent with the results of the heat inactivation, a serine protease inhibitor inhibited anti-BHV-1 activity caused by the natto extract. Thus, our findings provide the first evidence that the natto extract contains a protease(s) that inhibits viral infection through the proteolysis of the viral proteins.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos de Soja , Soja/química , Animais , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 582556, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262553

RESUMO

Introduction: Several months ago, Chinese authorities identified an atypical pneumonia in Wuhan city, province of Hubei (China) caused by a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). The WHO announced this new disease was to be known as "COVID-19". Evidence Acquisition: Several approaches are currently underway for the treatment of this disease, but a specific cure remains to be established. Evidence Synthesis: This review will describe how the use of selected nutraceuticals could be helpful, in addition to pharmacological therapy, in preventing some COVID-19-related complications in infected patients. Conclusions: Even if a specific and effective cure for COVID-19 still has some way to go, selected nutraceuticals could be helpful, in addition to pharmacological therapy, in preventing some COVID-19-related complications in infected patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , SARS-CoV-2 , Berberina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactoferrina/uso terapêutico , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Lectinas de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Alimentos de Soja , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
16.
J Food Sci ; 86(8): 3422-3433, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250594

RESUMO

The proteolysis and peptidomic profiles and potential bioactivities of fermented soybean curd (furu) during fermentation were studied. The degree of protein hydrolysis (DH) and peptide content significantly increased with fermentation time (p < 0.05), and reached the highest levels after ripening for 90 days. The variety and abundance of bioactive peptides in furu samples were fermentation-time dependent, and furu ripening for 30 and 90 days showed the highest similarity. An ACE-inhibitor and antioxidant peptides were the two main bioactive peptide components, and their abundance and bioactivities exhibited a significant increase with fermentation and reached the maximum levels at 90 days. All these results indicated that microbial fermentation is an effective way to obtain bioactive peptides with soy-based fermented products, and their effects on health might be explored in future studies. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work indicated that microbial fermentation is an effective way to obtain bioactive peptides with soy-based fermented products.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Peptídeos , Alimentos de Soja , Soja , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Peptídeos/análise , Proteólise , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(3): 105-111, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219098

RESUMO

The diazotization method is used for nitrite determination in meat products. In this method, it is known that the presence of reducing substances such as ascorbic acid and cysteine in the sample interferes with nitrite determination. We speculated that soy sauce, fish sauce and mirin, which are used in meat products, might be the reducing substances, so investigated meat products which contain soy sauce and other ingredients. The results showed that quantitative disturbance was observed in soy sauce and fish sauce, and the recovery in spiked samples of these products decreased in proportion to the increase in soy sauce and fish sauce content. However the antioxidant of soy sauce and fish sauce depending on manufacturing methods, so quantitative disturbance dose not be observed each time, so nitrite determination in meat products, and to conduct simultaneous determination using different sample amounts to confirm whether there is any difference in the quantitative values.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Alimentos de Soja , Animais , Antioxidantes , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitritos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065911

RESUMO

Lunasin has demonstrated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. The objectives were to evaluate the concentration of lunasin in different lunasin-based commercial dietary supplements, to produce a lunasin-enriched soy extract (LESE) using a two-step pilot-plant-based ultrafiltration process, and to evaluate their biological potential in vitro. LESE was produced using 30 and 1 kDa membranes in a custom-made ultrafiltration skid. Lunasin was quantified in eight products and LESE. Lunasin concentrations of the lunasin-based products ranged from 9.2 ± 0.6 to 25.7 ± 1.1 mg lunasin/g protein. The LESE extract contained 58.2 mg lunasin/g protein, up to 6.3-fold higher lunasin enrichment than lunasin-based dietary supplements. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 121.5 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g in Now® Kids to 354.4 mmol TE/g in LESE. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibition ranged from 5.3% on Soy Sentials® to 38.3% on synthetic lunasin. ORAC and lunasin concentrations were positively correlated, and HAT and lunasin concentrations were negatively correlated (p < 0.05). Melanoma B16-F10 and A375 cells treated with lunasin showed dose-dependent inhibitory potential (IC50 equivalent to 330 and 370 µM lunasin, respectively). Lunasin showed protein kinase B expression (57 ± 14%) compared to the control (100%) in B16-F10. Lunasin concentration found in commercial products and lunasin-enriched soy extract could exert benefits to consumers.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos de Soja , Proteínas de Soja/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Proteínas de Soja/análise , Soja
19.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(12): 2997-3006, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185694

RESUMO

The microalga Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina) was used for tempeh wastewater treatment. Microalga growth and the kinetics of chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation under different light intensities (2,100 and 4,300 lux), tempeh wastewater concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5% v/v), and sodium nitrate concentrations (0, 0.75, 1, 2, 2.5 g/L) were studied. Improved cell growth in wastewater indicated that mixotrophic growth was preferred. The addition of sodium nitrate up to 2 g/L increased COD removal. The highest COD removal was 92.2%, which was obtained from cultivation with 1% v/v tempeh wastewater, 2 g/L sodium nitrate, 2,100 lux, and the specific growth rate of 0.33 ± 0.01 day-1. The COD removal followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model with the kinetic constant of 0.3748 day-1 and the nitrate uptake rate of 0.122 g/L-day. The results can be used to design a pilot-scale tempeh wastewater treatment facility using A. platensis for tertiary treatment. Based on the kinetic model, a 20 m3 reactor can treat tempeh wastewater to reduce the COD from 400 to 100 ppm in 4 days and produces approximately 32.8 kg of dried microalgae.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Spirulina , Purificação da Água , Biomassa , Cinética , Águas Residuárias
20.
Food Chem ; 364: 130334, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174649

RESUMO

Black soybean sauce's (BSS) aroma was scarcely investigated, which seriously affected BSS's quality and consumers' preference. Thus the aroma compounds in BSS were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/gas chromatography-olfactometry coupling with recombination and omission experiments. Sensory evaluation showed the fruity odor was increased by 63% and the malty, alcoholic, floral, smoky, caramel-like and sour odors were decreased by 24-35% when compared to the control soy sauce (SS, p < 0.05). Totally, 126 volatile compounds, 44 aroma-active compounds and 22 vital aroma-active compounds were identified in BSS. Compared to SS, BSS exhibited a distinctive aroma characteristics which was caused by significantly higher odor activity values (OAVs) of 3-methylbutyl acetate (357%), ethyl propanoate (144%), ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (70%), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (102%) and lower OAVs of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (52%), 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furan-3-one (50%), ethanol (48%), 4-vinylguaiacol (41%), 3-methylthiopropanal (37%), 3-methylbutanol (33%), 4-ethylguaiacol (28%). The results would contribute to BSS's quality control and aroma improvement.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Odorantes , Olfatometria , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja
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