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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252143, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364526

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of non-essential heavy metals which is released into environment naturally or anthropogenically. It is highly persistent toxic metals that are exceptionally distressing industrial and agriculture activities by contaminating soil, water and food. Its long-duration endurance in soil and water results in accumulation and uptake into plants, leading to the food chain. This becomes a serious global problem threatening humans and animals as food chain components. Living organisms, especially humans, are exposed to Cd through plants as one of the main vegetative food sources. This review paper is concentrated on the symptoms of the plants affected by Cd toxicity. The absorption of Cd triggers several seen and unseen symptoms by polluted plants such as stunted growth, chlorosis, necrosis and wilting. Apart from that, factors that affect the uptake and translocation of Cd in plants are elaborated to understand the mechanism that contributes to its accumulation. By insight of Cd accumulation, this review also discussed the phytoremediation techniques-phytoextraction, phytostimulation, phytostabilization, phytovolatization and rhizofiltration in bioremediating the Cd.


O cádmio (Cd) é um dos metais pesados ​​não essenciais que é liberado no meio ambiente de forma natural ou antropogênica. São metais tóxicos altamente persistentes que prejudicam excepcionalmente as atividades industriais e agrícolas, contaminando o solo, a água e os alimentos. Sua resistência de longa duração no solo e na água resulta em acúmulo e absorção pelas plantas, levando à cadeia alimentar. Isso se torna um sério problema global que ameaça humanos e animais como componentes da cadeia alimentar. Os organismos vivos, principalmente os humanos, são expostos ao Cd através das plantas como uma das principais fontes de alimento vegetativo. Este artigo de revisão concentra-se nos sintomas das plantas afetadas pela toxicidade do Cd. A absorção de Cd desencadeia vários sintomas visíveis e invisíveis por plantas poluídas, como crescimento atrofiado, clorose, necrose e murcha. Além disso, são elaborados fatores que afetam a absorção e translocação de Cd nas plantas para entender o mecanismo que contribui para o seu acúmulo. A partir do conhecimento do acúmulo de Cd, esta revisão também discutiu as técnicas de fitorremediação - fitoextração, fitoestimulação, fitoestabilização, fitovolatização e rizofiltração na biorremediação do Cd.


Assuntos
Plantas/toxicidade , Cádmio , Metais Pesados , Alimentos/toxicidade
2.
Food Chem ; 399: 133968, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027813

RESUMO

Carbohydrates, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, are widely distributed in food resources. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), a soft ionization technique, is extensively applied in carbohydrates analysis. MALDI mass spectrometers are capable to generate spectra rapidly and record mass profiles or fingerprints from foods, usually with simple sample preparation or pretreatment. Therefore, this review described recent research progress on MALDI mass spectrometry (MS) detection in food carbohydrates, especially for the improvement of ionization efficiency and their application in structure characterization of polysaccharides from food and edible herbs. Furthermore, the quantitative study and mass spectrometry imaging were also briefly summarized.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Oligossacarídeos , Carboidratos/análise , Alimentos , Oligossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1753, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diets are a leading contributor to obesity, disability and death worldwide. One factor cited as contributing to rises in obesity rates is the pervasive and ubiquitous marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages (F&Bs) across a variety of mediums, such as sport sponsorship at both professional and amateur levels. Despite increased academic attention on the detrimental impacts of sport sponsorship within the obesogenic environment, this has not been matched by legislative action. One explanation may be the way that F&B corporations' sport sponsorship is framed within policy debates. Framing is the deliberate ways in which (often contested) issues are presented in communication. This paper examines how sport sponsorship by F&B corporations is framed through media reports. METHODS: This study employed a mixed methods content and framing analysis. First, we conducted a quantitative newsprint content analysis (n = 234). This then informed and directed a thematic framing analysis of a sub-set of articles (n = 54) that specifically associated sport sponsorship by F&B corporations with obesity and childhood obesity. RESULTS: The findings suggest that two competing frames are evident within newspaper coverage: 1) public health and 2) industry. The public health frame rejects the sponsorship of sport by High in Fat Sugar and Salt (HFSS) product corporations in particular, calling for such sponsorship to be restricted or banned. The industry frame characterises sponsorship of sport as a form of corporate social responsibility, positioning industry as good moral actors and part of the solution to childhood and adult obesity. These frames are evident across other Unhealthy Commodity Industries (UCIs) policy debates. However, the prominence of industry actors within the sample is potentially indicative of their discursive power within this space, particularly with their emphasis on the financial maintenance of sport as well as encouraging physical activity, contributing to the lack of regulatory development of sport sponsorship by F&B corporations. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study are particularly useful for public health organisations who seek regulatory change, as it may provide further insight into countering industry framing practices, raising the salience of regulation of sport sponsorship and thus increasing the likelihood of regulatory development that seeks to improve population health.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Esportes , Adulto , Bebidas , Criança , Alimentos , Humanos , Açúcares
4.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 81(9): 247-252, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118154

RESUMO

Indigenous peoples of the Pacific have seen major shifts in dietary patterns due to foreign colonization, which introduced an array of new foods. Today, foods considered traditional and acculturated are consumed in various extents. However, the definitions and identity of traditional versus acculturated foods has become unclear as many introduced foods have been incorporated into Pacific cultures. The purpose of this study was to capture culturally relevant definitions of traditional, acculturated, and locally grown foods among 10 jurisdictions of the US-Affiliated Pacific (USAP) region with a focus on fruits and vegetables. Questionnaires were used to capture definitions of these terms, and to identify a list of foods (n=121) as traditional, acculturated, and/or locally grown in addition to classify them into food groups (ie, fruit, vegetable, starch, and/or grain). For the most part, definitions of traditional, acculturated, and locally grown were agreed upon by participating USAP jurisdictions, with some supplementary caveats presented by different jurisdictions. More foods were identified as acculturated (n=75) than traditional (n=37). Fruits (n=55) were the most frequent designation and about a third were vegetables (n=44). The majority of the jurisdictions reported growing at least half of the food items. This is the first study to identify and classify foods of the Pacific from the perspective of those indigenous to the USAP region. Understanding these similarities and differences in how food is classified and identified, through the lens of those from the Pacific, is crucial for nutrition education, and understanding what foods are locally grown is important for future sustainability.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Amido , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15350, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097034

RESUMO

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations in Indonesia are increasing over the past few years. After economic productivity, however, the unproductive oil palm trunks are felled and mostly go to waste, especially the inner part of the oil palm trunk (IOPT). There are several modification methods to utilize IOPT, such as impregnation and densification. Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is a common resin used for impregnation in composite industries because it is non-toxic and has excellent physical and mechanical properties but it has never been applied for the impregnation of IOPT. This study aimed to analyze the effect of densification on the physical and mechanical properties of the inner part of oil palm trunk (IOPT) impregnated using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) resin to obtain valuable information regarding the efficient utilization of unproductive oil palm trunks. IOPT was densified and compregnated with compression ratios (CRs) of 20% and 30%. The physical properties (density, moisture content (MC), and water absorption (WA)) and mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and hardness) of the compregnated samples were better than those of the densified samples. The density and mechanical properties at CR 30% were higher than those at CR 20%. The improvements in density, MC, and WA of the compregnated IOPT with CR 30% were 127%, 54%, and 70%, respectively, compared to that in untreated IOPT. Furthermore, improvements in the MOE, MOR, and hardness of the compregnated IOPT with CR 30% were 489%, 379%, and 393%, respectively. The mechanical properties of the compregnated IOPT at CR 20% and 30% increased two- to three-fold from strength class V in control IOPT to strength class III in compregnated IOPT with CR 20% and to strength class II in compregnated IOPT with CR 30%, respectively.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Alimentos , Isocianatos , Água
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078510

RESUMO

The Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI) and its variants have been widely used in public health to measure people's accessibility to healthy food. These indices are purely environmental as they only concern the geographic distribution of food retailers, but fail to include human factors, such as demographics, socio-economy, and mobility, which also shape the food environment. The exclusion of human factors limits the explanatory power of RFEIs in identifying neighborhoods of the greatest concern. In this study, we first proposed a hybrid approach to integrate human and environmental factors into the RFEI. We then demonstrated this approach by incorporating neighborhood commuting patterns into a traditional RFEI: we devised a multi-origin RFEI (MO_RFEI) that allows people to access food from both homes and workplaces, and further an enhanced RFEI (eRFEI) that allows people to access food with different transportation modes. We compared the traditional and proposed RFEIs in a case study of Florida, USA, and found that the eRFEI identified fewer and more clustered underserved populations, allowing policymakers to intervene more effectively. The eRFEI depicts more realistic human shopping behaviors and better represents the food environment. Our study enriches the literature by offering a new and generic approach for assimilating a neighborhood context into food environment measures.


Assuntos
Comércio , Características de Residência , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Meios de Transporte
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078625

RESUMO

The promotion of nutritionally poor food and beverages (F&B) has a proven effect on children's eating preferences and, therefore, plays a significant role in today's childhood obesity epidemic. This study's objective was to assess the prevalence (exposure) and context (power) of the F&B cues in influencer content across three platforms: TikTok, YouTube, and Instagram. The selected influencers were popular with adolescents, with a combined total of more than 34 million followers/subscribers. We employed the YouTube Influencer Marketing Protocol from the World Health Organization (WHO) as our basis for coding. We analysed a total of 360 videos/posts and, of these, 24% contained F&B cues, which is equivalent to 18.1 F&B cues/hour. In total, 77% of the cues were not permitted for children's advertising, according to WHO criteria, and this was stable across all platforms, with chocolate and sugary confectionery (23%) as the most frequently featured products. Not-permitted F&B had a four-times higher chance of being branded, a five-times higher chance of being described positively, and received significantly more 'likes'. In 62% of the analysed presentations, the branded product was mentioned, yet only 6% of the content was labelled as advertising. The present analysis delivers further grounds for discussion for policies and regulations of influencer marketing.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Publicidade , Bebidas , Criança , Alimentos , Humanos , Marketing , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15064, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065006

RESUMO

Food systems (FSs) emit ~ 20 GtCO2e/y (~ 35% of global greenhouse gas emissions). This level tends to raise given the expected increases in food demands, which may threaten global climate targets. Through a rapid assessment, evaluating 60+ scenarios based on existing low-emission and carbon sequestration practices, we estimate that intensifying FSs could reduce its emissions from 21.4 to - 2.0 GtCO2e/y and address increasing food demands without relying on carbon offsets (e.g., related to afforestation and reforestation programs). However, given historical trends and regional contexts, a more diverse portfolio of practices, including diet shifts and new-horizon technologies, will be needed to increase the feasibility of achieving net-zero FSs. One likely pathway consists of implementing practices that shift food production to the 30th-percentile of least emission-intensive FSs (~ 45% emissions reduction), sequester carbon at 50% of its potential (~ 5 GtCO2e/y) and adopt diet shifts and new-horizon technologies (~ 6 GtCO2e/y). For a successful transition to happen, the global FSs would, in the next decade (2020s), need to implement cost-effective mitigation practices and technologies, supported by improvements in countries' governance and technical assistance, innovative financial mechanisms and research focused on making affordable technologies in the following two decades (2030-2050). This work provides options and a vision to guide global FSs to achieving net-zero by 2050.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Carbono , Clima , Alimentos , Efeito Estufa
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080901

RESUMO

Nowadays, individuals have very stressful lifestyles, affecting their nutritional habits. In the early stages of life, teenagers begin to exhibit bad habits and inadequate nutrition. Likewise, other people with dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or other conditions may not take food or medicine regularly. Therefore, the ability to monitor could be beneficial for them and for the doctors that can analyze the patterns of eating habits and their correlation with overall health. Many sensors help accurately detect food intake episodes, including electrogastrography, cameras, microphones, and inertial sensors. Accurate detection may provide better control to enable healthy nutrition habits. This paper presents a systematic review of the use of technology for food intake detection, focusing on the different sensors and methodologies used. The search was performed with a Natural Language Processing (NLP) framework that helps screen irrelevant studies while following the PRISMA methodology. It automatically searched and filtered the research studies in different databases, including PubMed, Springer, ACM, IEEE Xplore, MDPI, and Elsevier. Then, the manual analysis selected 30 papers based on the results of the framework for further analysis, which support the interest in using sensors for food intake detection and nutrition assessment. The mainly used sensors are cameras, inertial, and acoustic sensors that handle the recognition of food intake episodes with artificial intelligence techniques. This research identifies the most used sensors and data processing methodologies to detect food intake.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Avaliação Nutricional , Adolescente , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274246, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084101

RESUMO

Most Australian state and territory governments have healthy food provisioning policies targeting availability of unhealthy food at the retail level, and sustainability policies promoting a life-cycle approach to procurement. However, it remains unclear if health and sustainability are important considerations in awarding contracts, and whether these high-level policies are implemented into supplier contracts. A political economy analysis framework has been developed to prospectively identify and explain barriers and enablers to policy implementation. Using food procurement in Queensland and South Australia as case studies, the political economy analysis seeks to understand the structural and contextual factors, bargaining processes, stakeholders, and incentives and ideas surrounding food procurement. It involves a desktop and content analysis of existing policies and food contracts, and key informant interviews with government and industry stakeholders. Participants will be targeted across different departments (e.g. health, environment, treasury) and in varying roles from policy design, contract management and food service, and industry suppliers in different food and drink categories (e.g. meat, packaged foods, beverages, fruit & vegetables). Participants will be recruited using purposive sampling. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts will be undertaken, informed by the political economy analysis framework. The study will identify current food procurement policy implementation barriers and enablers, including why high-level policies aren't embedded into contracts, mechanisms for achieving policy coherence and future opportunities for addressing barriers and incorporating socio-economic, public health and environmental considerations into purchasing practices. Ultimately, the study will achieve impact by informing a whole of government approach to health and the environment by elevating the priority of health and sustainability in procurement (short term), increasing the availability of healthy and sustainable foods (medium term), and improving health and environmental outcomes (long term). To our knowledge this is the first political economy analysis of food procurement in Australia.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Política Nutricional , Austrália , Alimentos , Governo , Humanos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15251, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085304

RESUMO

The eight species of bears world-wide consume a wide variety of diets. Some are specialists with extensive anatomical and physiological adaptations necessary to exploit specific foods or environments [e.g., polar bears (Ursus maritimus), giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), and sloth bears (Melursus ursinus)], while the rest are generalists. Even though ursids evolved from a high-protein carnivore, we hypothesized that all have become low-protein macronutrient omnivores. While this dietary strategy has already been described for polar bears and brown bears (Ursus arctos), a recent study on giant pandas suggested their macronutrient selection was that of the ancestral high-protein carnivore. Consumption of diets with inappropriate macronutrient profiles has been associated with increased energy expenditure, ill health, failed reproduction, and premature death. Consequently, we conducted feeding and preference trials with giant pandas and sloth bears, a termite and ant-feeding specialist. Both giant pandas and sloth bears branched off from the ursid lineage a million or more years before polar bears and brown bears. We found that giant pandas are low-protein, high-carbohydrate omnivores, whereas sloth bears are low-protein, high-fat omnivores. The preference for low protein diets apparently occurred early in the evolution of ursids and may have been critical to their world-wide spread.


Assuntos
Bichos-Preguiça , Ursidae , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Alimentos , Nutrientes
12.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 113, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food literacy is theorised to improve diet quality, nutrition behaviours, social connectedness and food security. The definition and conceptualisation by Vidgen & Gallegos, consisting of 11 theoretical components within the four domains of planning and managing, selecting, preparing and eating, is currently the most highly cited framework. However, a valid and reliable questionnaire is needed to comprehensively measure this conceptualisation. Therefore, this study draws on existing item pools to develop a comprehensive food literacy questionnaire using item response theory. METHODS: Five hundred Australian adults were recruited in Study 1 to refine a food literacy item pool using principal component analysis (PCA) and item response theory (IRT) which involved detailed item analysis on targeting, responsiveness, validity and reliability. Another 500 participants were recruited in Study 2 to replicate item analysis on validity and reliability on the refined item pool, and 250 of these participants re-completed the food literacy questionnaire to determine its test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The PCA saw the 171-item pool reduced to 100-items across 19 statistical components of food literacy. After the thresholds of 26 items were combined, responses to the food literacy questionnaire had ordered thresholds (targeting), acceptable item locations (< -0.01 to + 1.53) and appropriateness of the measurement model (n = 92% expected responses) (responsiveness), met outfit mean-squares MSQ (0.48-1.42) (validity) and had high person, item separation (> 0.99) and test-retest (ICC 2,1 0.55-0.88) scores (reliability). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a 100-item food literacy questionnaire, the IFLQ-19 to comprehensively address the Vidgen & Gallegos theoretical domains and components with good targeting, responsiveness, reliability and validity in a diverse sample of Australian adults.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Austrália , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(9): 570-577, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062244

RESUMO

The World Health Organization recommends economic measures such as taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods and beverages as part of a comprehensive strategy for prevention of noncommunicable diseases. However, progress in adopting these so-called health taxes has been hampered, in part, by different approaches and perceptions of key issues in different sectors of government. Health promotion is the responsibility of health policy-makers, while taxation is the mandate of finance ministries. Thus, strengthening cooperation between health and finance policy-makers is central to the successful adoption and implementation of effective health taxes. In this paper we identify the shared concerns of finance and health policy-makers about health taxes with the aim of enabling more effective cross-sector cooperation towards both additional financing for health systems and changes in unhealthy behaviours. For example, new approaches to supporting health taxation include the growing priority for health-system financing due to the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases, and the need to address the health and economic damage due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. As a result, high-level efforts to achieve progress on health taxes are gaining momentum and represent important progress towards using the combined expertise of health and finance policy-makers.


L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé recommande l'adoption de mesures économiques telles que des taxes sur le tabac, l'alcool ainsi que les boissons et aliments nocifs pour la santé dans le cadre d'une vaste stratégie de prévention des maladies non transmissibles. Cependant, les progrès en la matière ont rencontré des obstacles, notamment en raison de la différence d'approche et de perception des principaux enjeux à divers niveaux du gouvernement. La promotion de la santé relève de la politique sanitaire, tandis que la taxation est la mission du ministère des Finances. Accentuer la coopération entre les responsables de la santé et des finances est donc indispensable à la réussite de l'instauration et de la mise en œuvre de taxes sanitaires efficaces. Dans le présent document, nous identifions les préoccupations partagées tant par les responsables de la santé que par ceux des finances concernant les taxes sanitaires, dans le but d'intensifier la collaboration entre les secteurs. Objectif: débloquer des fonds supplémentaires pour les systèmes de santé et favoriser l'abandon des comportements nuisibles à la santé. Parmi les nouvelles approches de soutien aux taxes sanitaires, citons par exemple une plus grande priorité accordée au financement du système de santé afin de réduire la charge croissante que font peser les maladies non transmissibles, et la nécessité de réparer les dégâts économiques et sanitaires causés par la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019. Ainsi, les efforts visant à développer les taxes sanitaires gagnent du terrain et représentent une avancée considérable vers une valorisation de l'expertise conjointe entre ministère de la Santé et ministère des Finances.


La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda la adopción de medidas económicas como los impuestos sobre el tabaco, el alcohol y los alimentos y bebidas poco saludables como parte de una estrategia global de prevención de las enfermedades no transmisibles. Sin embargo, los avances en la adopción de estos llamados impuestos saludables se han retrasado, en parte, por los diferentes enfoques y percepciones de las cuestiones clave en los distintos sectores del gobierno. La promoción de la salud es competencia de los responsables de formular las políticas sanitarias, mientras que la fiscalidad es el mandato de los ministerios de Hacienda. Por lo tanto, el fortalecimiento de la cooperación entre los responsables de formular las políticas sanitarias y financieras es fundamental para el éxito de la adopción y aplicación de sistemas fiscales sanitarios eficaces. En este documento, se identifican las preocupaciones que comparten los responsables de formular las políticas financieras y sanitarias en relación con los impuestos saludables, con el fin de permitir una cooperación intersectorial más eficaz, tanto en lo que respecta a la financiación adicional de los sistemas sanitarios como a la modificación de los comportamientos poco saludables. Por ejemplo, entre los enfoques nuevos para apoyar la fiscalidad sanitaria se encuentran la creciente prioridad de la financiación de los sistemas sanitarios debido a una mayor carga de enfermedades no transmisibles, y la necesidad de solucionar los daños sanitarios y económicos debidos a la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019. En consecuencia, los esfuerzos de alto nivel para lograr avances en materia de impuestos saludables están cobrando impulso y representan un avance importante hacia el uso de la experiencia combinada de los responsables de formular las políticas sanitarias y financieras.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Bebidas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Alimentos , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Impostos
14.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 102: 233-274, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064294

RESUMO

This chapter aims to address an issue of ancient origins, but more and more topical in a globalized world in which consumers and stakeholders are increasingly aware: the authenticity of food. Foods are systems that can also be very complex, and verifying the correspondence between what is declared and the actual characteristics of the product is often a challenging issue. The complexity of the question we want to answer (is the food authentic?) means that the answer is equally articulated and makes use of many different analytical techniques. This chapter will consider the chemical analyses of foods aimed at guaranteeing their authenticity and will focus on frontier methods that have been developed in recent years to address the need to respond to ever-increasing guarantees of authenticity. Targeted and non-targeted approaches will be considered for verifying the authenticity of foods, through the study of different classes of constituents (proteins, metabolites, lipids, flavors). The numerous approaches available (proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics) and the related analytical techniques (LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR) are first described from a more general point of view, after which their specific application for the purposes of authentication of food is addressed.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Metabolômica , Metabolômica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos
15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 51(4): 574-578, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of prepackaged food consumption on fat intake in 16 provinces of China in 2018. METHODS: Data used in present study was derived from the eleventh round of China Health and Nutrition Survey(CHNS), 17312 residents aged 6 and over were selected and their consumed information of pre-packaged food was collected. The consumption of pre-packaged food and fat intake from pre-packaged food in urban and rural areas, different age groups, different regions and different genders were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The median intake of fat from pre-packaged food among subjects and consumers were 33.6 g/d and 34.7 g/d, respectively.73.5% of the intake of fat from pre-packaged food comes from vegetable oil. CONCLUSION: Vegetable oil was the main source of fat from pre-packaged food for Chinese residents.


Assuntos
Asiáticos , Alimentos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Óleos Vegetais
16.
BMJ ; 378: o2250, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126985
18.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(4, jul-ago): 357-366, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130379

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Estimar la frecuencia con la que se consumen algunos alimentos recomendables y no recomendables du-rante la pandemia por Covid-19 en México, y su asociación con características sociodemográficas y seguridad alimentaria. Material y métodos. Se analizó la Encuesta de Seguimien-to de los Efectos del Covid en el Bienestar de los Hogares Mexicanos (Encovid-19). Se identificaron cuatro grupos con información de la frecuencia de su consumo y se estimaron modelos de regresión logística ajustando por características sociodemográficas y seguridad alimentaria. RESULTADOS: Los niveles socioeconómicos más altos A/B y C se asociaron con una mayor frecuencia de consumo de alimentos recomenda-bles y no recomendables. La inseguridad leve se asoció con un menor consumo de alimentos recomendables, y la inseguridad moderada y severa se asociaron con un menor consumo de todos los grupos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: Comprender la experiencia de la inseguridad alimentaria durante una cri-sis como la pandemia puede indicar la necesidad de incluir grupos de población tradicionalmente no considerados en los programas de apoyo.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quimiocina CCL5 , Alimentos , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(3, may-jun): 280-289, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the behavioral and normative believes factors that might have major influence on the decision to buy packaged foods in urban Mexican families. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in four urban cities of Mexico. Participants responded a self-administered questionnaire (n=3 340) outside of randomly selected supermarkets. A factor analysis was performed to identify what were the main behavioral and normative believes explaining consumers' decision when buying packaged foods. RESULTS: Three factors explained the behavioral beliefs: the quality assessment of packaged foods explained 61% of the variance, products that maintain weight explained 25%, and the emotional experience with foods explained 13%. Three factors explained the normative beliefs: expectations of chil-dren and partner explained 46% of the variance, expectations from the participants' closest friends 23%, and expectation from other family members explained 14%. CONCLUSION: Behavioral and normative beliefs related to assessing the qual-ity of foods and meeting family expectations respectively are the main beliefs factors affecting consumers' packaged food purchase decisions in urban consumers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Supermercados , Estudos Transversais , Alimentos , Humanos , México
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 310: 115221, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058113

RESUMO

Black and low-income neighborhoods tend to have higher concentrations of fast-food restaurants and low produce supply stores. Limited access to and consumption of nutrient-rich foods is associated with poor health outcomes. Given the realities of food access, many members within the Black communities grow food as a strategy of resistance to food apartheid, and for the healing and self-determination that agriculture offers. In this paper, we unpack the history of Black people, agriculture, and land in the United States. In addition to our brief historical review, we conduct a descriptive epidemiologic study of community food-growing spaces, food access, and neighborhood racial composition in present day Philadelphia. We leverage one of the few existing datasets that systematically documents community food-growing locations throughout a major US city. By applying spatial regression techniques, we use conditional autoregressive models to determine if there are spatial associations between Black neighborhoods, poverty, food access, and urban agriculture in Philadelphia. Fully adjusted spatial models showed significant associations between Black neighborhoods and urban agriculture (RR: 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.59) and poverty and urban agriculture (RR: 1.27, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.46). The association between low food access and the presence of urban agriculture was generally increased across neighborhoods with a higher proportion of Black residents. These results show that Philadelphia neighborhoods with higher populations of Black people and neighborhoods with lower incomes, on average, tend to have more community gardens and urban farms. While the garden data is non-temporal and non-causal, one possible explanation for these findings, in alignment with what Philadelphia growers have claimed, is that urban agriculture may be a manifestation of collective agency and community resistance in Black and low-income communities, particularly in neighborhoods with low food access.


Assuntos
Apartheid , Características de Residência , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Philadelphia , Análise Espacial , Estados Unidos
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