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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199457

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Benzopirenos/efeitos adversos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Adutos de DNA/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068047

RESUMO

Adverse food reactions include immune-mediated food allergies and non-immune-mediated intolerances. However, this distinction and the involvement of different pathogenetic mechanisms are often confused. Furthermore, there is a discrepancy between the perceived vs. actual prevalence of immune-mediated food allergies and non-immune reactions to food that are extremely common. The risk of an inappropriate approach to their correct identification can lead to inappropriate diets with severe nutritional deficiencies. This narrative review provides an outline of the pathophysiologic and clinical features of immune and non-immune adverse reactions to food-along with general diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Special emphasis is placed on specific nutritional concerns for each of these conditions from the combined point of view of gastroenterology and immunology, in an attempt to offer a useful tool to practicing physicians in discriminating these diverging disease entities and planning their correct management. We conclude that a correct diagnostic approach and dietary control of both immune- and non-immune-mediated food-induced diseases might minimize the nutritional gaps in these patients, thus helping to improve their quality of life and reduce the economic costs of their management.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Intolerância Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Dietoterapia/efeitos adversos , Dietoterapia/métodos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Intolerância Alimentar/diagnóstico , Intolerância Alimentar/imunologia , Intolerância Alimentar/terapia , Humanos
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 528, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis in children is uncommon with the mode of infection for this rare condition likely being congenital or acquired. While most acquired cases of syphilis in children result from sexual abuse, children can also be infected with syphilis through kissing, breastfeeding, sharing of daily necessities or pre-chewed food. Here, we report a case of acquired secondary syphilis in a child due to consumption of pre-chewed-food and provide a review of the literature on the characteristics of acquired syphilis in preschool children. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old girl presented with erythematous plaques and scales on her head, neck, and thighs as well as flat red papules with a moist, well circumscribed surface covered with a grayish-white film. The grandmother who cared for the girl was in the habit of pre-chewing food before giving it to the girl. The child and grandmother tested positive for RPR. The girl, who was not sexually abused, was diagnosed with acquired secondary syphilis, resulting from the transmission of pre-chewed food from her grandmother. CONCLUSIONS: Our case report and literature review reveal that close contact among family members can result in the transmission of syphilis. We recommend that pre-chewing food should be discouraged by caregivers when caring for their children to avoid disease transmission.


Assuntos
Dermatopatias Bacterianas/etiologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mastigação , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Treponema pallidum/efeitos dos fármacos , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação
5.
Toxicology ; 457: 152809, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965444

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) poses unique challenges in PBTK model development and risk analysis applications. Arsenic metabolism is complex, adequate information to attribute specific metabolites to particular adverse effects in humans is sparse, and measurement of relevant metabolites in biological media can be difficult. Multiple As PBTK models have been published and used or adapted for use in various exposure and risk analysis applications. These applications illustrate the broad utility of PBTK models for exposure and dose-response analysis, particularly for arsenic where multi-pathway, multi-route exposures and multiple toxic effects are of concern. Arsenic PBTK models have been used together with exposure reconstruction and dose-response functions to estimate risk of specific adverse health effects due to drinking water exposure and consumption of specific foodstuffs (e.g. rice, seafood), as well as to derive safe exposure levels and develop consumption advisories. Future refinements to arsenic PBTK models can enhance the confidence in such analyses. Improved estimates for methylation biotransformation parameters based on in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) methods and estimation of interindividual variability in key model parameters for specific toxicologically relevant metabolites are two important areas for consideration.


Assuntos
Arsênio/farmacocinética , Arsênio/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Toxicocinética
6.
Postgrad Med ; 133(7): 760-764, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892616

RESUMO

Background: Food is already recognized as a trigger for migraine, but its mechanism of action has not been fully clarified. There is evidence that they act on the pathogenesis of migraine, interfering with meningeal inflammation, vasodilation and cerebral glucose metabolism.Aim: The aim of this study was to know which plant foods are triggers for migraine and the latency time for the onset of pain.Method: We interviewed patients with migraine and tension-type headache about plant foods that trigger headache and onset time of the headache. We studied 3,935 migraine patients and 1,163 with tension-type headache.Results: There were headaches triggered by plant foods after 90.5 ± 7.9 minutes of ingestion in 40.3% (1,584/3,935) of migraine patients and none with tension-type headache. Headaches triggered by plant foods intake are distributed in the following order of frequency: watermelon (29.5%), passion fruit (3.73%), orange (2.01%), pineapple (1.52%), grape (0.51%), banana (0.46%), cucumber (0.43%), acerola (0.25%) and papaya (0.25%).Conclusions: Many plant foods, especially watermelon, may trigger headache attacks in migraine patients within a few minutes.


Assuntos
Citrullus/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/etiologia , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(4): 30, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929616

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss how to best incorporate oral immunotherapy into your clinical practice based on recent evidence and guidelines, and address controversies. RECENT FINDINGS: Oral immunotherapy is the food immunotherapy treatment with the most literature supporting its use. Recent data from both randomized clinical trials and real-world studies show OIT is especially safe and effective in preschoolers, while avoidance may be less safe than previously thought. OIT guidelines support its use outside of research. Oral immunotherapy can be safely and effectively incorporated into your clinical practice, with careful planning and consideration of scenarios where benefits outweigh risks. Baseline oral food challenges are necessary in clinical trials, but in clinical practice, these are best done when the history is unclear due to resource limitations. There is a role for both regular food and FDA-approved products. Future research should focus on optimizing safety and adherence in the real-world setting.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
8.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809476

RESUMO

Obesity prevalence has been simultaneously increasing with high consumption of large food portion sizes (PS). However, there is scarce information on PS of energy-dense (ED) foods as a potential risk factor of obesity in adolescents. In the present study, we investigate the association between the PS of the most ED foods and body composition. A sample of 1889 adolescents (54.4% females) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional multicenter study (HELENA-CSS) study were included. Most ED foods (e.g., cheese) were selected according to higher fat and/or sugar content and low fiber and water. Linear and ordinal logistic regression models were adjusted for age, physical activity, total energy intake (TEI), and socioeconomic status (SES). Analysis was performed both in those adolescents reporting plausible energy intake according to the approach of Goldberg et al. and in the whole sample. In male plausible reporters, PS from "breakfast cereals" showed a significant and positive association with BMI (ß = 0.012; 0.048). PS from "carbonated soft drinks" in males (OR = 1.001; 95% CI 1.000; 1.002) and "bread and rolls" in females (OR = 1.002; 95% CI 1.000; 1.004) were associated with higher probability of having obesity, while "sweet bakery products" were associated with lower probability of having obesity (OR = 0.996; 95% CI 0.991; 0.999) in females. The present study suggests association between PS of ED foods and obesity in European adolescents. Prospective studies are needed to examine the effect of prolonged exposure to large PS and obesity development.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Tamanho da Porção/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800668

RESUMO

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder of gut-brain interaction, characterised by upper gastrointestinal symptom profiles that differentiate FD from the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although the two conditions often co-exist. Despite food and eating being implicated in FD symptom induction, evidence-based guidance for dietetic management of FD is limited. The aim of this narrative review is to collate the possible mechanisms for eating-induced and food-related symptoms of FD for stratification of dietetic management. Specific carbohydrates, proteins and fats, or foods high in these macronutrients have all been reported as influencing FD symptom induction, with removal of 'trigger' foods or nutrients shown to alleviate symptoms. Food additives and natural food chemicals have also been implicated, but there is a lack of convincing evidence. Emerging evidence suggests the gastrointestinal microbiota is the primary interface between food and symptom induction in FD, and is therefore a research direction that warrants substantial attention. Objective markers of FD, along with more sensitive and specific dietary assessment tools will contribute to progressing towards evidence-based dietetic management of FD.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dispepsia/dietoterapia , Dispepsia/etiologia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670760

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory chronic disease caused by nutrients such as gliadin that induce a TC (T cell)-mediated response in a partially known genetical background in an environment predisposed to inflammation, including viruses and food. Various experimental and clinical observations suggest that multiple agents such as viruses and bacteria have some common, inflammatory pathways predisposing individuals to chronic inflammatory diseases including celiac disease (CD). More recently, a Western diet and lifestyle have been linked to tissue inflammation and increase in chronic inflammatory diseases. In CD, the gliadin protein itself has been shown to be able to induce inflammation. A cooperation between viruses and gliadin is present in vitro and in vivo with common mechanisms to induce inflammation. Nutrients could have also a protective effect on CD, and in fact the anti-inflammatory Mediterranean diet has a protective effect on the development of CD in children. The possible impact of these observations on clinical practice is discussed.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/virologia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Vírus/metabolismo , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gliadina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia
13.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672234

RESUMO

Aspartame is a phenylalanine containing sweetener, added to foods and drinks, which is avoided in phenylketonuria (PKU). However, the amount of phenylalanine provided by aspartame is unidentifiable from food and drinks labels. We performed a cross-sectional online survey aiming to examine the accidental aspartame consumption in PKU. 206 questionnaires (58% female) were completed. 55% of respondents (n = 114) were adults with PKU or their parent/carers and 45% (n = 92) were parents/carers of children with PKU. 74% (n = 152/206) had consumed food/drinks containing aspartame. Repeated accidental aspartame consumption was common and more frequent in children (p < 0.0001). The aspartame containing food/drinks accidentally consumed were fizzy drinks (68%, n = 103/152), fruit squash (40%, n = 61/152), chewing gum (30%, n = 46/152), flavoured water (25%, n = 38/152), ready to drink fruit squash cartons (23%, n = 35/152) and sports drinks (21%, n = 32/152). The main reasons described for accidental consumption, were manufacturers' changing recipes (81%, n = 123/152), inability to check the ingredients in pubs/restaurants/vending machines (59%, n = 89/152) or forgetting to check the label (32%, n = 49/152). 23% (n= 48/206) had been prescribed medicines containing aspartame and 75% (n = 36/48) said that medicines were not checked by medics when prescribed. 85% (n = 164/192) considered the sugar tax made accidental aspartame consumption more likely. Some of the difficulties for patients were aspartame identification in drinks consumed in restaurants, pubs, vending machines (77%, n = 158/206); similarities in appearance of aspartame and non-aspartame products (62%, n = 127/206); time consuming shopping/checking labels (56%, n = 115/206); and unclear labelling (55%, n = 114/206). These issues caused anxiety for the person with PKU (52%, n = 106/206), anxiety for parent/caregivers (46%, n = 95/206), guilt for parent/carers (42%, n = 87/206) and social isolation (42%, n = 87/206). It is important to understand the impact of aspartame and legislation such as the sugar tax on people with PKU. Policy makers and industry should ensure that the quality of life of people with rare conditions such as PKU is not compromised through their action.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Aspartame/análise , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenilalanina/análise , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Adulto , Aspartame/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Masculino , Fenilalanina/efeitos adversos , Restaurantes
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 832-844, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may impact the extent to which food, eating, and drinking bring satisfaction and enjoyment to peoples' lives, and this may impact dietary intake. The prevalence of an impaired food-related quality of life (FR-QoL), its associated factors, and its impact on diet have not been explored. OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence and nature of the burden of impaired FR-QoL in people with IBD, the factors associated with these, and their associations with nutrient intake. METHODS: We recruited 1576 outpatients with IBD (≥16 years old) in person from 7 IBD centers across the United Kingdom. Patients completed validated questionnaires to measure their FR-QoL, quality of life (QoL), distress, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Dietary intake was recorded using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer FFQ. A health professional recorded disease activity, Montreal classification, blood results, BMI, and malnutrition risk. FR-QoL was regressed onto explanatory variables using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Data from 1221 patients were available (77.4% response; Crohn's disease, 65%; ulcerative colitis, 35%). The FR-QoL mean (± SD) score was 80.8 ± 26.9, with wide ranges (minimum, 29; maximum, 145). Following multivariable regression, the strongest associations with FR-QoL were the number of recent disease flares (5 flares ß = -12.7; P < 0.001), the IBD-specific QoL (ß = 0.33; P < 0.001), and IBD-related distress (ß = -0.26; P < 0.001). Patients with poorer FR-QoL had lower intakes of fiber (nonstarch polysaccharide; Q1 to Q5 difference = 2.1 g/d; 95% CI: 0.4-3.8; P = 0.048), calcium (192.6 mg/d; 95% CI: 112.5-272.6; P < 0.001), phosphorus (167 mg/d; 95% CI: 58-276; P = 0.041), and magnesium (34.4 mg/d; 95% CI: 9.3-59.4; P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Impaired FR-QoL is prevalent in IBD and is associated with recurrent disease flares, a reduced IBD-specific QoL, and greater IBD-related distress. A poorer FR-QoL was associated with lower intakes of key nutrients of importance to IBD, including those relating to gut health and bone mineralization.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
15.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(2): 12, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624161

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infant anaphylaxis has been increasing in incidence; however, significant gaps in the literature remain. The aim of this article is to review the most recent literature pertaining to infant anaphylaxis and discuss recent findings related to epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: There is no accurate report of the incidence and prevalence of anaphylaxis in infancy. Food is the most common trigger for infant anaphylaxis reported. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis in infants is often missed, and, even when the diagnosis is made, epinephrine continues to be under-utilized. An epinephrine autoinjector with a shorter needle and lower dose is now available for infants. Concise criteria specifically focusing on infant anaphylaxis is needed to streamline its diagnosis and management. Diagnosis is underrecognized in infants leading to improper treatment. When the diagnosis is made, epinephrine continues to be under-utilized and under-prescribed in infants.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/terapia , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Injeções/instrumentação , Prevalência
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(6): 2249-2262.e7, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eliciting doses (EDs) (eg, ED01 or ED05 values, which are the amounts of allergen expected to cause objective symptoms in 1% and 5% of the population with an allergy, respectively) are increasingly being used to inform allergen labeling and clinical management. These values are generated from food challenge, but the frequency of anaphylaxis in response to these low levels of allergen exposure and their reproducibility are unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine (1) the rate of anaphylaxis in response to low-level peanut exposure and (2) the reproducibility of reaction thresholds (and anaphylaxis) at food challenge. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of studies that reported at least 50 individuals with peanut allergy reacting to peanut at double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) and were published between January 2010 and September 2020. Risk of bias was assessed by using National Institute for Clinical Excellence methodologic checklists. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies were included (covering a total of 3151 participants, 534 of whom subsequently underwent further peanut challenge). At individual participant data meta-analysis, 4.5% (95% CI, 1.9% to 10.1%) of individuals reacted to 5 mg or less of peanut protein with anaphylaxis (moderate heterogeneity [I2 = 57%]). Intraindividual thresholds varied by up to 3 logs, although this variation was limited to a half-log change in 71.2% (95% CI, 56.2% to 82.6%) of individuals. In all, 2.4% (95% CI, 1.1% to 5.0%) of patients initially tolerated 5 mg of peanut protein but then reacted to this dose at subsequent challenge (low heterogeneity [I2 = 16%]); none developed anaphylaxis. CONCLUSION: Around 5% of individuals reacting to an ED01 or ED05 level of exposure to peanut might develop anaphylaxis in response to that dose. This equates to 1 and 6 anaphylaxis events per 2500 patients exposed to an ED01 or ED05 dose, respectively, in the broader population of individuals with peanut allergy.


Assuntos
Dessensibilização Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/imunologia , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Animais , Arachis/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(7): 607-614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urticaria can be the only sign of a food allergy or can be seen together with other signs and symptoms of a food allergy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic, etiologic, and clinical features of food-induced acute urticaria in childhood. METHODS: Patients suspected of food-induced acute urticaria were included in this prospective cross-sectional multicenter study. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-nine urticaria cases were included in this study. Seventeen patients who did not meet the inclusion criteria of the study were excluded. Of the 212 included cases, 179 (84.4%) were diagnosed with definitive food-induced acute urticaria. The most common foods causing acute urticaria were cow's milk, hen's eggs, and nuts in 56.4, 35.2, and 19% of cases, respectively. The positive predictive value of a history of milk-induced acute urticaria together with a milk-specific IgE >5 kU/L for cow's milk-induced acute urticaria was 92% (95% CI: 81-96%). A history of cow's milk-induced and/or hen's egg-induced acute urticaria was consistent with a definitive diagnosis of food-induced urticaria (Chen's kappa: 0.664 and 0.627 for milk and eggs, respectively). Urticaria activity scores were higher in patients with food-induced acute urticaria (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Cow's milk, hen's eggs, and nuts were the most common allergens in the etiology of childhood food-induced acute urticaria. Although the urticaria activity score provides guidance for diagnosis, an oral food challenge is often essential for the definitive diagnosis of a patient with a history of food-induced acute urticaria.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Urticária/diagnóstico , Urticária/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas
19.
Cell ; 184(6): 1440-1454, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450204

RESUMO

Food is simultaneously a source of essential nutrients and a potential source of lethal toxins and pathogens. Consequently, multiple sensory mechanisms evolved to monitor the quality of food based on the presence and relative abundance of beneficial and harmful food substances. These include the olfactory, gustatory, and gut chemosensory systems. Here we argue that, in addition to these systems, allergic immunity plays a role in food quality control by mounting allergic defenses against food antigens associated with noxious substances. Exaggeration of these defenses can result in pathological food allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/patologia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Modelos Biológicos , Controle de Qualidade
20.
Nature ; 590(7844): 151-156, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442055

RESUMO

Up to 20% of people worldwide develop gastrointestinal symptoms following a meal1, leading to decreased quality of life, substantial morbidity and high medical costs. Although the interest of both the scientific and lay communities in this issue has increased markedly in recent years, with the worldwide introduction of gluten-free and other diets, the underlying mechanisms of food-induced abdominal complaints remain largely unknown. Here we show that a bacterial infection and bacterial toxins can trigger an immune response that leads to the production of dietary-antigen-specific IgE antibodies in mice, which are limited to the intestine. Following subsequent oral ingestion of the respective dietary antigen, an IgE- and mast-cell-dependent mechanism induced increased visceral pain. This aberrant pain signalling resulted from histamine receptor H1-mediated sensitization of visceral afferents. Moreover, injection of food antigens (gluten, wheat, soy and milk) into the rectosigmoid mucosa of patients with irritable bowel syndrome induced local oedema and mast cell activation. Our results identify and characterize a peripheral mechanism that underlies food-induced abdominal pain, thereby creating new possibilities for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and related abdominal pain disorders.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/imunologia , Dor Abdominal/patologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Intestinos/imunologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/imunologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/microbiologia , Adulto , Animais , Citrobacter rodentium/imunologia , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/patologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/complicações , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/microbiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/patologia , Glutens/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/etiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/patologia , Masculino , Mastócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/imunologia , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Histamínicos H1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/imunologia , Triticum/imunologia
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