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1.
Pharm Res ; 36(11): 155, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of food on gastric pH and the ability of over the counter betaine hydrochloride (BHCl) acid to reacidify gastric pH after food-induced elevations in gastric pH. METHODS: This open-label cross over clinical study (NCT02758015) included 9 subjects who were randomly assigned to one of 16 possible, 4-period cross-over sequences to determine the impact and relationship of food and gastric pH with acid supplementation. Subjects were administered various doses (1500 mg, 3000 mg and 4500 mg) of betaine hydrochloride (BHCl) to determine the ability of acid supplementation to reacidify gastric pH after the elevation of gastric pH caused by the ingestion of food. RESULTS: Following the administration of food and the resulting elevation in gastric pH, time to return to baseline gastric pH levels without acid supplementation was 49.7 ± 14.0 min. Administering 4500 mg of BHCl acid in capsules was able to reacidify gastric pH levels back to baseline following the administration of food in approximately 17.3 ± 5.9 min. AUCpH of each treatment were similar and not statistically different. Mean max pH following the administration of food was 3.20 ± 0.55. CONCLUSION: The ability of food to elevate and maintain gastric pH levels in the presence of acid supplementation was made evident throughout the study. A 4500 mg dose of BHCl was required to reacidify gastric pH after the administration of food. This study details the difficulty faced by clinicians in dosing a poorly soluble, weakly basic drug to patients receiving acid reducing agents where administration with food is recommended to avoid gastric side effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02758015.


Assuntos
Betaína/uso terapêutico , Alimentos , Absorção Gástrica , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Interações Alimento-Droga , Determinação da Acidez Gástrica , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 73, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455333

RESUMO

The potential effects of dishware size on energy intake are unclear, as many previous studies have been of low methodological quality. A newly published paper by Kosite et al. (IJBNPA 10.1186/s12966-019-0826-1, 2019) reports findings from a rigorous, pre-registered investigation of the effects of manipulating plate size on total energy intake within a single eating occasion. This Editorial considers the implications of these new findings in light of previous evidence pertaining to the efficacy of behavioral nudges in particular, and in relation to contextual drivers of food consumption more generally. We conclude that the potential impact of behavioral nudges may have been exaggerated in the past, and call for future high-quality randomized controlled trials to establish whether reducing dishware size and other behavioral nudges might offer an effective complement to more comprehensive, multi-level interventions to reduce overconsumption of foods and beverages at a population-level.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Bebidas , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Humanos
3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2169-2197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the gut microbiota play a positive role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: This study aims to elucidate the "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis and to provide guidance for prevention and intervention in CRC. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from their inceptions to August 2018, and 75 articles and 25 conference abstracts were included and analysed after identification and screening. RESULTS: The concentrations of SCFAs in CRC patients and individuals with a high risk of CRC were higher than those in healthy individuals. The protective mechanism of SCFAs against CRC has been described in three aspects: epigenetics, immunology and molecular signalling pathways. Many food and plant extracts that were fermented by microorganisms produced SCFAs that play positive roles with preventive and therapeutic effects on CRC. The "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis was constructed by summarizing the pertinent literature. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the basic research and practical application of SCFAs by assessing the protective effect of SCFAs on CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Alimentos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121848, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377513

RESUMO

Butyrate is an important precursor for fine chemicals and biofuels. The aim of this study is to investigate butyrate production as affected by transition metal addition of food waste fermentation including, nickel, Raney nickel and copper particles. Performance of fermentation showed nickel particles achieved the highest butyrate concentration, 7.3 g/L, which was 38.5% higher than that in the control trial. Raney nickel also showed similar effect on the enhancement of butyrate production. However, increased dosage of transition metal particle addition led to decreased butyrate production. The theoretical link between metal-assisted dark fermentation and butyrate production was tentatively explored. Redox potential affected by nickel addition was assumed to be an essential factor for butyrate production. Microbial community analysis found Clostridium sensu stricto 11 may be the dominant functional species for butyrate production. The study demonstrates that development on transition metal catalyst may contribute to waste biorefinery for added value products/energy production.


Assuntos
Butiratos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Alimentos , Elementos de Transição/farmacologia , Clostridium/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121849, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387051

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been widely applied as an economic option for food waste (FW) treatment. In this study, the group treated with ethanol pre-fermentation (EP) for 12 h (EP12) exhibited the highest cumulative biogas yield (206 mL/g-volatile solid) during AD process and therefore it was used to illuminate the underlying metabolic processes of AD with EP. Carbon isotope labeled glucose was supplemented to FW substrate, and the EP process was found to alleviate the acidification inhibition with conducting extremely high carbon flux towards ethanol formation (43.7%). Then an efficient acetogenesis phase was also observed in EP12 group, because of high carbon conversion rate from ethanol to acetate. Overall, higher carbon conversion rate to methane (90.1%) during methanogenesis was found in the AD system with EP than in the control experiment (80.3%). Thus, we quantitatively confirmed that EP affects the AD metabolism of FW in terms of carbon flow distribution.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Metano/biossíntese , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Isótopos de Carbono , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Marcação por Isótopo
6.
Arerugi ; 68(7): 851-856, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess the safety of a three-level stepwise oral food challenge (OFC) in patients with peanut allergy. METHODS: This retrospective analysis reviewed laboratory test results and food allergy histories (obtained from medical records) of participants who underwent OFC using peanut butter for the first time at Miyagi Children's Hospital between January 2015 and December 2017. Total food dose was classified as follows: step 1, 0.1 g peanut butter; step 2, 0.5g peanut butter; and step 3, 3g peanut butter. RESULTS: A total of 114 participants were included. OFC-positive rates were 52% (step 1), 35% (step 2), and 20% (step 3). Of the 41 OFC-positive participants, 1 required an intramuscular adrenaline injection during step 3. Peanut allergy history rates and peanut- and Ara h 2-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) titers were significantly higher during the low-dose step. CONCLUSION: The three-level stepwise OFC with peanut butter is safe for patients with peanut allergy, as indicated by peanut- and Ara h 2-sIgE titers.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/diagnóstico , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Arachis , Criança , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Waste Manag ; 96: 57-64, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376970

RESUMO

The aviation industry generates a significant amount of comingle waste. Nowadays, companies are making efforts to enhance waste management and reduce waste generation. In order to improve present practices and implement a proper waste management system, the quantities, materials, and typology of waste generated need to be studied. A total of 145 airplanes were analysed. We differentiated 5 strips of duration and identified 4 different generation sources within the cabin associated to the business and tourist passenger classes. We classified and characterized the waste into 20 different materials. Results provide a detailed, representative and adapted study of the catering waste generated in the aviation industry. The characterization, which allows distinguishing between manipulated and unmanipulated materials, aims at providing useful information to reduce the generation of waste. The analysis performed in the present study shows that the flying distance increases the waste generation, as more food is served. It also shows that organic matter, paper/cardboard and packaging are the dominant materials in the waste generated in flights. The results of the characterizations obtained allow making some recommendations. The use of bi-compartmentalized waste trolleys to separate on-board recyclable materials from the rest is desirable to obtain a clean recoverable waste stream. Supressing unpopular food from menus, identified analysing the leftovers, could also reduce the amount of waste generated. (This characterization study is part of the European project LIFE + Zero Cabin Waste.). Changes in the CE 1069/2009 regulation would allow more waste to be recycled instead of landfilled. Ultimately, the information obtained from this study will be used to design a more sustainable waste management system.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Aeronaves , Alimentos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
8.
Waste Manag ; 98: 14-20, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421485

RESUMO

Food waste is a pressing issue that imposes economic, social and environmental impacts on both developing and developed countries. This study analyzes quantitatively and qualitatively the generated food waste at various food outlets of a university campus in Qatar. It is a fundamental step to manage the issue of food waste from educational institutes. The investigation comprised four stages: screening, sampling, surveying, and synthesis. Food waste generation at the sampled locations was estimated at 329.5 kg/day or 80 t/year. Based on per sales estimates, total food waste was 980 g/sale and 757 g/sale at the student male and female housing complexes, respectively, equating to roughly one wasted meal for each sold meal. The majority of this waste was avoidable waste and the root cause for the excessive food waste generation was overproduction rather than consumer wastage. The study found that the main food provider, who primarily serves buffet style meals, lacks the proper tools to measure food waste generated at their cafeterias. Past experience was the primary tool to support the company's demand management estimation which has proven unsuccessful and highlights the need to not only educate the consumer but also food providers. Possible treatments routes are discussed based on food waste characterization findings.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Alimentos , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Catar , Universidades
9.
Waste Manag ; 98: 151-159, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446255

RESUMO

Approximately one quarter of the food supplied in the world is wasted across the food supply chain. Almost half of this amount is related to household food waste, which results from mis-management of consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the consumer food management behavior in order to reduce food waste. Survey data were gathered among 405 Iranian respondents who were responsible for food preparation in their households and were aged from 15 to 64 years old, by using an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB). In addition to measuring the constructs of planned behavior theory, the feeling of guilt construct was incorporated to the model. The extended model was derived and examined through structural equation modeling (SEM). Results showed the usefulness of using the extended model of planned behavior in predicting intention to reduce food waste and food consumption management. Moreover, attitude, perceived behavioral control, feeling of guilt, subjective norm and intention of not wasting food were the drivers of managing food consumption and avoiding food waste. Besides, results showed that intention to reduce household food waste is predictable by attitude, subjective norm and feelings of guilt constructs. At the end, implications of the study for changing consumers' food management behavior are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos , Atitude , Intenção , Irã (Geográfico) , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Waste Manag ; 97: 27-37, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447024

RESUMO

The reasons for the acidification problem affecting Food Waste (FW) anaerobic digestion were explored, combining the outcomes of microbiological data (FISH and CARD-FISH) and process modelling, based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model n°1 (ADM1). Long term semi continuous experiments were carried out, both with sole FW and with Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) as a co-substrate, at varying operational conditions (0.8-2.2 g VS L-1 d-1) and FW / WAS ratios. Acidification was observed along FW mono-digestion, making it necessary to buffer the digesters; ADM1 modelling and experimental results suggested that this phenomenon was due to the methanogenic activity decline, most likely related to a deficiency in trace elements. WAS addition, even at proportions as low as 10% of the organic load, settled the acidification issue; this ability was related to the promotion of the methanogenic activity and the consequent enhancement of acetate consumption, rather than to WAS buffering capacity. The ability of the ADM1 to model processes affected by low microbial activity, such as FW mono-digestion, was also assessed. It was observed that the ADM1 was only adequate for digestions with a high activity level for both bacteria and methanogens (FISH/CARD-FISH ratio preferably >0.8) and, under these conditions, the model was able to correctly predict the relative abundance of both microbial populations, extrapolated from FISH analysis.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Alimentos , Metano , Pepsina A
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121698, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260933

RESUMO

This work proposes a new treatment approach involving both food waste disposal and sewerage treatment called MOWFAST i.e. Municipal Organic Waste management by combined Food waste disposal and Sewerage Treatment. MOWFAST involves mixing of food waste directly with raw sewage instead of separate addition to sludge and their combined anaerobic digestion (AD). Compared to conventional sludge digestion, MOWFAST exhibited better digestion capability and allowed a greater degradation of organic material along with higher production of methanogenic-favourable products from the beginning of digestion. This resulted in producing higher specific methane yields (7.86 LCH4/kg VSadded versus 0.95 LCH4/kg VSadded) and 1.4-fold higher cumulative methane yield over sludge AD. Furthermore, compared with conventional food waste-sludge co-digestion, MOWFAST gave higher solubilization of organic material (0.82 g sCOD/g VSadded versus 0.23 g sCOD/g VSadded) and specific methane yields (7.86 LCH4/kg VSadded versus 3.2 LCH4/kg VSadded). This proves its feasibility for digestion and methane generation potential.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano/biossíntese
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16243, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261587

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and pathological findings. EoE is treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), topical steroids, and elimination diet-reintroduction therapy. After remission is achieved with the elimination diet, foods can be reintroduced sequentially to identify specific food triggers; however, this reintroduction method was not previously standardized. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 12-year-old girl presented to our hospital with a 3-year history of epigastric pain. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linear furrows, esophageal rings, white exudates, and pallor throughout the esophagus. Histopathological findings revealed eosinophilic infiltration >15 eos/hpf on esophageal biopsy. There were no obvious abnormal findings in the stomach and duodenum. DIAGNOSES: EoE INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES:: Because PPI was ineffective, we proposed a 6-food-group elimination diet (SFGED) and reintroduction therapy for EoE, which was initially planned out over a 6-week interval. However, a 5-day interval of SFGED and reintroduction therapy was performed instead. The treatment was effective and causative food antigens (egg and nuts) were identified. Since her symptoms recovered following short-term treatment, the nutritional impact was minimized, as was the duration of her hospitalization. Consequently, the patient's quality of life was well-preserved. LESSONS: SFGED and reintroduction therapy for EoE may be effective even for short-term treatments involving 5-day intervals.


Assuntos
Esofagite Eosinofílica/dietoterapia , Alimentos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(4): 366-372, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency, duration and nature of unhealthy marketing during the highest-rating sporting event in Australia in 2017. METHODS: A content analysis of the 2017 Australian Football League (AFL) Grand Final television broadcast identified episodes of unhealthy food and sugary drink, alcohol and gambling marketing (and pro-health marketing as a comparison). RESULTS: There were 559 unhealthy marketing episodes (47 minutes 17 seconds). Most (81%) were for unhealthy food and sugary drink products, while alcohol (9%) and gambling (10%) were less frequent. The total duration of unhealthy marketing was delivered primarily via fixed advertising (55%), dynamic advertising (32%) and branded objects (11%). For unhealthy food and sugary drinks, at least one episode was visible 25% of the time. For each of alcohol and gambling, at least one episode was visible 4% of the time. Unhealthy food and sugary drink marketing peaked in Quarter 2. Pro-health marketing was limited, with 26 episodes (2 minutes 59 seconds). CONCLUSIONS: The 2017 AFL Grand Final broadcast featured a high frequency and extensive duration of unhealthy marketing, especially for unhealthy food and sugary drink brands. Implications for public health: Findings strengthen evidence supporting calls to increase regulation of sport sponsorship by unhealthy brands.


Assuntos
Publicidade como Assunto , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Apoio Financeiro , Jogo de Azar , Marketing/economia , Esportes/economia , Televisão , Austrália , Alimentos , Futebol Americano , Humanos , Marketing/métodos , Futebol
14.
Codas ; 31(3): e20180080, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the self-perception of the food conditions of elderly users of dental prosthesis, in order to verify the interference that dental prosthesis has in their feeding. METHODS: The present study counted with 60 elderly, participants of the Centro de Convivência Nair Ventorin Gurgacz (Community Center), aged between 60 and 88 years old. All participants answered to a questionnaire elaborated by the researchers and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). RESULTS: The elderly who participated in this study, mostly women, used a bimaxillary removable prosthesis for over 30 years; although they classified their nutrition as "good" and did not present preference for specific food consistency, they frequently felt pain while chewing. The average score of the GOHAI was 29.73, considered "low", the index dimension with worst score was physical function, that includes eating, speaking and swallowing. No relation was observed between time of use of dental prosthesis, age and the GOHAI scores. CONCLUSION: The elderly rarely complaint about discomfort or embarrassment on feeding, however, they present an average lower than expected in the GOHAI index, which indicates that, although they do not report it, many deteriorations, that seem to be natural may be happening and may be the cause of worst quality of life.


Assuntos
Prótese Dentária/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Deglutição/fisiologia , Prótese Dentária/efeitos adversos , Prótese Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Mastigação/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Planta ; 250(3): 1005-1010, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290030

RESUMO

In her 1929 essay A Room of One's Own, Virginia Wolf famously wrote, "One cannot think well, love well, sleep well, if one has not dined well." While this popular quote is perhaps not the most inspiring, it is an elegant reminder that food and the cultural practices surrounding food are paramount for our wellbeing. However, in our quest to feed a growing global population, we have become focused on increasing the production of a few staple crops and overlooked hundreds or thousands of locally and regionally important crops that may represent the future of agriculture. The growing interest in identifying and developing promising new crops and novel food sources prompted the 1st Cologne Conference on Food for Future, which took place between the 5 and 7th of September 2018 at the Rautenstrauch-Joest museum in Cologne, Germany. It offered a unique platform for researchers, journalists, politicians, and entrepreneurs to present and discuss their views, visions, and concerns on the topics of Food Security. This interdisciplinary meeting acted as a stage to cover diverse aspects of crop science, food research, and food production in the context of global food and nutrition security. Three sessions accommodated scientific contributions on the topics of "Orphan Crops", "Functional food", and "Innovative food sources and production systems", and two public events (a public lecture and a plenary discussion) engaged the citizens with informative discussions on relevant and mediatic topics. With delegates from Africa, Europe, and the United States of America, the conference aimed at building bridges between different communities through scientific exchange.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Congressos como Assunto , Produção Agrícola , Alimentos , Previsões
17.
Waste Manag ; 94: 153-164, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279391

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to measure the food waste that occurs in Dutch households through a new, combined approach. The methods used were a sorting analysis of solid household waste from 130 households in 13 municipalities and a consumer survey given to 763 respondents. An estimation survey on liquid waste was given to 1105 respondents via a phone app. According to the consumer survey, consumers throw away 21.2 kg of food (solid and liquid) per person, per year. This appears to be an underestimation. The main part, 60.2%, is discarded via household waste, 29.6% goes down the sink or toilet and 10.2% is thrown away via other pathways. The sorting analysis shows that solid food waste (including sauces, fats and dairy products) via household waste amounts to 30.4 kilo per person, per year. Based on the distribution across the various pathways, it is calculated that 10.8 kg of solid food is wasted via other pathways. Together, this was 41.2 kg per person in 2016 (less than the 48 kg in 2010 and 47 kg in 2013). This decrease is not significant. Solid food waste accounts for 13.0% of all food purchased. The most wasted solid foods are bread (22%), dairy products (17%), vegetables (14%), fruit (12%) and meat (7%) ( See Table 1). A new method is used to estimate liquid waste via sinks and toilets; this waste amounts to 57.3 L per person, per year: 50.7 L of beverages (including milk) and 6.6 L of thick liquids. The waste volumes for coffee and tea (30.7 L) and milk (10 L) are large.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Verduras , Bebidas , Laticínios , Frutas , Resíduos Sólidos
18.
Waste Manag ; 95: 259-270, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351611

RESUMO

Great effort is invested in mapping the extent of household food waste and its main determinants. However, food waste valuation remains a challenging task. Valuation methods can be divided roughly into objective measurements that are based on physical waste surveys, and subjective self-assessments that are based on diaries or questionnaires. Self-assessment methods have been more popular than food waste measurement because they are less costly. The goal of this paper is to empirically test whether self-assessments can accurately reflect objective measurement. To answer this question, we implemented a hybrid valuation approach by integrating and comparing three methods: a self-assessment questionnaire, a physical waste survey, and a food expenditure survey. Self-assessments slightly underestimated measured food waste proportion (13.7% vs. 16.3%, respectively). The results also show a positive, yet, not very strong correlation between the measures and the self-assessments of unconsumed and partly consumed avoidable food waste in most food categories. Self-assessments of monetary losses were €42.07 per household per month on average, overestimating calculated losses of €25.74 on average. Our findings question the validity of self-assessments. The current paper demonstrates the questionable nature of the implicit assumption that self-assessment reflects the true level of food waste and suggests a rigorous method for exploring this relation.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Autoavaliação , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Waste Manag ; 95: 432-439, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351629

RESUMO

High-solids anaerobic co-digestion (HS-AcD) has the potential to recover energy and reduce environmental impacts of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and waste activated sludge. We investigated the impact of substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratios, alkalinity sources (sodium bicarbonate and oyster shells), co-substrate mixing ratios and inoculum acclimation on HS-AcD of food waste, yard waste, and waste activated sludge using batch studies. Long-term HS-AcD performance was evaluated under the optimal conditions through a semi-continuous biodigester study with leachate recirculation. The digester with S/I = 1 using a mixture of crushed oyster shells and sodium bicarbonate as alkalinity sources had the highest methane yields (183 mL CH4/g VS). Addition of waste activated sludge to food waste and yard waste alleviated acidification (pH 6.86 ±â€¯0.12) during the start-up period, which and improved digester stability. Mixtures with FW/YW/WAS = 0.8:1.7:0.5 had higher methane yields (134 ±â€¯15 mL CH4/gVS) than mixtures with FW/YW/WAS = 1:1:1, but required a longer time (10 days) for self-recovery from volatile fatty acid inhibition. The use of an acclimated inoculum eliminated the lag time during start-up and produced 38% higher methane yield. In the semi-continuous biodigester, an average volatile solids reduction of 38% and methane yield of 186 mL/gVS was achieved. Improved performance in the semi-continuous biodigester compared with batch reactors was likely due to leachate recirculation, which can improve mass transfer of substrates to the microbial community. Digestate produced from HS-AcD of waste organics had a 1.7-2.3 fold higher nitrogen, similar phosphorous and 0.2-0.3 fold lower potassium content than commercially available bioorganic fertilizer.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Alimentos , Metano
20.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(2): 351-361, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013144

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: to relate pregestational nutritional status, maternal age and number of pregnancies to the distribution of macronutrients and micronutrients according to the type of processing offoods consumed by high-risk pregnant women. Methods: a retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out with data from medical records of 200 pregnant women served by a public outpatient clinic in Rio Grande do Sul from 2014 to 2016. Results: the mean percentages of lipids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and sodium intake were higher among ultra-processed foods. There was a significant inverse correlation between maternal age and total calorie intake (p=0.003) and percentage of carbohydrates (p=0.005) and proteins (p=0.037) from ultra-processed foods. There was also a significant association between pregestational nutritional status and total calorie intake (p=0.018) and percentage of carbohydrates (p=0.048) from ultra-processed foods. Conclusions: the mean percentages of lipids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and sodium intake were higher among ultra-processed foods. It was observed that the older the maternal age of high-risk pregnant women, the lower the intake of total calories and percentages of carbohydrates and proteins from ultra-processed foods. It was also observed that pregestational nutritional status was significantly associated with the intake of total calories and percentage of carbohydrates from ultra-processed foods.


Resumo Objetivos: relacionar o estado nutricional pré-gestacional, a idade materna e o número de gestações com a distribuição de macronutrientes e micronutrientes conforme o tipo de processamento dos alimentos consumidos por gestantes de alto risco. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo transversal, realizado a partir de dados de prontuários de 200 gestantes atendidas em um ambulatório público do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de 2014 a 2016. Resultados: a média de consumo em percentuais de lipídios, ácidos graxos monoinsaturados, poli-insaturados e sódio foi maior entre os alimentos ultraprocessados. Observou-se correlação significativamente inversa entre a idade materna e o consumo de calorias totais (p=0,003), percentuais de carboidratos (p=0,005) e proteínas (p=0,037) provenientes de alimentos ultraprocessados. Verificou-se também associação significativa entre o estado nutricional pré-gestacional e o consumo de calorias totais (p=0,018) e percentual de carboidrato (p=0,048) provenientes de alimentos ultraprocessados. Conclusões: a média de consumo em percentuais de lipídios, ácidos graxos monoinsaturados, poli-insaturados e sódio foi maior entre os alimentos ultraprocessados, verificou-se que quanto maior a idade materna da gestante de alto risco, menor é o consumo de calorias totais, percentuais de carboidratos e proteínas, oriundos dos alimentos ultraprocessados e identificou-se também que o estado nutricional pré-gestacional possui associação significativa com o consumo de calorias totais e percentual de carboidrato provenientes de alimentos ultraprocessados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Nutrição Pré-Natal , Comportamento Alimentar , Brasil , Alimentos , Registros Médicos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idade Materna , Micronutrientes , Saúde Materna
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