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1.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960034

RESUMO

Child care environments foster children's healthy eating habits by providing exposure to healthy foods and feeding practices. We assessed the healthfulness of nutrition environments, menu/meal quality, and the achievement of Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) guidelines and best practices in Oklahoma CACFP-enrolled family child care homes (FCCHs) (n = 51). Two-day classroom observations were conducted. Healthfulness of classroom nutrition environments was assessed using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO). Foods served to and consumed by children were quantified using the Dietary Observations in Child Care (DOCC) tool. Nutrient analysis was performed to determine total energy for foods listed on menus, served to, and consumed by children. Menu and meal food variety and CACFP Guideline Achievement Scores were determined. Average nutrition environment score was 11.7 ± 1.2 (61.5% of maximum possible score). Energy (kcals) from menus and consumed by children was insufficient to meet two-thirds of their daily reference intake. Children were exposed to 1.7 vegetables and 1.3 fruits per meal. CACFP Guideline Achievement Scores were 66.3% ± 7.8 for menus and 59.3% ± 7.6 for mealtimes. Similar to previous research, our findings indicate a need for improved FCCH nutrition practices. Tailored interventions for FCCHs are needed.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança/normas , Creches/normas , Dieta , Alimentos/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Oklahoma , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959759

RESUMO

The European Commission funded project Stance4Health (S4H) aims to develop a complete personalised nutrition service. In order to succeed, sources of information on nutritional composition and other characteristics of foods need to be as comprehensive as possible. Food composition tables or databases (FCT/FCDB) are the most commonly used tools for this purpose. The aim of this study is to describe the harmonisation efforts carried out to obtain the Stance4Health FCDB. A total of 10 FCT/FCDB were selected from different countries and organizations. Data were classified using FoodEx2 and INFOODS tagnames to harmonise the information. Hazard analysis and critical control points analysis was applied as the quality control method. Data were processed by spreadsheets and MySQL. S4H's FCDB is composed of 880 elements, including nutrients and bioactive compounds. A total of 2648 unified foods were used to complete the missing values of the national FCDB used. Recipes and dishes were estimated following EuroFIR standards via linked tables. S4H's FCDB will be part of the smartphone app developed in the framework of the Stance4Health European project, which will be used in different personalized nutrition intervention studies. S4H FCDB has great perspectives, being one of the most complete in terms of number of harmonized foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds included.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Nutricional , Europa (Continente) , Alimentos/normas , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Nutrientes/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Controle de Qualidade
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48499

RESUMO

A indústria de alimentos tem ocupado assentos que caberiam a universidades e institutos de pesquisa em colegiados da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa).


Assuntos
Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária , Indústria Alimentícia/organização & administração , Alimentos/normas
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739490

RESUMO

This paper explored the occurrence of food fraud and adulterations (FFA) in exports from the Association of South- East Asia Nations (ASEAN), with implications on food chain and international trade. Data from European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) about FFA notifications on ASEAN exports for a period of 20 years (2000-2020) were extracted and analyzed. Results from this study revealed that of all ten ASEAN member countries, seven had cases of FFA notified in the database with Thailand (n = 47, 32%) and the Philippines (n = 37, 26%) receiving the highest frequency of notifications in the region. There was a statistical significance difference in frequency of notifications received on products from these seven countries with herbs and spices ranking highest (n = 22, 15%). Highest notifications of FFA on ASEAN exports came from the United Kingdom (n = 31, 21%). All the seven countries experienced border rejections and consequent destruction of food products especially on exports from Indonesia where 95% of product with FFA were border rejected. Border rejections on products from these countries were significantly different. Therefore, a thorough implementation system, appropriate testing and constantly updating each country's FFA database could aid actions in curtailing future events.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraude/tendências , Ásia Sudeste , Comércio/economia , Comércio/tendências , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Europa (Continente) , Alimentos/normas , Cadeia Alimentar , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/ética , Humanos , Incidência
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258902, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793484

RESUMO

The development of globalization has separated the production and consumption of products spatially, and the international trade of products has become a carrier of embodied carbon trade. This paper adopted the perspective of value-added trade to calculate the amount of embodied carbon trade of China from 2006 to 2015 and perform a structural decomposition analysis of the changes in China's embodied carbon trade. This study found that: (1) China's embodied carbon exports are much larger than its embodied carbon imports, and there are differences between countries. China imported the largest amount of embodied carbon from South Korea, and it exported the largest amount of embodied carbon to the United States. (2) The structural decomposition analysis shows that changes in the value-added carbon emission coefficient during the study period would have caused China's embodied carbon trade to decrease, and changes in value-added trade would have caused China's embodied carbon trade to increase. Therefore, countries trading with China need to strengthen their cooperation with China in energy conservation, emission reduction, and product trade. In order to accurately reflect China's embodied carbon trade, it is necessary to calculate embodied carbon trade from the perspective of value-added trade.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Comércio/normas , Internacionalidade , Petróleo , Carbono/efeitos adversos , China , Eletricidade , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/normas , Alemanha , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Japão , República da Coreia , Estados Unidos
6.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4741-4753, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494668

RESUMO

Dietary intake of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from various foods (fish and seafood, meat and meat-based products, milk and dairy products, hen eggs, olive oil and fats) was investigated for various sex/age groups of the Italian population. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs and their contribution to total TEQ values varied depending on food matrix. Fish (0.50 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet weight) and seafood (0.16 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet weight) showed the highest mean concentrations of PCDD/Fs plus dl-PCBs, followed by meat (1.70 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid weight), meat based products (1.03 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid weight), milk and dairy products (0.78 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid weight), hen eggs (0.71 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid weight), fats (0.27 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid weight) and olive oil (0.09 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid weight). In all samples WHO-TEQ PCDD/F plus dl-PCB concentrations fulfilled the European Union food law, except in pork loin samples (1.39 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid weight). Differences in exposure depending on the sex/age groups (children > teenagers > adults > elders) and hypotheses considered (lower bound and upper bound) were encountered. Non-cancer risk values showed a low exposure. Carcinogenicity risk results revealed that highly exposed individuals were distributed over all sex/age groups, even though the proportion of individuals exceeding the safe limit was higher in children. These data once again underline the importance of trying to control the levels of these contaminants in fishery products, particularly in fish, who represents one of the main exposure sources for consumers. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This paper may help the consumer in making food choices to minimize the exposure risk to dioxins, furans and PCBs.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animais , Dioxinas/análise , Feminino , Alimentos/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Furanos/análise , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
7.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 126: 105047, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506878

RESUMO

Modern perspectives on the risk assessment of carcinogenic potential of chemicals have taken shape within the last two decades. This has been due to both developments in the understanding of the biology and etiology of cancer and by advances in in silico and in vitro assays. Moving away from a conventional binary carcinogen/non-carcinogen model, modern frameworks offer more nuanced classification structures based on the understanding of mechanisms involved or potentially involved in rodent carcinogenicity. Given these developments, a scientific session at the 2020 Winter Meeting of the Toxicology Forum was organized to explore the impact these innovative approaches will have on food safety assessments and what considerations should be addressed in developing a new carcinogenic risk assessment approach for substances in foods. The session reviewed challenges faced by food toxicologists and risk assessors, current standard approaches for evaluating carcinogenic risk of food substances, limitations of these standard approaches, and potential methods to implement next generation assays and modern carcinogenic frameworks into food safety assessments. Current perspectives of US regulatory, industry, and academic stakeholders were represented during speaker presentations and a moderated Panel Discussion. This Workshop Report provides an overview of key themes and information presented during the session. Summary statements were prepared by the authors and reviewed by the presenters but do not necessarily represent the position or policy of the FDA, the EPA, or other affiliations.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/normas , Alimentos/normas , Animais , Testes de Carcinogenicidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Roedores , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579007

RESUMO

Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) include dietary recommendations based on food groups according to the general and accepted nutrition principles and current scientific evidence. Adoption of FBDG contributes to the prevention of malnutrition in all its forms, promotes human health, and reduces environmental impact. The present review aims to perform an international comparative analysis of the FBDG adopted in different countries from three different continents (America, Asia, and Europe), with particular reference to the Spanish Food Safety and Nutrition Agency (AESAN, Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) Scientific Committee dietary recommendations. A total of twelve countries with the most updated FBDG and/or closest to the traditional and cultural preferences of Spain were finally selected. All the reviewed FBDG provided recommendations for fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts, milk and dairy products, meat and derivatives, fish, eggs, water, and oil; however, remarkable differences regarding recommended amounts were found among countries.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/normas , Saúde Global/normas , Política Nutricional , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Alimentos/normas , Humanos , América do Norte
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444720

RESUMO

Beta glucan is a type of soluble dietary fibre found in oats and barley with known cholesterol-lowering benefits. Many countries globally have an approved beta glucan health claim related to lowering blood cholesterol, an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, the use of these claims has not been examined. The aim of this study was to explore the range and variety of oat and barley products in the Australian and global market within a defined range of grain food and beverage categories and examine the frequency of beta glucan health claims. Australian data were collected via a recognised nutrition audit process from the four major Australian supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (January 2018 and September 2020) and Mintel Global New Product Database was used for global markets where a claim is permitted. Categories included breakfast cereals, bread, savoury biscuits, grain-based muesli bars, flour, noodles/pasta and plant-based milk alternatives and information collected included ingredients lists and nutrition and health claims. Products from Australia (n = 2462) and globally (n = 44,894) were examined. In Australia, 37 products (1.5%) made use of the beta glucan claim (84% related to oat beta glucan and 16% related to barley beta glucan, specifically BARLEYmax®). Of products launched globally, 0.9% (n = 403) displayed beta glucan cholesterol-lowering claims. Despite the number of products potentially eligible to make beta glucan claims, their use in Australia and globally is limited. The value of dietary modification in cardiovascular disease treatment and disease progression deserves greater focus, and health claims are an opportunity to assist in communicating the role of food in the management of health and disease. Further assessment of consumer understanding of the available claims would be of value.


Assuntos
Avena , Colesterol/sangue , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Hordeum , Grãos Integrais , beta-Glucanas , Austrália , Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(20)2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972419

RESUMO

Agriculture is a major contributor to air pollution, the largest environmental risk factor for mortality in the United States and worldwide. It is largely unknown, however, how individual foods or entire diets affect human health via poor air quality. We show how food production negatively impacts human health by increasing atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and we identify ways to reduce these negative impacts of agriculture. We quantify the air quality-related health damages attributable to 95 agricultural commodities and 67 final food products, which encompass >99% of agricultural production in the United States. Agricultural production in the United States results in 17,900 annual air quality-related deaths, 15,900 of which are from food production. Of those, 80% are attributable to animal-based foods, both directly from animal production and indirectly from growing animal feed. On-farm interventions can reduce PM2.5-related mortality by 50%, including improved livestock waste management and fertilizer application practices that reduce emissions of ammonia, a secondary PM2.5 precursor, and improved crop and animal production practices that reduce primary PM2.5 emissions from tillage, field burning, livestock dust, and machinery. Dietary shifts toward more plant-based foods that maintain protein intake and other nutritional needs could reduce agricultural air quality-related mortality by 68 to 83%. In sum, improved livestock and fertilization practices, and dietary shifts could greatly decrease the health impacts of agriculture caused by its contribution to reduced air quality.


Assuntos
Agricultura/normas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Alimentos/normas , Nível de Saúde , Material Particulado/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Amônia/análise , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Doença/etiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilizantes , Geografia , Humanos , Gado/metabolismo , Mortalidade/tendências , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 931, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441585

RESUMO

Food pairing has not yet been fully pioneered, despite our everyday experience with food and the large amount of food data available on the web. The complementary food pairings discovered thus far created by the intuition of talented chefs, not by scientific knowledge or statistical learning. We introduce FlavorGraph which is a large-scale food graph by relations extracted from million food recipes and information of 1,561 flavor molecules from food databases. We analyze the chemical and statistical relations of FlavorGraph and apply our graph embedding method to better represent foods in dense vectors. Our graph embedding method is a modification of metapath2vec with an additional chemical property learning layer and quantitatively outperforms other baseline methods in food clustering. Food pairing suggestions made based on the food representations of FlavorGraph help achieve better results than previous works, and the suggestions can also be used to predict relations between compounds and foods. Our research offers a new perspective on not only food pairing techniques but also food science in general.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Alimentos/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Conhecimento , Aprendizado de Máquina , Semântica , Paladar/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia
12.
Nutr Rev ; 79(10): 1134-1144, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331638

RESUMO

Methods to assess nutrient density of foods, commonly known as nutrient profiling (NP), typically include protein as a component. In this study, the goal was to apply a correction for protein quality by food source to selected NP algorithms. Analyses of 378 component foods of the Fred Hutch food frequency questionnaire showed that animal-source foods (ie, meat, eggs, and dairy) along with some soy products and nuts were the only foods that provided > 20% of the daily value (DV) of protein per 100 g or per 100 kcal. Most beans, pulses, legumes, grains, and vegetables provided <10% DV of protein per 100 g or per 100 kcal. Adjusting for protein quality using a simplified Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) had consequences for point-based NP models (namely, Nutri-Score) and for continuous nutrient density scores (namely, Nutrient Rich Foods). Quantitative methods that use protein content to capture nutrient density may require a protein-quality adjustment, especially when adapted for use in low- and middle-income countries where protein quality is an issue of public health concern.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta , Alimentos , Nutrientes , Valor Nutritivo , Benchmarking , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/normas , Alimentos/normas , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Carne , Nutrientes/análise , Verduras
13.
Nutr Rev ; 79(6): 693-708, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989449

RESUMO

The performance of the human brain is based on an interplay between the inherited genotype and external environmental factors, including diet. Food and nutrition, essential in maintenance of brain performance, also aid in prevention and treatment of mental disorders. Both the overall composition of the human diet and specific dietary components have been shown to have an impact on brain function in various experimental models and epidemiological studies. This narrative review provides an overview of the role of diet in 5 key areas of brain function related to mental health and performance, including: (1) brain development, (2) signaling networks and neurotransmitters in the brain, (3) cognition and memory, (4) the balance between protein formation and degradation, and (5) deteriorative effects due to chronic inflammatory processes. Finally, the role of diet in epigenetic regulation of brain physiology is discussed.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Dieta , Epigênese Genética , Saúde , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/normas , Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
15.
Public Health ; 190: 168-172, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Based on the legal framework regulating the advertisement of food supplements in the EU, the aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between the presence of endorsers, the different types of health-related claims (H-RCs) and product content information. STUDY DESIGN: We applied a quantitative approach based on the content analysis of all radio spots broadcast throughout 2017 on full-service radio stations in Spain. METHODS: A corpus of 10,556 radio spots was obtained of the three radio stations with the highest audience levels (165 without repetitions). We incorporated data on the accumulated broadcast frequencies to supplement the content analysis specific to each radio spot with its weight in relation to the overall advertising discourse. We developed a coding scheme to assess the type of endorser, the types of H-RCs, and the product content information. RESULTS: Results show that European directives are breached in different ways. Healthcare experts prevail in disease claims, although they are prohibited. Celebrities are the most widely used endorsers (25%) in the function and reduction of disease risk claims. In addition, although these types of claims require substantiation by authorised ingredient, 73% of H-RCs lack this information. CONCLUSIONS: The high presence of illicit H-RCs and endorsers, such as physicians, and the omission of compulsory product information suggest that public administrations must apply stricter monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms to dissuade advertisers from further breaches of the law and to protect consumers. Implications for public health policy are made.


Assuntos
Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos/normas , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Publicidade/métodos , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Espanha
16.
J Nutr ; 151(1): 109-119, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein intake greater than the currently recommended amount is suggested to improve physical functioning and well-being in older adults, yet it is likely to increase diet-associated greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) if environmental sustainability is not considered. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify dietary changes needed to increase protein intake while improving diet environmental sustainability in older adults. METHODS: Starting from the habitual diet of 1,354 Dutch older adults (aged 56-101 y) from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam cohort, mathematical diet optimization was used to model high-protein diets with minimized departure from habitual intake in cumulative steps. First, a high-protein diet defined as that providing ≥1.2 g protein · kg body weight-1 · d-1 was developed isocalorically while maintaining or improving nutritional adequacy of the diet. Second, adherence to the Dutch food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was imposed. Third, a stepwise 10% GHGE reduction was applied. RESULTS: Achieving a high-protein diet aligned with the FBDG without considering GHGEs required an increase in vegetables, legumes, nuts, whole grains, meat/dairy alternatives, dairy, and eggs and a reduction in total meat (for men only) and discretionary products, but it resulted in a 5% increase in GHGEs in men and 9% increase in women. When a stepwise GHGE reduction was additionally applied, increases in poultry and pork (mainly for women) and decreases in beef/lamb and processed meat were accrued, with total meat staying constant until a 50-60% GHGE reduction. Increases in whole grains, nuts, and meat/dairy alternatives and decreases in discretionary products were needed to lower GHGEs. CONCLUSIONS: A high-protein diet aligned with FBDG can be achieved in concert with reductions in GHGEs in Dutch older adults by consuming no more than the recommended 500 g meat per week while replacing beef and lamb and processed meat with poultry and pork and increasing intake of diverse plant-protein sources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Cell Rep ; 33(12): 108521, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357442

RESUMO

Responsiveness to external cues is a hallmark of biological systems. In complex environments, it is crucial for organisms to remain responsive to specific inputs even as other internal or external factors fluctuate. Here, we show how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can discriminate between different food levels to modulate its lifespan despite temperature perturbations. This end-to-end robustness from environment to physiology is mediated by food-sensing neurons that communicate via transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) and serotonin signals to form a multicellular gene network. Specific regulations in this network change sign with temperature to maintain similar food responsiveness in the lifespan output. In contrast to robustness of stereotyped outputs, our findings uncover a more complex robustness process involving the higher order function of discrimination in food responsiveness. This process involves rewiring a multicellular network to compensate for temperature and provides a basis for understanding gene-environment interactions. Together, our findings unveil sensory computations that integrate environmental cues to govern physiology.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Alimentos/normas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(6): 1246-1280, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198317

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVOS: la normativa que regula la inclusión de alimentos para usos médicos especiales (ADUME) entre las prestaciones del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) fue elaborada hace unos 15 años, si bien la nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) se comenzó a regular en 1998. La evolución de las características técnicas de los ADUME justifica un análisis de la actual normativa y la consideración de posibles modificaciones que permitan la incorporación de avances tecnológicos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: reuniones estructuradas siguiendo la metodología del grupo focal, con expertos en su mayoría médicos (91 %), mujeres (55 %) y especialistas hospitalarios en disciplinas relacionadas con la nutrición (73 %) de 8 hospitales y 6 comunidades autónomas. Previamente, los participantes recibieron 4 documentos resumen de diferentes aspectos técnicos de la regulación sobre ADUME en España. Se transcribió de forma anonimizada el audio de las reuniones y se codificó su contenido en 9 códigos: 1) problemática y regulación; 2) beneficios clínicos y evidencia de eficacia o efectividad; 3) indicaciones clínicas; 4) contexto internacional y comparaciones con otros países; 5) impacto presupuestario; 6) coste-efectividad; 7) riesgos y motivos para mantener la regulación actual; 8) propuestas de avance, factibilidad y aspectos que dificultan la implementación; y 9) otros temas. RESULTADOS: los grupos señalaron la necesidad de modificar aspectos regulatorios relacionados con la exclusión de financiación de las fórmulas de densidad calórica superior a 2,1 kcal/ml, la exclusión de la financiación de los ADUME obtenidos total o parcialmente a partir de alimentos ordinarios, la preferencia por la alimentación por sonda y la exclusividad de la financiación de fórmulas completas para los ADUME que se empleen por vía oral como complemento de una ingesta insuficiente. CONCLUSIONES: sobre la base del desarrollo tecnológico y la aplicación clínica de los ADUME en los últimos años, el SNS debería actualizar la regulación de la financiación de estos productos. La mayor parte de estos cambios no implican incremento del gasto si se mantienen las condiciones actuales en cuanto a indicaciones y precios máximos


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: the legislation currently regulating the inclusion of Food for Special Medical Purposes (FSMP) among the benefits of the National Health System (SNS) was made approximately 15 years ago. The evolution of the technical characteristics of the FSMP justifies an analysis of the current regulation and the consideration of possible regulatory modifications that would allow the incorporation of the progress achieved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: four successive focus groups of experts, mostly doctors (91%), hospital specialists in disciplines related to nutrition (73%), from 8 different hospitals and 6 autonomous communities. Previously, 4 documents summarizing different technical aspects of the regulation on FSMP in Spain were sent to the participants. The audio of the meetings was transcribed anonymously and its content was codified. RESULTS: the contents of the focus groups were grouped into 9 codes: 1) problems and regulation; 2) clinical benefits and evidence of efficacy or effectiveness; 3) clinical indications; 4) international context and comparisons with other countries; 5) budgetary impact; 6) cost-effectiveness; 7) risks and reasons for maintaining current regulation; 8) proposals for progress, feasibility and aspects that make implementation difficult; and 9) other issues. CONCLUSIONS: based on the technological development and clinical application of the FSMP carried out in recent years, an update of the regulation of these products can be proposed for financing by the National Health System in Spain. Most of these changes do not imply an increase in expenditure if current conditions regarding indications and maximum prices are maintained


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Desnutrição/terapia , Grupos Focais/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Alimentos/normas
19.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238638

RESUMO

Currently, the authentication analysis of edible fats and oils is an emerging issue not only by producers but also by food industries, regulators, and consumers. The adulteration of high quality and expensive edible fats and oils as well as food products containing fats and oils with lower ones are typically motivated by economic reasons. Some analytical methods have been used for authentication analysis of food products, but some of them are complex in sampling preparation and involving sophisticated instruments. Therefore, simple and reliable methods are proposed and developed for these authentication purposes. This review highlighted the comprehensive reports on the application of infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for authentication of fats and oils. New findings of this review included (1) FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics, which has been used to authenticate fats and oils; (2) due to as fingerprint analytical tools, FTIR spectra have emerged as the most reported analytical techniques applied for authentication analysis of fats and oils; (3) the use of chemometrics as analytical data treatment is a must to extract the information from FTIR spectra to be understandable data. Next, the combination of FTIR spectroscopy with chemometrics must be proposed, developed, and standardized for authentication and assuring the quality of fats and oils.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Gorduras/química , Análise de Alimentos , Alimentos/normas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Gorduras/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química
20.
Rio de Janeiro; SES-RJ; 01/11/2020. 18 p.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1371648

RESUMO

O Estado do Rio de Janeiro, com fiel observância aos princípios constitucionais e no seu papel de intervir no domínio econômico como agente normativo e regulador, elaborou esse manual tendo em vista a pandemia de COVID-19 e demais vírus respiratórios, para auxiliar no planejamento e retomada das atividades de comércio de rua praticadas por ambulantes. Este manual visa conscientizar as instituições envolvidas na regulação e fiscalização de ambulantes de rua sobre a importância do treinamento e capacitação deste grupo frente aos riscos de disseminação da COVID-19 e demais vírus respiratórios, bem como sensibilizar os consumidores do comércio de rua para colaborar para a eficácia das normas de cuidados e prevenção na transmissão do novo coronavírus, desenvolvendo assim uma postura mais participativa e exigente quanto à qualidade do serviço prestado.


Assuntos
Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vigilância Sanitária/organização & administração , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/classificação , Alimentos/normas , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas
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