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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cheonggukjang is a traditional fermented soybean paste that is mostly consumed in Korea. However, the biological activities of Cheonggukjang specific compounds have not been studied. Thus, we aimed to discover a novel dual agonist for PPARα/γ from dietary sources such as Cheonggukjang specific volatile compounds and explore the potential role of PPARα/γ dual agonists using in vitro and in silico tools. METHODS: A total of 35 compounds were selected from non-fermented and fermented soybean products cultured with Bacillus subtilis, namely Cheonggukjang, for analysis by in vitro and in silico studies. RESULTS: Molecular docking results showed that 1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone (DPP) had the lowest docking score for activating PPARα (1K7L) and PPARγ (3DZY) with non-toxic effects. Moreover, DPP significantly increased the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ and highly activated its expression in Ac2F liver cells, in vitro. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that DPP can act as a dual agonist of PPARα/γ using in vitro and in silico tools. CONCLUSIONS: The Cheonggukjang-specific compound DPP could be a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist and it is warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of PPARα/γ activation by dietary intervention and/or supplementation in the treatment of metabolic disorders without causing any adverse effects.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Fermentação , Técnicas In Vitro
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443655

RESUMO

To identify and analyze the characteristics of the microorganisms involved in the formation of the desirable flavor of Doenjang, a total of 179 strains were isolated from ninety-four Doenjang collected from six regions in South Korea, and fourteen strains were selected through a sensory evaluation of the aroma of each culture. The enzyme activities of amylase, protease and lipase was shown in the various strains. Bacillus sp.-K3, Bacillus sp.-K4 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-J2 showed relatively high protease activity, at 317.1 U, 317.3 U and 319.5 U, respectively. The Bacillus sp.-K1 showed the highest lipase activity at 2453.6 U. In the case of amylase, Bacillus subtilis-H6 showed the highest activity at 4105.5 U. The results of the PCA showed that Bacillus subtilis-H2, Bacillus subtilis-H3, and Bacillus sp.-K2 were closely related to the production of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (23.51%~43.37%), and that Bacillus subtilis-H5 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-J2 were significantly associated with the production of phenethyl alcohol (0.39% and 0.37%). The production of peptides was observed to vary among the Bacillus cultures such as Val-Val-Pro-Pro-Phe-Leu and Pro-Ala-Glu-Val-Leu-Asp-Ile. These peptides are precursors of related volatile flavor compounds created in Doenjang via the enzymatic or non-enzymatic route; it is expected that these strains could be used to enhance the flavor of Doenjang.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/enzimologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Biossíntese Peptídica/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/genética , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
3.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2194-2207, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056716

RESUMO

Miso is a well-known traditional Japanese fermented food, with a characteristic savory flavor and aroma, known predominately as the seasoning in miso soup. Miso production involves a two-stage fermentation, where first a mold, such as Aspergillus oryzae, is inoculated onto a substrate to make koji. A subsequent fermentation, this time by bacteria and yeast, occurs when the koji is added to a salt and soybean mash, with the miso left to ferment for up to 2 years. The microbial community of miso is considered essential to the development of the unique taste, texture, and nutritional profile of miso. Despite the importance of microorganisms in the production of miso, very little research has been undertaken to characterize and describe the microbial process. In this review, we provide an overview of the two-stage fermentation process, describe what is currently known about the microbial communities involved and consider any potential health benefits associated with the consumption of miso, along with food safety concerns. As the popularity of miso continues to expand globally and is produced under new environmental conditions, understanding the microbiological processes involved will assist to ensure that global production of miso is safe as well as delicious.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Fermentação , Aromatizantes , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Japão , Cloreto de Sódio , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Paladar
4.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103762, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875200

RESUMO

Harmful levels of biogenic amines (BAs) are frequently identified in sufu. The microorganisms and mechanisms responsible for BA production in sufu, however, are not well documented. In this study, sufu samples were randomly obtained from various regions of China. Putrescine, tyramine, and histamine were quantitated as the most abundant BAs. According to the metagenome sequencing, the abundances and diversities of genes encoding the critical enzymes in BA production were acquired. The results showed that genes encoding arginine-, ornithine-, tryptophan-, and histidine decarboxylases were the predominant amino acid decarboxylase genes. Furthermore, 34 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were generated, of which 23 encoded at least one gene involved in BA production. Genetic analysis of MAGs indicated genera affiliated with Enterococcus, Lactobacillus-related, and Lactococcus were the major histamine-synthesizing bacteria, and tyrosine may be utilized by Bacillus, Chryseobacterium, Kurthia, Lysinibacillus, Macrococcus, and Streptococcus to product tyramine. The critical species involved in two putrescine-producing pathways were also explored. In the ornithine decarboxylase pathway, Lactobacillus-related and Veillonella were predicted to be the main performers, whereas Sphingobacterium and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae were the dominant executors in the agmatine deiminase pathway. The present study not only explained the BAs formation mechanism in sufu but also identified specific bacteria used to control BAs in fermented soybean products.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , China , Fermentação , Histamina/análise , Histamina/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Putrescina/análise , Putrescina/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Tiramina/análise , Tiramina/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 351: 128454, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652296

RESUMO

This study aimed to elaborate the roles of salt concentration on doubanjiang (broad bean paste) fermentation. Three sets of doubanjiang samples which had lower salt concentration than commercial doubanjiang were prepared and the physicochemical parameters, biogenic amines, flavor, microbial dynamics were analyzed during fermentation. The salt reduction showed significant effect on the dynamics of bacteria and fungi, thus leading to doubanjiang samples with different properties. Salt reduction during fermentation relieved the osmotic pressure towards microbes, which favored the accumulation of amino acid nitrogen, amino acids, and volatile flavor compounds. However, higher concentrations of total acids and biogenic amines and the existence of conditional pathogens, such as Klebsiella, Cronobacter and Acinetobacter genera, were observed in salt reduced doubanjiang samples, which was undesirable for doubanjiang quality. This study would deep our understanding of the roles of salt on doubanjiang fermentation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Fermentação , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Paladar , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo
6.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 3033-3043, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710215

RESUMO

Okara is the main soybean by-product resulting from the processing of soy milk and tofu. Despite being a product with a lot of potential and rich in many bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, it presents an unpleasant, rancid aroma. For this reason its use in the food industry is limited. In this study, we have reported the integral use of okara in a solid state fermentation process, conducted with wild strains of lactic acid bacteria, to evaluate the effect of bacterial metabolism on the volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Strains belonging to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus and Pediococcus acidilactici species were used in monoculture and, for the first time, in co-culture. The results showed an improvement in the aromatic fraction showing a decrease in hexanal, responsible for off-flavour, and an increase in ketones with fruity and buttery notes in fermented okara. Polyphenols were also affected, and, in particular, a bioconversion of glucoside isoflavones to the aglycone forms was highlighted in all fermented substrates. In addition, the appearance of both phenyllactic and p-hydroxyphenyllactic acids as well as the increase in indole-3-lactic acid was observed for the first time upon okara fermentation. Overall, the co-culture appears to be the most promising for biovalorization of okara, thereby opening the possibility of its use in the development of functional ingredients.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fermentação , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
7.
Food Chem ; 353: 129447, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714122

RESUMO

In order to explore the correlation between the production of propionic acid (PA) and the succession of bacterial community during the fermentation of gray sufu, high-throughput sequencing and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) were used to monitor the changes of bacterial community and metabolite content. The abundance and metabolite concentration of Propionibacterium increased rapidly in the early stage of fermentation. In the middle stage, the abundance of Lactobacillus began to increase, while the pH decreased rapidly. In the late stage, the concentration of PA began to decrease, but it remained at a high level at the end of fermentation. Correlation analysis showed that Lactobacillus and Bacillus had a strong negative correlation with PA and its precursor. The results showed that Fusobacterium, Providencia, Lactobacillus and Bacillus could be the key factors to reduce the PA content. This study provides a new idea for the quality control of traditional fermented food.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Propionatos/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fusobacterium/genética , Fusobacterium/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Propionibacterium/genética , Propionibacterium/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 349: 129131, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581434

RESUMO

Soy sauce is a traditional fermented soy food for enhancing the umami taste in Asian cuisines. In this study, 16S rRNA gene throughput sequencing analysis showed the bacterial communities and the changes in soy sauce during fermentation. Weissella, Bacillus and Lactococcus were the most abundant at genus level. The uncultured bacterium Weissella and Lactococcus had relatively high abundance at species level. Alpha diversity analysis indicated the bacterial community diversity increased at fermentation initiation, while decreased as fermentation progressed. Based on beta-diversity analysis, four clusters including cluster I (time point A-F), cluster II (G,H), cluster III (I,J) and cluster IV(K) were distinctly separated, indicating the fermentation time significantly affected bacterial community diversity. Also, close associations were found between the bacterial communities in soy sauce and its amino acid nitrogen, organic acid and reducing sugar contents during fermentation. Therefore, it will provide important information for optimization of the soy sauce production process.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Açúcares/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Paladar
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(12): 5124-5131, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Okara is a major agri-industrial by-product of the tofu and soymilk industries. Employing food-wastes as substrates for the green production of natural functional compounds is a recent trend that addresses the dual concepts of sustainable production and a zero-waste ecosystem. RESULTS: Extracts of unfermented okara and okara fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus were obtained using ethanol as extraction solvent, coupled with ultrasound sonication for enhanced extraction. Fermented extracts yielded significantly better results for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) than unfermented extracts. A qualitative liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis revealed a shift from glucoside forms to respective aglycone forms of the detected isoflavones, post-fermentation. Since the aglycone forms have been associated with numerous health benefits, a quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed. Fermented okara extracts had daidzein and genistein concentrations of 11.782 ± 0.325 µg mL-1 and 10.125 ± 1.028 µg mL-1 , as opposed to that of 6.7 ± 2.42 µg mL-1 and 4.55 ± 0.316 µg mL-1 in raw okara extracts, respectively. Lastly, the detected isoflavones were mapped to their metabolic pathways, to understand the biochemical reactions triggered during the fermentation process. CONCLUSION: Fermented okara may be implemented as a sustainable solution for production of natural bioactive isoflavonoids genistein and daidzein. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Genisteína/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Rhizopus/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Resíduos/análise , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Genisteína/análise , Isoflavonas/análise , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(6): 2561-2569, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia is one of the metabolic disorders that poses a great threat to human health. This study is aimed at investigating the potential hypolipidemic properties of extract from peanut meal fermented with Bacillus natto and Monascus in mice fed with a high-fat diet. Herein, 60 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups: four control groups, comprised of a normal group, a model (M) group, a positive control group (atorvastatin 10 mg kg-1 ), and a nonfermented peanut meal extract group (150 mg kg-1 ), and two experimental groups, comprised of a fermented peanut meal extract low-dose group (50 mg kg-1 ) and a fermented peanut meal extract high-dose group (FH, 150 mg kg-1 ). RESULTS: Body weight (P = 0.001) and levels of serum total cholesterol (P = 0.007), triacylglycerol (P = 0.040), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001), and leptin (P < 0.001) were remarkably decreased in the FH group, whereas the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased (P < 0.001) by 78.3% compared with the M group. Ileum tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed that the ileal villus detachments in mice were improved, and the villus height was increased by supplementation with extract from fermented peanut meal. Moreover, the expressions of intestinal ZO-1 (P = 0.003) and occludin (P = 0.013) were elevated in the FH group, compared with the M group. CONCLUSION: Extract of peanut meal fermented by B. natto and Monascus can effectively improve hyperlipidemia caused by a high-fat diet in mice, via regulating leptin and blood lipid levels, and protect the intestinal mucosal barrier, which provides evidence for its anti-hyperlipidemia effects and is a research basis for potential industrial development. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Arachis/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , Hipolipemiantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Monascus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Arachis/microbiologia , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fermentação , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(7): 2920-2929, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of commercial soy sauce is variable at present. Technical work is needed to improve the quality and flavor of soy sauce, especially in China. Material is a factor for influencing soy sauce characters in fermentation. RESULTS: Germinated soybean sauce (fermented by germinated soybean) had a gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration of 6.83 µg mL-1 , whereas a control (a soy sauce fermented by soybean) had a GABA concentration of less than 2.42 µg mL-1 . Germinated soybean sauce also contained significantly higher levels of isoflavones, total polyphenol, and amino acid nitrogen than the control soy sauce. Microbial diversity results showed that Bacillus was the dominant bacteria in germinated soy sauce compared with the control. Aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and phenols were the major flavor components of germinated soybean sauce. CONCLUSION: A soy sauce with high levels of GABA, isoflavones, and total polyphenol was developed using germinated soybean. Stenotrophomonas, the typical pathogen found in the control, was reduced dramatically and replaced by Bacillus during fermentation with the germinated soybean. The germinated soybean sauce exhibited a better aroma and taste than the control. Soy sauce fermented by soybeans that germinated for 48 h exhibited greater advantages than soy sauce that germinated for 24 and 72 h. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Sementes/microbiologia , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Germinação , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Paladar
12.
Food Chem ; 344: 128681, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279349

RESUMO

Fermentation with excellent aroma-producing yeasts can enhance the flavour of soy sauce. In this work, Millerozyma farinosa CS2.23, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii CS2.42, and Candida parapsilosis CS2.53 were added to the high-salt liquid-state moromi to promote soy sauce fermentation. All three yeasts improved the TE of soy sauce, the highest of which reached 1.03 g/L with added CS2.42. Other quality indexes of soy sauce, including RS, TA, and AN, were not greatly affected. The volatile esters of soy sauce added to the three yeasts increased by 108.85%, 166.71%, and 113.61% compared with the control through GC-MS analysis. Obviously, CS2.42 had an excellent ability to produce esters. Studying the biosynthesis pathway of esters, CS2.42 has the best esterification ability, while CS2.53 has the advantage of alcoholysis ability. The exploration of the biosynthetic pathway of acetate and ethyl esters has laid a foundation for regulating esters in soy sauce fermentation.


Assuntos
Ésteres/química , Ésteres/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Odorantes/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo , Paladar
13.
Food Chem ; 343: 128509, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199116

RESUMO

Dajiang, or naturally fermented soybean paste, has a unique flavor that is influenced by the resident microflora. However, the association between flavor and the core microbiota is unclear. Recent advances in RNA sequencing have identified genes that are actively expressed in complex microbial communities. To this end, we analyzed the time-dependent changes in the microbiota and the metabolite profiles of Dajiang using metatranscriptome sequencing, HS-SPME-GC-MS and amino acid analysis identified 10 volatile compounds that contribute to the development of soybean paste flavor. Further analysis of the correlation between the active microorganisms and the physicochemical characteristics and flavor substances in soybean paste indicated that Lactobacillus and Tetragenococcus were the core genera affecting chromaticity and flavor. These microorganisms produce enzymes that catalyze a series of metabolic pathways that generate flavor substances. Our findings provide new insights into the role of the microbiota in the development of flavor in fermented foods.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Aminoácidos/análise , China , Enterococcaceae/genética , Enterococcaceae/fisiologia , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Extração em Fase Sólida , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048960

RESUMO

We determined bacterial migration into doenjang from its components, meju and solar salt using culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based culture-independent techniques (pyrosequencing of total DNA). Pyrosequencing results suggested that the bacterial communities of meju, but not solar salt, significantly affected those of doenjang communities. Culture-based pyrosequencing analysis yielded similar results. These results indicate that most predominant bacterial species in doenjang migrated from meju, not solar salt. We therefore believe that the present study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of bacterial communities of fermented soybeans using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Furthermore, pyrosequencing of the V3 and V4 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA did not distinguish among Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. siamensis, and B. velezensis as well as between Enterococcus faecium and E. hirae.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiota , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1455-1465, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055439

RESUMO

In this study, a new way to produce tofu with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, L. casei) and salt coagulant (magnesium sulfate) has been developed and optimized in order to improve the quality characteristics and the storage stability. Processing parameters (bean-water ratio, inoculation amount, magnesium sulfate concentration and pressing time) of tofu were studied. Yield, water holding capacity (WHC), texture and sensory were measured for evaluating quality characteristics of tofu. Based on the single factor and response surface methodology (RSM), the optimized conditions of tofu were determined as follows: bean-water ratio was 1:4 g/mL, fermentation time was 5 h at 37°C when the inoculation amount was 4.0%, magnesium sulfate concentration was 2.0 mol/L and pressing time was 1 h. Under the optimum conditions, the yield of the tofu was 140.45 g, the WHC was 87.25 %, the hardness was 420.36 g, and the tofu had better sensory characteristics, soft, uniform texture, as well as good flavor. The shelf life and stability of tofu during storage were also evaluated under the optimum conditions. The results showed that fermented tofu had a longer shelf life than unfermented tofu at room temperature. Compared with the "pasteurization + low temperature" group and "low temperature" group, the fermented tofu in the "microwave + low temperature" group had a longer shelf life and better-quality properties during storage. Tofu, prepared by the lactic acid bacteria fermentation and salt coagulant, would be accepted as a new type of tofu according to its quality characteristics and storage stability.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lactobacillus casei , Sulfato de Magnésio , Alimentos de Soja , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Paladar , Temperatura , Água/análise
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3113-3123, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954501

RESUMO

White spots are commonly found in bean-based fermented food, which will significantly lower the product quality. This study aimed to analyze the composition of white spots and further reveal the source and influencing factors of white spots in bean-based fermented food using soybean paste as study model. The results showed that white spots were mainly composed of 40.96% free tyrosine and 37.94% tyrosine in combination form. During soybean paste fermentation, tyrosine was found to be produced by the actions of proteolytic enzymes secreted by Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 instead of the microbial metabolism and the excessive accumulation of tyrosine in soybean paste led to the formation of white spots. Among all influencing factors, high temperature treatment favored the formation of white spots. The existence of soy peptone and phenylalanine would postpone the precipitation of tyrosine while promoting the aggregation of the tyrosine precipitation. Field emission scanning electron microscope analysis showed that tyrosine would accumulate around the soybean protein particles and treatment at 120 °C would disrupt the structure of tyrosine-protein complex. Based on the above results, we proposed that treatment of soybean paste at temperature lower than 80 °C was the current practically applicable method to control the formation of white spots in soybean paste. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study developed a new idea to understand the composition and formation of white spots in soybean paste, which would provide guidance for prevention and control of white spots during the production of soybean paste for manufacturers and researchers.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Fermentação , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Tirosina/análise , Tirosina/metabolismo
17.
Food Microbiol ; 92: 103591, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950133

RESUMO

Six different ganjang batches were prepared and the microbial communities in the ganjang samples and raw materials (meju and solar salts), as well as the metabolites generated during fermentation were analyzed. The varying amounts of raw materials used differentially affected the microbial communities. Halophilic or halotolerant microbes derived from solar salts were abundant during middle or late fermentation. By contrast, non-halophilic microbes derived from meju were abundant mainly during early fermentation. Debaryomyces, Tetragenococcus, and Staphylococcus were abundant in all ganjang batches, which suggested that these may be the most common microbes involved in ganjang fermentation. The salt concentrations did not affect the abundance of Debaryomyces, which was abundant in all ganjang batches. Tetragenococcus was abundant in low salt ganjang, whereas Staphylococcus was abundant in high salt ganjang. Metabolite analysis revealed that carbohydrate concentrations were high in ganjang prepared using high amounts of meju. The level of lactate, which may be largely produced by Tetragenococcus, in low salt ganjang was high because of high microbial activity. The amino acid concentrations of the ganjang batches were mainly associated with meju quantity, but not salt concentration. These results indicated that the production of amino acids may be associated with indigenous proteases in meju, but not microbial activities during ganjang fermentation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , República da Coreia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia
18.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 30(11): 1697-1705, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876067

RESUMO

Meju, a type of fermented soybean paste, is used as a starter in the preparation of various Korean traditional soybean-based foods. In this study, we performed Illumina-MiSeq paired-end sequencing for microbial communities and mass spectrometry analysis for metabolite profiling to investigate the differences between 11 traditional meju products from different regions across Korea. Even though the bacterial and fungal communities showed remarkable variety, major genera including Bacillus, Enterococcus, Variovorax, Pediococcus, Weissella, and Aspergillus were detected in every sample of meju. The metabolite profile patterns of the 11 samples were clustered into two main groups: group I (M1-5) and group II (M6-11). The metabolite analysis indicated a relatively higher amino acid content in group I, while group II exhibited higher isoflavone, soyasaponin, and lysophospholipid contents. The bioactivity analysis proved that the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity was higher in group II and the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) activity was higher in group I. The correlation analysis revealed that the ABTS activity was isoflavonoid, lipid, and soyasaponin related, whereas the FRAP activity was amino acid and flavonoid related. These results suggest that the antioxidant activities of meju are critically influenced by the microbiome and metabolite dynamics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microbiota/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , República da Coreia , Saponinas/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(35): 9345-9357, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786868

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease due to lipid accumulation in the hepatocyte. Diet, especially a high-fat diet, is one risk factor that leads to NAFLD. Many natural compounds such as isoflavones have antiobesity effects. Therefore, intake of these functional compounds through daily dietary choices is a method of improving health. Miso is a kind of fermented soy paste, which is rich in isoflavones and has a different biological activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of different concentrations of fermented soy paste on NAFLD in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The results showed that 2% fermented soy paste decreased serum triacylglycerol (TG) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver through induced fatty acid oxidation by activating the adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and increasing PGC1α and CPT1α protein expression. Furthermore, we found that 2% fermented soy paste increased the abundance of Prevotellaceae NK3B31 and Desulfovibrio. Taken together, fermented soy paste improved HFD-induced lipid accumulation in the liver by activating fatty acid oxidation and modulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 329: 127118, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512391

RESUMO

Sonication was applied to accelerate aroma formation and shorten fermentation time of soy sauce. Effects of sonication at 68 kHz on the aroma and aroma-producing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Tetragenococcus halophilus in moromis were investigated using sensory evaluation, SPME-GC-olfactometry/MS, viable cell counting and scanning electron microscopy. The sensory scores of caramel-like, fruity, alcoholic, floral, malty, smoky, sour and overall aroma in sonicated moromis were enhanced by 23.4%, 23.2%, 13.6%, 12.8%, 7.6%, 6.3%, 5.6% and 14.4%, respectively. Sensory scores of samples fermented for 90-180 days were higher than those of controls fermented for 180 days, suggesting that sonication could reduce fermentation time by 90 days. Thirty-four aroma-active compounds were detected from 85 volatile compounds in soy sauces. Sonication accelerated and elevated the formation of aroma compounds by chemical reactions. It also markedly increased the reproduction and cell permeability of both microorganisms in moromis, which favored the formation of aroma compounds by both strains.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Enterococcaceae , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sonicação , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Paladar , Zygosaccharomyces
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