Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 585
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803982

RESUMO

Red yeast rice has been used to produce alcoholic beverages and various fermented foods in China and Korea since ancient times; it has also been used to produce tofuyo (Okinawan-style fermented tofu) in Japan since the 18th century. Recently, monacolin K (lovastatin) which has cholesterol-lowering effects, was found in some strains of Monascus fungi. Since statins have been used world-wide as a cholesterol-lowering agent, processed foods containing natural statins are drawing attention as materials for primary prevention of life-style related diseases. In recent years, large-scale commercial production of red yeast rice using traditional solid-state fermentation has become possible, and various useful materials, including a variety of monascus pigments (polyketides) that spread as natural pigments, in addition to statins, are produced in the fermentation process. Red yeast rice has a lot of potential as a medicinal food. In this paper, we describe the history of red yeast rice as food, especially in Japan and East Asia, its production methods, use, and the ingredients with pharmacological activity. We then review evidence of the beneficial effects of red yeast rice in improving lipid metabolism and the circulatory system and its safety as a functional food.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Humanos , Japão
2.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103794, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875222

RESUMO

The emergence of Coronavirus disease 2019 as a global pandemic has increased popular concerns about diseases caused by viruses. Fermented foods containing high loads of viable fungi and bacteria are potential sources for virus contamination. The most common include viruses that infect bacteria (bacteriophage) and yeasts reported in fermented milks, sausages, vegetables, wine, sourdough, and cocoa beans. Recent molecular studies have also associated fermented foods as vehicles for pathogenic human viruses. Human noroviruses, rotavirus, and hepatitis virus have been identified in different fermented foods through multiple routes. No severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus or close members were found in fermented foods to date. However, the occurrence/persistence of other pathogenic viruses reveals a potential vulnerability of fermented foods to SARS-CoV-2 contamination. On the other side of the coin, some bacteriophages are being suggested for improving the fermentation process and food safety, as well as owing potential probiotic properties in modern fermented foods. This review will address the diversity and characteristics of viruses associated with fermented foods and what has been changed after a short introduction to the most common next-generation sequencing platforms. Also, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via fermented foods and preventive measures will be discussed.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Bacteriófagos , Micovírus
3.
Food Chem ; 354: 129549, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770562

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to produce fermented sucuk doner kebab and investigate the effects of starter culture type, heat treatment (82 °C) and storage time (0, 30, 90, 180 days) at -18 °C on pH, total acidity, thiobarbituric acid, residual nitrite-nitrate, color and microbiological quality. In this study, three types of starter cultures were used. These were commercial starter culture, L.sakei + S.xylosus + L.curvatus, isolated starter culture (1), L.sakei + S.xylosus + L.curvatus and isolated starter culture (2), L.sakei + S.xylosus + L.plantarum. There was also control product which contains no starter culture. The major pH decrease was observed in samples containing isolated starter cultures. Cooking and storage caused an increase in pH. Isolated starter culture was more effective than commercial starter culture in reducing residual nitrite-nitrate. Isolated starter cultures caused an increase in L* color values. The highest lactic acid bacteria count was found in sample containing commercial starter culture. Cooking was effective in inhibiting Enterobacteriaceae.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Culinária , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Cor , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109129, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711686

RESUMO

The production of pome fruits as pears and apples, as well as their derived industries, is of great economic importance in North Patagonia. The elaboration of fermented beverages as cider or perry has evidenced a substantial diversification during the last years, with the evaluation of different fruit varieties, yeast starters and technological changes. In this work, two cryotolerant yeasts belonging to the species Saccharomyces uvarum were evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale in sterile and no-sterile pear must. One of the strains was originally isolated from apple chicha (strain NPCC1314) and the other from apple cider (strain NPCC1420) in Patagonia. Both physicochemical and sensory features of the fermented products were evaluated. Both strains were able to successfully complete the fermentations, although strain NPCC1420 showed the better kinetic properties including a faster sugar consumption than the strain NPCC1314. Both strains showed excellent implantation capacity, but the fermented products showed different chemical profiles. The perry fermented with the strain NPCC1314 was characterized by better sensory attributes as assessed by trained panelists and a greater acceptance for untrained public than the same fermented with the strain NPCC1420. The two strains were able to consume sorbitol, both in pear must and in agar-plates supplemented with sorbitol as the sole carbon source. This ability is described for the first time in S. uvarum, at least for the two strains evaluated in this work.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Pyrus/microbiologia , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Argentina , Reatores Biológicos , Chile , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiologia , Malus/microbiologia , Saccharomyces/isolamento & purificação , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109128, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751986

RESUMO

Water kefir is a sparkling, slightly acidic fermented beverage produced by fermenting a solution of sucrose, to which dried fruits have been added, with water kefir grains. These gelatinous grains are a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast embedded in a polysaccharide matrix. Lactic acid bacteria, yeast and acetic acid bacteria are the primary microbial members of the sugary kefir grain. Amongst other contributions, species of lactic acid bacteria produce the exopolysaccharide matrix from which the kefir grain is formed, while yeast assists the bacteria by a nitrogen source that can be assimilated. Exactly which species predominate within the grain microbiota, however, appears to be dependent on the geographical origin of the grains and the fermentation substrate and conditions. These factors ultimately affect the characteristics of the beverage produced in terms of aroma, flavour, and acidity, for example, but can also be controlled and exploited in the production of a beverage of desired characteristics. The production of water kefir has traditionally occurred on a small scale and the use of defined starter cultures is not commonly practiced. However, as water kefir increases in popularity as a beverage - in part because of consumer lifestyle trends and in part due to water kefir being viewed as a health drink with its purported health benefits - the need for a thorough understanding of the biology and dynamics of water kefir, and for defined and controlled production processes, will ultimately increase. The aim of this review is to provide an update into the current knowledge of water kefir.


Assuntos
Bebidas/microbiologia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Kefir/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Microbiota , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Água , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562090

RESUMO

Traditional Asian fermented soy food products are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk in prospective studies, but few randomized controlled trials have been conducted in at-risk populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial non-probiotic fermented soy product on blood lipids in adults with cardiovascular risk biomarkers. In a randomized, crossover, intervention study, 27 men and women (aged 29-75 y) exhibiting at least two risk factors, consumed two packets (12.5 g each) daily of a fermented powdered soy product, or an isoenergic control powder made from germinated brown rice for 12 weeks each. The consumption of the fermented soy product resulted in a significantly greater mean change from baseline (compared to the germinated rice, all p < 0.05) in total cholesterol of -0.23 mmol/L (CI: -0.40, -0.06) compared with 0.14 mmol/L (CI: -0.03, 0.31), respectively; and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol -0.18 mmol/L (CI: -0.32, -0.04) compared with 0.04 mmol/L (CI: -0.01, 0.018) respectively. This was accompanied by an increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the germinated rice group, a decrease in apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in the fermented soy group, and a between-treatment effect in apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1); however, the ratio of the LDL:HDL and of Apo B:ApoA1 did not differ between the groups. The ratio of total cholesterol:LDL decreased in men in the fermented soy group (p < 0.001). Twenty-four-hour urine collection at the end of each treatment period resulted in an increased excretion expressed as a ratio in µmol/d between treatments of 10.93 (CI: 5.07, 23.54) for daidzein; 1.24 (CI: 1.14, 4.43) for genistein; and, 8.48 (CI: 4.28, 16.80) for glycitein, all p < 0.05. The fermented soy powder consumed by participants in this study without implementing other changes in their typical diets, decreased the total and LDL cholesterol, and may serve as a dietary strategy to manage blood lipids. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03429920.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Genisteína/urina , Humanos , Isoflavonas/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Food Sci ; 86(3): 749-761, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604898

RESUMO

The supercooling degree (SD), which refers to the difference between the ice nucleation temperature and freezing point of kimchi, varies depending on the type of kimchi, manufacturer, recipe, and manufacturing season. The aim of this study is to investigate the major influencing factors for the supercooled storage of kimchi and to analyze the possibility of supercooled storage for commercial kimchi. Pearson correlation analysis determined that, in commercial kimchi manufactured between March and July 2018, the SD of kimchi correlated to the number of aerobic bacteria (P < 0.01), however, was not associated with lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, the ice nucleation temperature of saline solution inoculated with aerobic bacteria was reduced from -3.03 ± 0.04 to -6.18 ± 0.11 °C by 10 kGy gamma ray sterilization. Meanwhile, the ice nucleation temperatures of 1.8 kg of commercial red cabbage kimchi and 500 g of white cabbage kimchi manufactured in February 2020 were -3.93 ± 0.06 °C and -3.57 ± 0.06 °C, respectively, and they could be stored at -2.5 °C for 12 weeks without freezing. Additionally, supercooled storage of kimchi at -2.5 °C caused a fermentation delay effect compared to control storage at 1 °C, considering the acidity and amount of lactic acid bacteria. Therefore, if the number of aerobic bacteria is controlled during the manufacturing process of kimchi, supercooled storage at temperatures below -2.5 °C may extend the shelf life of kimchi. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: We have shown that aerobic bacteria are the key influencing factor for ice nucleation of kimchi during supercooled storage. Aside from the initial sterilization process, fermentation of kimchi can also be delayed by lowering the storage temperature below -2.5 °C. Moreover, the method of direct cool refrigeration may have an industrial-level application.


Assuntos
Brassica , Temperatura Baixa , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Bactérias Aeróbias , Brassica/microbiologia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Lactobacillales , Temperatura
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 56-61, feb. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147089

RESUMO

La leche materna provee microorganismos que colonizan el intestino y programan el sistema inmunológico para desarrollar tolerancia oral. Entre los 6 meses de lactancia materna exclusiva y los 2 años de lactancia prolongada recomendada, la alimentación complementaria conlleva una reducción progresiva en el ingreso de microorganismos vivos al ecosistema intestinal. Esto se debe a que los alimentos en general -a diferencia de la leche materna- o se encuentran desprovistos de microorganismos o, si los poseen, suelen inactivarse durante la cocción. Los alimentos fermentados y los probióticos podrían constituir una estrategia nutricional valiosa, dado que garantizarían la provisión de microorganismos vivos ante la reducción o interrupción anticipada de la lactancia. Los términos "alimentos fermentados" y "probióticos" no son sinónimos. La identidad microbiológica, la inocuidad y la existencia de estudios clínicos de eficacia para unos y otros son claves para entender sus diferencias y decidir una eventual recomendación alimentaria


Breast milk provides microorganisms that colonize the gut and program the immune system to develop oral tolerance. Between the 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding and the recommended 2 years of prolonged breastfeeding, complementary feeding leads to a progressive reduction in the entry of live microorganisms into the gut ecosystem. This is because foods in general -unlike breast milk- are devoid of microorganisms or, if present, they are often inactivated during cooking. Fermented foods and probiotics could be a valuable nutritional strategy, as they would ensure the supply of live microorganisms in the face of a reduction or early cessation of breastfeeding. The terms "fermented foods" and "probiotics" are not synonymous. Microbiological identity, safety, and the existence of clinical efficacy studies supporting both are key to understand their differences and decide on an eventual dietary recommendation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Iogurte , Probióticos , Microbiota , Imunidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 342: 109056, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540190

RESUMO

The interest in the consumption of African indigenous leafy vegetables increased in African countries, e.g. Kenya, within the last years. One example of African indigenous leafy vegetables is African nightshade (Solanum scabrum) which is nutritious, rich in proteins and micronutrients and therefore could contribute to a healthy diet. African nightshade has several agricultural advantages. However, the most important disadvantage is the fast perishability which leads to enormous post-harvest losses. In this study, we investigated the fermentation of African nightshade as a post-harvest processing method to reduce post-harvest losses. The two lactic acid bacterial starter strains Lactiplantibacillus plantarum BFE 5092 and Limosilactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620 were used to inoculate fermentations of African nightshade leaves with initial counts of 106-107 cfu/ml. Uninoculated controls were conducted for each fermentation trial. Fermentations were performed both in Kenya and in Germany. The success of the inoculated starter cultures was proven by the measurement of pH values and determination of lactic acid concentration. Lactobacilli strains dominated the microbiota of the starter inoculated samples in contrast to the non-inoculated controls. This was supported by classical culture-dependent plating on different microbiological media as well as by the culture-independent molecular biological methods denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene high-throughput amplicon sequencing. We could demonstrate that the use of the selected starter cultures for fermentation of African nightshade leaves led to controlled and reliable fermentations with quick acidification. Thus, controlled fermentation with appropriate starter cultures is a promising method for post-harvest treatment of African nightshade leaves.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Solanum , Verduras/microbiologia , África , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530330

RESUMO

We investigated associations of habitual dietary intake with the taxonomic composition and diversity of the human gut microbiota in 222 Koreans aged 18-58 years in a cross-sectional study. Gut microbiota data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing on DNA extracted from fecal samples. The habitual diet for the previous year was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. After multivariable adjustment, intake of several food groups including vegetables, fermented legumes, legumes, dairy products, processed meat, and non-alcoholic beverages were associated with major phyla of the gut microbiota. A dietary pattern related to higher α-diversity (HiαDP) derived by reduced rank regression was characterized by higher intakes of fermented legumes, vegetables, seaweeds, and nuts/seeds and lower intakes of non-alcoholic beverages. The HiαDP was positively associated with several genera of Firmicutes such as Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium (all p < 0.05). Among enterotypes identified by principal coordinate analysis based on the ß-diversity, the Ruminococcus enterotype had higher HiαDP scores and was strongly positively associated with intakes of vegetables, seaweeds, and nuts/seeds, compared to the two other enterotypes. We conclude that a plant- and fermented food-based diet was positively associated with some genera of Firmicutes (e.g., Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium) reflecting better gut microbial health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Fibras na Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nozes , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480835

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, and facultatively anaerobic strain CRM56-3T, isolated from fermented tea leaves collected from Chiang Rai province, Thailand, was characterized based on a polyphasic approach. The strain produced dl-lactic acid heterofermentatively from glucose. It grew at 15-42 °C (optimum at 30 °C), pH 3.5-8.0 (optimum pH 6.0) and in 1-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain CRM56-3T contained C16:0, C19:0 cyclo ω8c, and C18:1 ω7c, and/or C18:1 ω6c as major cellular fatty acids. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CRM56-3T belongs to the genus Secundilactobacillus and was closely related to Secundilactobacillus odoratitofui DSM 19909T (99.2 %), S. collinoides JCM 1123T (98.9 %), and S. paracollinoides DSM 15502T (98.7 %). The draft genome of strain CRM56-3T contained 2681617 bp with 2413 coding sequences and DNA G+C content determined from genome sequence of 44.5 mol%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) between strain CRM56-3T and S. odoratitofui DSM 19909T, S. collinoides JCM 1123T, and S. paracollinoides DSM 15502T were 19.5, 20.4, and 21.6 %, respectively. The average nucleotide identity (ANIm) and the average amino acid identity (AAI) between strain CRM56-3T and closely related strains were lower than 85.0 and 80.0 %, respectively. The strain CRM56-3T was clearly distinguished from related Secundilactobacillus species by its phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and the draft genome analysis. Therefore, the strain represents a novel species of the genus Secundilactobacillus, for which the name of Secundilactobacillus folii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CRM56-3T (=JCM 34223T=LMG 31663T=TISTR 2851T).


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Lactobacillaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Chá/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia
12.
Food Chem ; 348: 129097, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515941

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to isolate and identify antibacterial peptides (ABPs) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Chinese pickles. The cell-free supernatant collected from the culture of LAB with antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was used to purify ABPs. A total of 14 strains of LAB were found to have antibacterial activity. Among them, Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) SHY10 exhibited the most effective antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of cell-free supernatant reached the highest level after 20 h of L. fermentum SHY10 culture. Three novel ABPs were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In particular, the NQGPLGNAHR peptide showed antibacterial activity with an IC50 value of 0.957 mg/mL. In addition, molecular docking analysis revealed that this peptide interacted with DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase by salt bridge formation, hydrogen bond interactions, and metal contact.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 173: 66-78, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482208

RESUMO

Lactobacilli probiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol with low side effects to host. Bacteriocins and exopolysaccharides (EPSs) production are two meaningful examples of functional applications of lactobacilli in the food industry. Eight Lactobacillus strains were isolated from some Egyptian fermented food and tested for their probiotic properties. Analysis of the monosaccharide composition by thin layer chromatography showed the presence of glucose, galactose and unknown sugar. The main functional groups of EPSs were elucidated by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Their fermentation cultures displayed powerful antioxidant activities extending from 97.5 to 99%, 40-75% for their EPSs and free cells, respectively, and exhibited in vitro cholesterol downgrading from 48 to 82% and 72 to 91% after 48 and 120 h, respectively. Their EPSs showed good anticancer activities against carcinoma cells with low IC50 values for HCT-116, PC-3 and HepG-2 cells. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on the potential of Lactobacillus EPSs activity against PC-3. The selected strains, L. plantarum KU985433 and L. rhamnosus KU985436 produced two different bacteriocins as detected by gel permeation chromatography with good antimicrobial activities. In vivo study demonstrated that feeding Westar rats with fermented milk exhibited greater cholesterol, LDL and blood triglyceride reduction for both strains. Whereas, HDL was increased by about 43 and 38%, respectively, and the atherogenic indices decreased.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriocinas , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/agonistas , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Egito , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Células HCT116 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Masculino , Células PC-3 , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 173: 79-89, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482209

RESUMO

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are important bioproducts produced by some genera of lactic acid bacteria. EPS are famous for their shelf-life improving properties, techno-functional enhancing abilities in food and dairy industries, besides their beneficial health effects. Furthermore, exopolysaccharides have many prospective and well-established contributions in the field of drugs and diagnostic industry. In this review, classification of EPS produced by LAB was presented. Moreover, current and potential applications of EPS in food, dairy, baking industries, cereal-based, and functional products were described. Also, some clinical and pharmaceutical applications of EPS such as intelligent drug delivery systems (microsystems and nanosystems for sustained delivery), interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs), anticancer drug-targeting, recombinant macromolecular biopharmaceuticals, gene delivery, tissue engineering, and role of EPS in diagnostics were highlighted. Finally, future prospects concerning enhancing EPS production, minimizing costs of their production, and exploring their contribution in further applications were discussed.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/química , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
15.
J Food Sci ; 86(2): 334-342, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483957

RESUMO

Consumption of nutrient-rich seaweeds and fermented nondairy foods represent fast growing trends among health-minded consumers. Assessment of lacto-fermented seaweed was performed to address these trends, and to offer shelf-life extension and product diversification for fresh kelps. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of kelp species and inclusion level on fermentation kinetics, physicochemical quality, safety, shelf-life, and consumer acceptability of a seaweed sauerkraut-style product. Six formulations with different inclusion levels (25, 50, and 75%) of shredded kelp (sugar kelp, SK or winged kelp, WK) were mixed with cabbage, 2% salt, and inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum (approximately 106 CFU/g) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (approximately 101 CFU/g). Products were processed in triplicate, fermented until a target pH of ≤4.6 was achieved, and sampled periodically for 60 days. Kelp species and inclusion level significantly affected most variables tested. The most rapid fermentation (3 days), as evidenced by pH decrease, lactic acid bacteria counts, and lactic acid levels, was noted in WK formulations. Some SK formulations took up to 14 days to achieve the target pH, and coliforms persisted to a greater extent in the SK formulations. Higher levels of kelp decreased the fermentation rate and concentration of fermentable sugars in the brine, but increased the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the sauerkrauts. Despite differences in instrumental color (L* a* b* ) and texture (shear force) among formulations, overall liking as rated by a consumer panel was not significantly affected by species or inclusion level. Results support the use of lacto-fermentation in the production of refrigeration-stable seaweed sauerkraut-style product. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Health-conscious consumers are becoming increasingly interested in plant-based diets and fermented foods, and the development of novel seaweed sauerkraut-style products can help to meet these needs. This study demonstrated the successful production of a sauerkraut-style product formulated with up to 50% farm-raised kelp. Physical, chemical, microbiological, and consumer acceptability testing established lactic acid fermentation as a viable method for shelf life extension and value addition of fresh kelps. These results provide science-based information on an alternative processing method for cultivated seaweeds and can assist the industry in product diversification efforts.


Assuntos
Brassica/microbiologia , Fermentação , Kelp/microbiologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Sensação , Antioxidantes , Brassica/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Kelp/química , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Leuconostoc mesenteroides/metabolismo , Sais
16.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(3): 196-208, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398112

RESUMO

An expert panel was convened in September 2019 by The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) to develop a definition for fermented foods and to describe their role in the human diet. Although these foods have been consumed for thousands of years, they are receiving increased attention among biologists, nutritionists, technologists, clinicians and consumers. Despite this interest, inconsistencies related to the use of the term 'fermented' led the panel to define fermented foods and beverages as "foods made through desired microbial growth and enzymatic conversions of food components". This definition, encompassing the many varieties of fermented foods, is intended to clarify what is (and is not) a fermented food. The distinction between fermented foods and probiotics is further clarified. The panel also addressed the current state of knowledge on the safety, risks and health benefits, including an assessment of the nutritional attributes and a mechanistic rationale for how fermented foods could improve gastrointestinal and general health. The latest advancements in our understanding of the microbial ecology and systems biology of these foods were discussed. Finally, the panel reviewed how fermented foods are regulated and discussed efforts to include them as a separate category in national dietary guidelines.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Política Nutricional , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Consenso , Humanos
17.
Biotechniques ; 70(3): 149-159, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512248

RESUMO

One goal of microbial ecology researchers is to capture the maximum amount of information from all organisms in a sample. The recent COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the RNA virus SARS-CoV-2, has highlighted a gap in traditional DNA-based protocols, including the high-throughput methods the authors previously established as field standards. To enable simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 and microbial community profiling, the authors compared the relative performance of two total nucleic acid extraction protocols with the authors' previously benchmarked protocol. The authors included a diverse panel of environmental and host-associated sample types, including body sites commonly swabbed for COVID-19 testing. Here the authors present results comparing the cost, processing time, DNA and RNA yield, microbial community composition, limit of detection and well-to-well contamination between these protocols.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , /genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Gatos , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Camundongos , Saliva/microbiologia , Saliva/virologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/virologia
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109028, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352462

RESUMO

Due to their traditional use in food fermentation process for centuries, microbial food cultures are considered to have a safe history of use. A specific microbial risk assessment is therefore rarely conducted for fermented foods and their food cultures, inoculated or naturally present. Some of those food cultures have been also considered for their potential health effect as probiotic strain candidates, for which a specific safety demonstration process has been proposed by a joint expert report of FAO and WHO. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Biohazard panel also provides an approach for evaluating the safety of a strain to be added in the food chain, the Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS). Weissella confusa, former taxon Lactobacillus confusus, is a food culture characterized in the fermentation process of sourdough. Some strains have been recently proposed for their probiotic potential. The species is also documented in recent infection case reports. It is considered nevertheless to be opportunistic as underlying factors have been suggested to explain the infection. We report here the microbial risk assessment of the species, by studying a collection of 26 food and 17 clinical isolates of Weissella confusa. The phenotypic study, genomic characterization and bibliographical survey will allow us to conclude about the safety of the species and confirm its use for food fermentation and consider specific strains for demonstration of their respective health effects as probiotic candidates.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Weissella/fisiologia , União Europeia , Fermentação , Genômica , Probióticos , Medição de Risco
19.
Food Microbiol ; 94: 103641, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279067

RESUMO

Complex interactions occur within microbial communities during the fermentation process of kimchi. Identification of these microorganisms provides the essential information required to improve food quality and to understand their role in this process. This was the first study to compare two methods for accuracy in the identification of microbial community changes during the fermentation of kimchi by comparing a culture-dependent (MALDI-TOF MS analysis) and a culture-independent method (high-throughput sequencing) of 16S rRNA gene fragment). Members of the Lactobacillus-related genera, Leuconostoc, and Weissella were identified as the predominant microorganisms by both methods. The culture-independent method was able to additionally identify non-lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, such as Kazachstania in kimchi. However, high-throughput sequencing failed to accurately recognize Latilactobacillus sakei, Latilactobacillus curvatus, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, and W. cibaria, which played an important role in kimchi fermentation, as this method only allowed for identification at the genus level. Conversely, MALDI-TOF MS analysis could identify the isolates at the species level. Also, culture-dependent method could identify predominant species in viable cell communities. The culture-dependent method and culture-independent method provided complementary information by producing a more comprehensive view of the microbial ecology in fermented kimchi.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Brassica/microbiologia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiota , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Verduras/microbiologia , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/metabolismo
20.
Food Microbiol ; 94: 103643, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279069

RESUMO

Our purpose was to investigate the main bacterial microbiota and volatile profiles in the Chinese traditional dry-cured product-Jinhua ham during different processing stages and to analyze the role of the main microbiota in the formation of characteristic flavor. We determined the microbiota of Jinhua ham by using 16 S high throughput sequencing, and found that Staphylococcus constituted the predominant microbiota throughout the flavor formation process. Based on the volatile profiles of Jinhua dry-cured products from 11 different processing via SPME-GC-MS analysis, Aldehydes were the main groups of volatiles, with the most abundant ones being hexanal (13.89%) and nonanal (3.96%). To further investigate the relationship between predominant microbiota and the major volatile compounds in Jinhua ham, we screened and isolated genus Staphylococcus with high protease and lipase activities. The main Staphylococcus isolates, S. saprophyticus (53.4%) and S. equorum (31.0%) are related to the yields of aldehydes by producing hexanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetaldehyde, indicating their contributions on the formation of characteristic flavor substances in Jinhua ham.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/química , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Produtos da Carne/análise , Microbiota , Carne de Porco/análise , Suínos , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...