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1.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 28: 108-113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940613

RESUMO

The advent of the "genomic era" has allowed for nutrigenomics studies to be carried out, which aim to reveal whether there are interactions between the food we consume and our genetic make-up. In turn this information will provide the scientific basis for improved public health messages related to nutrition and diet. With the availability of high throughput, inexpensive and sometime "bed-side" technology, studies into the effect of diet on the aetiology of common oral diseases and oral conditions could now be easily carried out. It is becoming more and more convincing that interactions between genotype and diet are important in determining the risk of most if not all common complex diseases, and it is therefore highly probable that these interactions will be important in determining oral disease risk. A large body of data relating to nutritional genetic studies where the outcome measures have been markers of disease risk, provide proof of principle and highlight the importance of understanding these interactions, illustrating the potential impact dietary modification could have on oral health. These are areas of growth that need to be investigated further.


Assuntos
Nutrigenômica , Saúde Bucal , Dieta , Alimentos , Estado Nutricional
2.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 28: 91-98, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940633

RESUMO

Dental erosion is the partial demineralisation of the tooth surface caused by repeated exposure to acids. The loss of surface tissue, which results from simultaneous and/or subsequent exposure to mechanical forces is known as erosive tooth wear (ETW). Excessive consumption of acidic beverages and foods has been the main focus of research into erosion. Enamel dissolution is significantly associated with chemical parameters: pH, buffer capacity, titratable acidity, viscosity, as well as calcium, phosphate and fluoride concentrations in the beverages and foods. Some of these parameters are used to calculate the degree of saturation of a given substance, which represents its driving force to demineralise dental hard tissues. Undersaturated substances with low pH and high titratable acidity and high buffer capacity have greater erosive potential, while substances with high concentrations of Ca2+ and phosphate cause less demineralisation. Other physical parameters also modulate the demineralisation processes. Swishing drinks in the mouth tends to cause more erosion, since the Nernst layer is continuously renewed and does not reach saturation. Recent systematic reviews confirm that frequent consumption of carbonated/soft drinks are the main dietary factor associated with ETW. Vitamin C and frequent consumption of natural fruit juices and acidic snacks or sweets are also significantly associated with more ETW; whereas higher consumption of milk and yoghurt is a protecting factor. Patients presenting with ETW should have their dietary habits assessed by recording their complete dietary intake in a diet record sheet. Dentists should assess the erosive potential of the different beverages and foods, as well as the frequency of ingestion, then elaborate specific preventive measures and dietary interventions individually tailored to each patient.


Assuntos
Atrito Dentário , Erosão Dentária , Desgaste dos Dentes , Bebidas , Alimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
4.
Food Chem ; 308: 125519, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648087

RESUMO

Food additives are considered to be the catalysts and headstones of the modern food industry, affecting every step of food production, processing, and storage. The urgent need for a comprehensive curation of food additives, including their molecular structures, biological activities, and precise toxicological evaluations, prompted the creation of the AdditiveChem database (http://www.rxnfinder.org/additivechem/). This database has curated >9064 types of food additives, along with their molecular structure, chemical and physical properties, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity properties, biosynthesis and biodegradation methods, usage specifications, toxicological and risk assessment data, and targets in the human body from 16 databases to construct an efficient search platform for in silico preliminary evaluations. AdditiveChem database will enable an exploration of the relationship between the structure and function of food additives.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Aditivos Alimentares , Bases de Dados Factuais , Alimentos , Medição de Risco , Software
5.
Food Chem ; 305: 125500, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525593

RESUMO

The influences of folding patterns on the protein polymerization in dumpling wrappers were investigated. The dumpling dough sheet after the compounding rollers was folded with various patterns (control with no angle, 15°, 25°, 35° and 45° folding), before going through the sheeting and reduction rolls. Protein secondary structure, free sulfhydryl content, protein electrophoretic profiles, and texture of dumpling wrappers were determined. Results showed that folding could increase the proportion of α-helix conformation, and produce dumpling wrappers with enhanced toughness but reduce wrapper extensibility. The wrapper with 45° folding showed lower -SH content than the control and other folding angles. However, only a few variations in SDS band pattern and intensities were observed at the molecular weight position of around 35 kDa. Briefly, folding process could influence the gluten formation during the preparation of dumpling wrappers; the folding angle at 45° produced stronger gluten network and tougher wrappers.


Assuntos
Farinha , Alimentos , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Multimerização Proteica , Triticum/química , Glutens/química , Peso Molecular , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína
6.
Food Chem ; 306: 125638, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606632

RESUMO

A green and innovative eutectic solvent based extraction method was proposed for the determination of trace level vanadium in water and food samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. In this extraction technique magnetic stirrer was used for preparation of eutectic solvent by mixing of zinc chloride and acetamide at different molar ratios. Extraction capability of eutectic solvent was increased by adding a non ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) to enhanced phase transfer ratio, to significantly increase the recovery of hydrophobic complex of vanadium with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. A multivariate technique was applied to evaluate the important extraction parameters, which plays important role for optimum recovery of the targeted analyte by proposed extraction method. Multivariate techniques such as (factorial design and central composite design) were applied to screening out the most significant extraction parameters and optimized them. Under optimized extraction conditions, limit of detection and enhancement factor were found to be 0.01 µg L-1 and 64.6, respectively. The relative standard deviation for the determination of trace level vanadium at 0.32 µg L-1 concentration, was achieved to be <3.0% (n = 10). Validity and accuracy of the proposed extraction method was checked by analysis of certified reference materials of Canadian lake water and tomato leaves with % age recovery >98%. The eutectic solvent extraction method was successfully applied for the determination of the trace level vanadium in real water samples of different sources and acid digested food samples, collected from different locations of Tokat city, Turkey.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Vanádio/análise , Água/química , Canadá , Análise de Alimentos , Grafite/química , Magnetismo , Solventes/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122301, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678707

RESUMO

The formation of the dynamic membrane (DM) in an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating food waste was, previously, found to be beneficial to the stable performance of an anaerobic digestion system. This study examines the effect of shear velocity and feed concentration on the performance and microbial community of an AnDMBR treating food waste. The shear velocity was varied from 0.04 to 1.74 m/h, using three different feed concentrations (50, 80, and 100 g-COD/L). The highest average methane production rate of 2.6 L-CH4/L/d was achieved at a feed concentration and shear velocity of 100-g COD/L and 0.34 m/h, respectively. Increasing shear velocity, within certain limits, is beneficial to AnDMBR systems, promoting better mixing, substrate-biomass interactions, and DM layer formation. Methanosarcina flavescens proliferated (69%) at high shear velocities when acetic acid was the major volatile fatty acid. The abundance ratio between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes showed a linear relationship to methanogenic performance.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Alimentos , Membranas , Metano
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122351, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708386

RESUMO

This study investigates the prospective of utilizing kitchen wastewater and food wastes, biofuels industry byproducts as alternative water and carbon sources. Kitchen wastewater did not impede cellular growth rate of the evolved Phaeodactylum strain E70, which indicates its potential as an alternative to freshwater resources. Among the organic wastes assessed, food waste hydrolysate significantly increased cell growth. Supplement of crude glycerol in cultivation medium enhances the total fatty acid content. Mixed food waste hydrolysate and crude glycerol remarkably increased both the cell density and total fatty acid content. Also, the supplement of butylated hydroxytoluene alleviated the oxidative stress induced by impurities in organic wastes and concomitantly increased microalgal total fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids content. The experimental results reported in this study show that a waste-based biorefinery could lead to utilization of organic waste resources for the efficient production of value-added products.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Entorses e Distensões , Biocombustíveis , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Alimentos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109830, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733477

RESUMO

This study aims to enhance hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion of corn cob (CC) by using food waste (FW) pretreatment. FW, which tends to be acidification in fermentation, was applied in this process as an acid-like agent to accelerate lignocellulose hydrolysis, aiming to promote methane yield in further digestion process. The effect of FW pretreatment on pH, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), cellulose/hemicellulose contents and cellulose crystallinity are specially focused. FW:CC = 1:3 based on volatile solid (VS) was found to be the optimal mixing ratio in pretreatment and its hydrolysis efficiency was 28% higher than the control group. An increase of 13.2% in cellulose reduction and a decrease of 6.7% in cellulose crystallinity was achieved at this ratio. Supplementation of FW increased VFA concentrations in slurry mixture that directly change the activities of enzymes and microorganisms. In the stage of methane production, the digester A3 (FW:CC = 1:6 based on VS) with higher hydrolysis efficiency presented the best performance in methane production with a specific methane yield of 401.6 mL/g·VS, due to the recovery of the pH in this digester to the optimal pH range for methanogens' metabolism (pH 6.3-7.2). Kinetics studies of cellulose/hemicellulose degradation indicated that the pretreatment of FW could improve the degradation of cellulose. Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (3DEEM) results further confirmed that FW play an important role in lignocellulose hydrolysis. In addition, variations of lignocellulosic textures during the pretreatment were also cleared by using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Hidrólise , Lignina , Metano , Zea mays
10.
J Dent Hyg ; 93(6): 42-50, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882560

RESUMO

Purpose. To determine the association of eating competence and Mediterranean diet adherence with oral health and to examine if they lessen any impact of food insecurity on oral health of SNAP-eligible persons.Methods. Free clinic patrons (n=93) in Pennsylvania evaluated oral health nutrition education via an online survey. The Satter Eating Competence Inventory, Mediterranean diet and USDA Food Security scores were compared to tested measures of oral health as assessed by self-report.Results. Respondents noted food insecurity (33%), food selection (32%), and oral health problems that interfered with life satisfaction (30%), and unafforded dental care (60%). Mediterranean diet adherence was associated with annual dental visits (82% vs. 46%, p=.026). Competent eaters had greater food security and less frequently reported oral health issues interfering with life satisfaction (13% vs. 43%; p=.002) or avoiding particular foods (18% vs 45%; p=.006). These relationships remained significant controlling for low-income (p=.008, p=.006 respectively) but not when controlling for food security.Conclusions. Competent eaters had fewer oral health issues except when controlling for food security, a considerable challenge to oral health.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Pobreza
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(12): 5593-5603, 2019 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854632

RESUMO

The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfills is complex; additionally, the waste stored in landfills continues to generate greenhouse gases, odors, and ground water pollutants even during the post-closure stage. Therefore, landfills are considered key fields of urban eco-environmental remediation. In this context, it is crucial to understand the storage, composition, physical, and chemical characteristics of waste, as well as its potential environmental impacts. However, very few studies have discussed these topics in detail. In this work, we focused on the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), which has the highest urbanization rate and population density of all China. The generation, stock, physical components, and key elements of MSW in eleven cities of the GBA were analyzed based on both the scientific literature and statistical data. The main results are as follows:① the total amount of MSW produced by the cities was of 26.4 Tg in 2017, with an average annual increment of 0.8 Tg; moreover, the most used disposal method was the sanitary landfill (58.9% of the total); ② the total amount of MSW disposed in the landfills was equal to 230.1 Tg[including mainly food waste (109.6 Tg), plastic (38.9 Tg), and paper (29.6 Tg)]; ③ between 2001-2017, a total of 50.0 Tg of carbon were input in the landfills in the form MSW, of which 7.1 Tg of carbon were emitted as gas and 1.5 Tg were discharged as leachate; moreover, the total landfill carbon stock was equal to 41.4 Tg. Overall, this study provides fundamental data that can be used to determine the environmental impacts of MSW landfills and implement the eco-environmental remediation of urban landfill sites in the GBA.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos , China , Cidades , Alimentos , Hong Kong , Macau , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(7): 1257-1265, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850877

RESUMO

This work assessed if acid-phase digestion could improve volatile solids (VS) destruction and methane yield when co-digesting municipal sewage sludges (primary and waste activated sludge) and source separated organics (SSO). The SSO was made up of food waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale acid-phase digesters and three laboratory-scale methane-phase digesters were employed in order to determine the impacts of SSO co-digestion with municipal sludges both with and without acid-phase digestion as a pretreatment step. Reactors were operated at 35 °C using volatile solids loading rates of 34.2-44.1 g VS/LR-day for acid-phase digesters and 1.2-2.4 1 g VS/LR-day for methane-phase digesters. Solids retention times ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 day and 20.7 to 23.2 days were employed for acid-phase and methane-phase digesters, respectively. VS destruction ranged from 62% to 67%, with reactors receiving SSO achieving higher VS destruction. Results also show that reactors receiving SSO were able to handle organic loading increases of at least 39% without showing signs of overloading. Microbial community analysis revealed that SSO had a noticeable impact on acid-phase digestion with Megasphaera emerging as the most abundant genus.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Alimentos , Metano
13.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(7): 1338-1346, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850885

RESUMO

Organic waste fractions such as sewage sludge, food waste and manure can be stabilized by anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce renewable energy in the form of biogas. Following AD, the digested solid fraction (digestate) is usually dewatered to reduce the volume before transportation. Post-AD treatments such as the Post-AD thermal hydrolysis process (Post-AD THP) have been developed to improve the dewatering, but the mode of action is not well understood. In this study, samples from 32 commercial full-scale plants were used to assess the impact of Post-AD THP on a broad range of raw materials. Maximum dewatered cake solids after Post-AD THP was predicted by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Post-AD THP changed the moisture distribution of the samples by increasing the free water fraction. A consistent improvement in predicted dewatered cake solids was achieved across the 32 samples tested, on average increasing the dry solids concentration by 87%. A full-scale trial showed that dewatering Post-AD THP digestate at 80 °C improved dewatered cake solids above the predictions by TGA at 35 °C. In conclusion, dewatered cake solids were significantly improved by Post-AD THP, reducing the volume of dewatered cake for disposal.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Hidrólise , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
14.
Br Dent J ; 227(12): 1051-1057, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873264

RESUMO

Objectives The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) have recently updated nutritional guidelines for a reduced sugar intake. With the increased popularity of online health-food bloggers and 'refined-sugar free' recipes, this review looked to analyse recipes from popular online bloggers to validate the veracity of their 'sugar-free' and 'healthy' claims and assess their adherence to recently implemented nutritional guidelines.Method Four bloggers were randomly selected from the Amazon top 10 booklist and their online blogs were consulted for a selection of recipes which were then nutritionally analysed in relation to their sugar and fat content.Results Eighty percent of the recipes analysed contained more fat than a Mars bar and 70% contained more fat than a popular online cake recipe, while 25% of the recipes contained over half of the recommended daily sugar intake as advised by the SACN and the WHO. None of the bloggers analysed used evidence-based approaches for the advice on their blogs.Conclusion Bloggers offer an invaluable platform to disseminate dietary advice to the public; however the recipes in this analysis were not healthy alternatives. The challenge is for government and health organisations to use this platform to promote alternative healthy eating options that align to current national and international guidance.


Assuntos
Blogging , Alimentos , Recomendações Nutricionais
15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(6): 925-931, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of pickled food、fried food and smoked food combined with smoking and alcohol drinking with lung cancer. METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. A total of 1902 cases(24-90 years old) diagnosed in the Union Hospital and First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University and Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region and 2026(23-87 years old) controls matched healthy populaition for age(±3 ages) and gender from January 2006 to December 2013. Unconditional Logistic regression was used to analyze the combined effects and interactions of pickled food, fried food and smoked food with smoking and drinking, and to explore their relationship with the risk of lung cancer. RESULTS: The result of unconditional Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that fried food and smoked food were risk factors of lung cancer. Compare with the people whose fired food intake<3 times/week, the people whose fired food intake ≥3 times/week had a 2. 954-folds increased lung cancer risk(95% CI 2. 065-4. 226). Compare with the people whose smoked food intake<3 times/week, the people whose smoked food intake ≥3 times/week had a 6. 774-folds increased lung cancer risk(95% CI 3. 309-13. 866). The result of combined effect demonstrated that compare with the non-smoking drinker whose food intake score was 0, the smoking drinker whose food intake score was 1 had a 2. 108-folds increased lung cancer risk(95% CI 1. 551-2. 865); compare with the non-smoking drinker whose food intake score was 0, the smoking drinker whose food intake score ≥2 had a 2. 191-folds increased lung cancer risk(95% CI 1. 377-3. 484). The result of interaction analysis demenstrated that intake of two or three kinds of risky food(≥1 time/week) increased the risk of lung cancer(OR = 1. 309, 95% CI 1. 010-1. 696) and it was more dangerous to smokers and drinkers. As for smokers, intake of two or three kinds of risky food was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in an exposure-response manner(Ptrend<0. 001). CONCLUSION: The intake of fried food and smoked food are independent risk factors of lung cancer. In addition, the pickled food, fried food and smoked food have combined effects on smoking and alcohol drinking, and the risk of lung cancer increases when the risk factors are present. The intake of the three kinds of risky food increases the risk of lung cancer in smokers.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Alimentos em Conserva , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumaça , Adulto Jovem
16.
Science ; 366(6465): 581-582, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672887
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122247, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683456

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to utilize the whole food waste in two stages. In the first stage, the carbohydrate and protein fractions of food waste recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis was used to cultivate heterotrophic microalgae, resulting in biomass yield of 0.346 ±â€¯0.09 g/gsugars and lipid yield of 0.216 ±â€¯0.06 g/gsugars. In the second stage, oil (14.15% w/w) was extracted from food waste after hydrolysis and converted to biodiesel by a two-step transesterification reaction that generated 135.8 g/kgfood waste of fatty acid methyl esters and 13.8 g/kgfood waste of crude glycerol. Finally, crude glycerol obtained from both processes was used at 20 g/L to cultivate heterotrophic microalgae, resulting in a cell dry weight and total lipid concentration of 6.23 g/L and 2.91 g/L, respectively. A total 248.21 g of fatty acid methyl esters were obtained from the 1 kg of food waste through this integrated process.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Eliminação de Resíduos , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Ácidos Graxos , Alimentos
18.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(5): 501-504, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of double-shaft classification and sequential diagnosis and treatment of food impaction. METHODS: A total of 227 patients with food impactionwere subjected to double-shaft classification and subsequently treated by sequential diagnosis and treatment method. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated according to the subjective feelings of patientsat five time points (immediately after treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment). RESULTS: The average scores of patient's subjective perception were 2.00, 1.93, 1.59, 1.20, and 0.98 immediately and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment, with treatment-efficiency values of 87.17%, 81.70%, 73.21%, 55.80%, and 44.59%, respectively. There were differences in scores of patient's subjective perception at each time point (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Double-shaft classification and sequential diagnosis and treatment can effectively guide the treatment of food impaction.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12677-12687, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593445

RESUMO

Full-scale anaerobic digestion processes for organic solid waste are common in Europe but are generally unaffordable in Canada and the United States because of inadequate regulations to restrict cheaper forms of disposal, particularly landfill. We investigated the viability of solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) as an alternative that reduces the costs of waste pretreatment and subsequent wastewater treatment. A laboratory SS-AD digester, comprising six 10 L leach beds and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating the leachate, was operated continuously for 88 weeks, with a mass balance based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 100 ± 2% (CODout/CODin). The feed was a mixture of fibers (cardboard, boxboard, newsprint, and fine paper) with varying amounts of food waste added. The process remained stable throughout. The addition of food waste caused a synergistic effect, raising methane production from the fiber mixture from a low of 52.7 L kg-1 COD fibersadded at no food waste, to 152 L kg-1 COD fibersadded at 29% food waste, an increase of 190%. Substrate COD destruction efficiency reached 65%, and the methane yield reached 225 L kg-1 CODadded at 29% food waste on a COD basis, with a solids retention time of 42 days. This performance was similar to that of a completely stirred tank reactor digesting similar wastes, but with much lower energy input. Multiple factors likely contributed to the enhanced fiber destruction, including the action of hydrolytic enzymes derived from fresh food waste and continuous leachate recirculation between leach beds of different ages.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Canadá , Europa (Continente) , Alimentos , Aditivos Alimentares , Metano , Esgotos
20.
Lancet ; 394(10204): 1140-1141, 2019 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571598
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