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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 132, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The range of products stocked and their promotions in food retail outlets in healthcare settings can affect food choices by staff, patients and visitors. The innovative Scottish Healthcare Retail Standard (HRS) is a national mandatory scheme requiring all hospital food retail outlets to change the balance of food products stocked and their promotion to comply with nutritional criteria and promotional restrictions. The aim is to facilitate healthier food choices in healthcare settings. This study examined the implementation of HRS and the impact on foods stocked and promoted. METHODS: The study aimed to examine implementation process and changes to the retail environment in relation to food promotions and choice. A sample of hospital retail outlets (n = 17) including shops and trolley services were surveyed using a mixed methods design comprising: (a) structured observational audits of stock, layout and promotions (with a specific focus on chocolate and fruit product lines), and (b) face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with the shop manager or nominated members of staff (n = 32). Data were collected at Wave 1 (2016), at the beginning and during the early stages of HRS implementation; and Wave 2, 12 months later, after the HRS implementation deadline. RESULTS: All outlets, both commercial and not-for-profit, in the sample successfully implemented HRS. Implementation was reported to be more challenging by independent shop managers compared to chain store staff. Retail managers identified areas where more implementation guidance and support could have been provided. The number of chocolate product lines and promotions reduced substantially between Waves 1 and 2, but with no substantial increase in fruit product lines and promotions. Despite initial negative expectations of HRS's impact, managers identified some opportunities in the scheme and positive changes in the supply chain. CONCLUSIONS: Positive changes in food retail outlets occurred after hospital shops were required to implement HRS. By creating a consistent approach across hospital shops in Scotland, HRS changed the food retail environment for hospital staff, visitors and patients. HRS provides a regulatory template and implementation learning points for influencing retail environments in other jurisdictions and settings.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Alimentos/normas , Lojas no Hospital/normas , Programas Obrigatórios , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Escócia
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1383-1391, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680260

RESUMO

Food and nutrition security can be supported by an urban garden. The present study comprises a critical reflection on the difficulty of producing food in urban gardens in Brazil and shows the potential of food production and the obstacles to its expansion. In addition, issues related to the agroecological management of gardens are addressed and suggestions are made to improve the proposed public policies. Urban gardens are multifunctional and have social, economic and environmental impacts. They are strategically important for supporting low-income families and urban development. Through urban gardens, diverse foods and quality foods can be produced for self-consumption. This review highlights the importance of generating detailed information on urban gardens in Brazil to support policies aimed at this sector. Long-term and multidisciplinary studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between food production in urban gardens and household food and nutrition security. This approach revealed a lack of information on the amount of food produced by Brazilians in their gardens and consumed by the household. In addition, there is little information on the management of production. There is a gap relating to the impact of food produced in urban gardens and the prevalence of food and nutrition security. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Jardinagem/normas , Jardins/normas , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Cidades , Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Verduras/química
3.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614764

RESUMO

Colorimetric indicators are versatile for applications such as intelligent packaging. By interacting with food, package headspace, and/or the ambient environment, color change in these indicators can be useful for reflecting the actual quality and/or monitoring distribution history (e.g., time and temperature) of food products. In this study, indicator dyes based on cinnamil and quinoxaline derivatives were synthesized using aroma compounds commonly present in food: diacetyl, benzaldehyde, p-tolualdehyde and p-anisaldehyde. The identities of cinnamil and quinoxaline derivatives were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C NMR analyses. Photophysical evaluation showed that the orange-colored cinnamil derivatives in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) turned to dark brownish coloration when exposed to strong alkalis. The cinnamil and acid-doped quinoxaline derivatives were sensitive to volatile amines commonly present during the spoilage in seafood. Quinoxaline derivatives doped by strong organic acid were effective as pH indicators for volatile amine detection, with lower detection limits than cinnamil. However, cinnamil exhibited more diverse color profiles than the quinoxaline indicators when exposed to ammonia, trimethylamine, triethylamine, dimethylamine, piperidine and hydrazine. Preliminary tests of acid-doped quinoxaline derivatives on fresh fish demonstrated their potential as freshness indicators in intelligent packaging applications.


Assuntos
Aminas/isolamento & purificação , Corantes/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Aminas/química , Animais , Benzaldeídos/química , Colorimetria , Diacetil/química , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Dimetilaminas/química , Peixes , Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Quinoxalinas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
4.
Lancet ; 394(10201): 814-815, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391145
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 489, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PRIMEtime CE is a multistate life table model that can directly compare the cost effectiveness of public health interventions affecting diet and physical activity levels, helping to inform decisions about how to spend finite resources. This paper estimates the costs and health outcomes in England of two scenarios: reformulating salt and expanding subsidised access to leisure centres. The results are used to help validate PRIMEtime CE, following the steps outlined in the Assessment of the Validation Status of Health-Economic decision models (AdViSHE) tool. METHODS: The PRIMEtime CE model estimates the difference in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and difference in NHS and social care costs of modelled interventions compared with doing nothing. The salt reformulation scenario models how salt consumption would change if food producers met the 2017 UK Food Standards Agency salt reformulation targets. The leisure centre scenario models change in physical activity levels if the Birmingham Be Active scheme (where swimming pools and gym access is free to residents during defined periods) was rolled out across England. The AdViSHE tool was developed by health economic modellers and divides model validation into five parts: validation of the conceptual model, input data validation, validation of computerised model, operational validation, and other validation techniques. PRIMEtime CE is discussed in relation to each part. RESULTS: Salt reformulation was dominant compared with doing nothing, and had a 10-year return on investment of £1.44 (£0.50 to £2.94) for every £1 spent. By contrast, over 10 years the Be Active expansion would cost £727,000 (£514,000 to £1,064,000) per QALY. PRIMEtime CE has good face validity of its conceptual model and has robust input data. Cross-validation produces mixed results and shows the impact of model scope, input parameters, and model structure on cost-per-QALY estimates. CONCLUSIONS: This paper illustrates how PRIMEtime CE can be used to compare the cost-effectiveness of two different public health measures affecting diet and physical activity levels. The AdViSHE tool helps to validate PRIMEtime CE, identifies some of the key drivers of model estimates, and highlights the challenges of externally validating public health economic models against independent data.


Assuntos
Alimentos/normas , Atividades de Lazer/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Saúde Pública/economia , Sódio na Dieta/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Medicina Estatal/economia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 399, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Food borne diseases are predominant in all parts of the world especially in urban areas and are the main source for food borne illness. The aim of this study is to assess sanitation status and its determinants among food establishments in Adwa town, North Ethiopia from March to June 2017. RESULTS: A total of 391 (95.4%) subjects were included in this study. Around 53.3% of food establishments in the study area were in a poor sanitary status. Presence of trained managers on hygiene and sanitation (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.7-4.1); inspection by regulatory personnel (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.36-22.4) and being licensed (AOR = 1.2 95% CI 1.11-2.51) were associated factors which affect sanitary status sanitary of the establishments. The overall sanitary status of the establishments in the study area was found unhygienic. Managers should gain trainings on food hygiene and sanitation to follow and improve the sanitary status of the establishments.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Saneamento/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alimentos/normas , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: sustainability of population diet is a public health concern: the high price of healthy food is one of the main causes of diet-related health problems. The aim of this study is to synthesize the evidence produced by systematic reviews that evaluated the effectiveness of decreasing healthy food prices to improve accessibility in order to positively modify the dietary pattern. METHODS: We carried out a review of systematic reviews that examined the effects of the interventions, by exploring the online databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and hand-searching the reference lists. RESULTS: after screening by titles and abstracts, we selected 11 systematic reviews that met the inclusion criteria, plus one that was hand-searched. The review generally presented a good quality. Studies concluded that measures aimed at modifying the prices of targeted healthy food were effective in improving population diet by modifying what people buy. CONCLUSIONS: the complexity of the outcome-population diet-as well as the poor transferability of data across populations and geographical areas makes it obligatory to provide clear and universal conclusions. Nonetheless, this should not stop policymakers from adapting them and resorting to food fiscal interventions to improve people's diet and health.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos/economia , Alimentos/normas , Comércio , /normas , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349571

RESUMO

In the last decade, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has reemerged as an analytical separation technique, especially due to the commercialization of ion mobility mass spectrometers. Its applicability has been extended beyond classical applications such as the determination of chemical warfare agents and nowadays it is widely used for the characterization of biomolecules (e.g., proteins, glycans, lipids, etc.) and, more recently, of small molecules (e.g., metabolites, xenobiotics, etc.). Following this trend, the interest in this technique is growing among researchers from different fields including food science. Several advantages are attributed to IMS when integrated in traditional liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry (MS) workflows: (1) it improves method selectivity by providing an additional separation dimension that allows the separation of isobaric and isomeric compounds; (2) it increases method sensitivity by isolating the compounds of interest from background noise; (3) and it provides complementary information to mass spectra and retention time, the so-called collision cross section (CCS), so compounds can be identified with more confidence, either in targeted or non-targeted approaches. In this context, the number of applications focused on food analysis has increased exponentially in the last few years. This review provides an overview of the current status of IMS technology and its applicability in different areas of food analysis (i.e., food composition, process control, authentication, adulteration and safety).


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Alimentos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Alimentos/classificação , Alimentos/normas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos
10.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200446

RESUMO

In Eastern Mediterranean countries, undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies coexist with overnutrition-related diseases, such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Many Mediterranean countries have produced Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) to provide the general population with indications for healthy nutrition and lifestyles. This narrative review analyses Eastern Mediterranean countries' FBDGs and discusses their pictorial representations, food groupings and associated messages on healthy eating and behaviours. In 2012, both the WHO and the Arab Center for Nutrition developed specific dietary guidelines for Arab countries. In addition, seven countries, representing 29% of the Eastern Mediterranean Region population, designated their national FBDGs. At the moment several of these guidelines are available only in the English language. In summary, Eastern Mediterranean FBDGs mainly focus on food safety, not all are available in the local Arabic language, and they do not provide specific suggestions for the large number of foreign workers and migrants.


Assuntos
Alimentos/normas , Política Nutricional , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Oriente Médio
11.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 88: 1-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151722

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing toolbox that provides solutions to numerous challenges in the food industry and meet public demands for healthier and safer food products. The diversity of nanostructures and their vast, tunable functionality drives their inclusion in food products and packaging materials to improve their nutritional quality through bioactive fortification and probiotics encapsulation, enhance their safety due to their antimicrobial and sensing capabilities and confer novel sensorial properties. In this food nanotechnology state-of-the-art communication, matrix materials with particular focus on food-grade components, existing and novel production techniques, and current and potential applications in the fields of food quality, safety and preservation, nutrient bioaccessibility and digestibility will be detailed. Additionally, a thorough analysis of potential strategies to assess the safety of these novel nanostructures is presented.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Alimentos/normas , Nanoestruturas/classificação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Biopolímeros , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Marketing/tendências , Nanopartículas
12.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 88: 47-84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151728

RESUMO

Proteins are one of the essential components of nutritional food materials and an excellent source for food-grade nanomaterials. This review focuses on select examples of nanoparticles assembled naturally, found in food-relevant materials, major approaches in assembling nanoscale structure from proteins, and general applications of protein nanoparticles in food or nutrition. Animal-sourced casein and non-animal grain storage proteins and legume storage proteins are discussed in terms of their structural assemblies. Protein solubility is a key factor in assembling protein nanoparticles with desired functional properties. Desolvation is the most common technique to prepare protein nanoparticles for insoluble proteins. Well-hydrated protein assemblies have been extensively studied through electrostatic complexes, assembled with fatty acid and starch, reassembled protein structure, and nanogels. These protein-based nanoparticles have been utilized for filler materials of films, encapsulation of bioactive molecules, and stabilization of emulsions. Most studies exploiting protein-based nanoparticles have focused on developing technologies in extraction of proteins from sources and assembly of nanoparticles in different environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/normas , Alimentos/normas , Nanopartículas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Animais , Emulsões/normas , Hidrogéis/química , Polímeros , Polissacarídeos/química , Suspensões/química
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 744, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food away from home (FAFH) in the US is associated with adverse health outcomes, and food dollars spent on FAFH continues to increase. FAFH studies have typically focused on restaurants and carryout establishments, but mobile food vendors - popularly known in the US as food trucks - have become more numerous and are an understudied segment of FAFH. The objective of this study was to assess mobile food vendors, their attitudes toward health and nutrition, and the foods they serve. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 41 mobile food vendors in Michigan, US. The survey contained questions about food and nutrition attitudes, such as barriers to putting healthy items on menus and perceived agreement with healthy food preparation practices. Participants were classified into a healthy and a less healthy attitude group based on whether they believed healthy menu items could be successful or not. In addition, participant menus were collected and analyzed according to whether menu items were healthy, moderately healthy, or unhealthy. Descriptive, univariate, and bivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the participants felt that healthy menu items could be successful, and yet taste and value were the most important menu item success factors, each rated as important by 100% of the participants. Low consumer demand was the biggest barrier to putting healthy items on the menu (76%) whereas lack of chef interest (29%) and need for special training (24%) were the smallest. 72% of the vendors offered at least one healthy menu item, but only 20% of all reviewed menu items were healthy overall. There was no difference in the proportion of menu items that were healthy when comparing those with healthy attitudes (23% of menu items healthy) to those less healthy attitudes (17% of menu items healthy, p = 0.349). CONCLUSIONS: Mobile food vendors had positive views about putting healthy items on menus. However, a low proportion of menu items were classified as healthy. This suggests that mobile food vendors are promising potential public health partners in improving the health profile of FAFH, but that education of vendors is needed to ensure the success of healthier items.


Assuntos
Comércio , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No1): 3-6, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232580

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: at present, it is precisely the Mediterranean countries whose characteristic lifestyle was recognized as a health paradigm and promoted to the rest of the world, those who are at mostly at risk, in which it becomes necessary the immediate development of strategies based on education that may contribute to the adoption of a healthier diet and lifestyle. Objectives: to review the current dietary patterns in Spain, as well as its evolution in the last years. Methods: review of the studies that have been published in relation to the subject. Results: changes in the diet and lifestyle that have been introduced in recent years in Spain have led to a gradual decreased in the consumption of cereals and derivatives, potatoes and legumes, whereas an increase in the intake of meats and meat derivatives and non-alcoholic drinks has occurred. From the nutritional point of view, these trends resulted in an increase of the proportion of total fats (mainly saturated) and proteins (highly in those of animal origin) in the diet while complex carbohydrates have experienced a decrease (accompanied by a higher consumption of total sugars, including added ones). At the same time, the Spanish society should be considered as with a sedentary behavior. These facts have as one of the main negative consequences that Spain show one of the highest prevalence rates of childhood obesity in Europe, but also in adults. Conclusions: in this context, there is a need to promote the recovery of our culture (Mediterranean diet), and to return to feed and live according to patterns that have kept us protected during generations of many diseases. In fact, it should be important to try to answer the following question: If not so many years ago we had a food model that fulfilled all the recommendations of a healthy diet, which are the main barriers at present from returning to it?


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Alimentos/normas , Dieta/tendências , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Energia , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento Sedentário , Espanha
15.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No1): 7-13, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232586

RESUMO

Introduction: The diet of Galicia is the result of a perfect combination between the quality and diversity of the products of their lands and seas and a simple and healthy elaboration. To the benefits of the Galician products already known by the Celts, the Romans or the Early Medieval pilgrims have been added the inheritances received from the American shore of this ocean that we share, constituting the bases of the Atlantic diet. Galician food is characterized by an abundance of seasonal foods from plants (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, bread and cereals, nuts, chestnuts, honey and legumes), high consumption of fish and shellfish, moderate milk, veal meat fed exclusively with breast milk and pastures, olive oil, use of sauces with low energy load and high-quality fat and homemade desserts composed mainly of flour, eggs and nuts. The Galician Atlantic diet is healthy, functional and bioactive, and without doubt along with a favorable genetic profile, and adequate lifestyles, physical activity and inactivity, favored by our urbanism, with a distribution of the population in small rural areas, has collaborated so that we have one of the longest living populations with a high quality of life. Currently, the data reflect alarming figures of overweight and obesity, especially in the infant-juvenile age, most likely in relation to, among others, the loss of adherence to our traditional diet. To continue as before, Galician children and adolescents could live less than their grandparents, but also with more associated comorbidities. It is necessary to establish strategies to promote recovery and adherence of our Atlantic diet in north-western Spain.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos/normas , Estilo de Vida , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Longevidade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Alimentos Marinhos/normas , Espanha
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(extr.1): 3-6, jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184941

RESUMO

Introducción: en la actualidad, son precisamente los países mediterráneos, cuyo estilo de vida característico fue reconocido como paradigma de salud y promocionado al resto del mundo, los que se encuentran en situación de riesgo, en la que se hace necesario el desarrollo inmediato de estrategias que contribuyan a la adopción de hábitos saludables de vida. Objetivos: revisar los patrones de la dieta actual en España, así como su evolución en los últimos años. Métodos: revisión bibliográfica relacionada con el tema. Resultados: los cambios en el estilo de vida que han ido introduciéndose poco a poco en los últimos años han propiciado una progresiva disminución en el consumo de cereales y derivados, patatas y legumbres, y un aumento de la ingesta de carnes rojas y derivados. Desde el punto de vista nutricional, esta tendencia se ha traducido en un incremento de la dieta en grasa y proteínas, en detrimento de los hidratos de carbono complejos (y un incremento asociado de los azúcares totales, incluidos los añadidos). Al mismo tiempo, la población española, con independencia de la edad, muestra un comportamiento mayoritariamente sedentario. Todo lo anterior ha propiciado que España se encuentre en una situación preocupante, puesto que contamos con una de las tasas de prevalencia de obesidad infantil y juvenil más elevadas de toda Europa, fenómeno que también resulta grave en la población adulta. Conclusiones: se constata la necesidad de favorecer la recuperación de nuestra cultura alimentaria, a través de la educación, y de volver a alimentarnos y a vivir de acuerdo con unos patrones que nos han mantenido protegidos durante generaciones, tratando de responder a la siguiente pregunta: si no hace tantos años llevábamos una alimentación que cumplía con las recomendaciones de dieta saludable, ¿qué nos impide volver a ella?


Introduction: at present, it is precisely the Mediterranean countries whose characteristic lifestyle was recognized as a health paradigm and promoted to the rest of the world, those who are at mostly at risk, in which it becomes necessary the immediate development of strategies based on education that may contribute to the adoption of a healthier diet and lifestyle. Objectives: to review the current dietary patterns in Spain, as well as its evolution in the last years. Methods: review of the studies that have been published in relation to the subject. Results: changes in the diet and lifestyle that have been introduced in recent years in Spain have led to a gradual decreased in the consumption of cereals and derivatives, potatoes and legumes, whereas an increase in the intake of meats and meat derivatives and non-alcoholic drinks has occurred. From the nutritional point of view, these trends resulted in an increase of the proportion of total fats (mainly saturated) and proteins (highly in those of animal origin) in the diet while complex carbohydrates have experienced a decrease (accompanied by a higher consumption of total sugars, including added ones). At the same time, the Spanish society should be considered as with a sedentary behavior. These facts have as one of the main negative consequences that Spain show one of the highest prevalence rates of childhood obesity in Europe, but also in adults. Conclusions: in this context, there is a need to promote the recovery of our culture (Mediterranean diet), and to return to feed and live according to patterns that have kept us protected during generations of many diseases. In fact, it should be important to try to answer the following question: If not so many years ago we had a food model that fulfilled all the recommendations of a healthy diet, which are the main barriers at present from returning to it?


Assuntos
Humanos , Dieta/normas , Alimentos/normas , Dieta/tendências , Dieta Mediterrânea , Consumo de Energia , Preferências Alimentares , Estilo de Vida , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Comportamento Sedentário , Espanha
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(extr.1): 7-13, jun. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184942

RESUMO

La dieta de Galicia es el resultado de una conjunción perfecta entre la calidad y la diversidad de los productos de sus tierras y mares y una elaboración sencilla y saludable. A las bondades de los productos gallegos, ya conocidas por los celtas, los romanos o los peregrinos altomedievales, se han sumado las herencias recibidas desde la orilla americana de este océano que compartimos hasta constituir las bases de la llamada dieta atlántica. La alimentación gallega se caracteriza por la abundancia de alimentos de temporada (plantas, frutas, vegetales, patatas, pan y cereales, nueces, castañas, miel y leguminosas), por el elevado consumo de pescados y mariscos y por el moderado consumo de lácteos; por la carne de terneras alimentadas exclusivamente con leche materna y pastos; por el aceite de oliva, por el uso de salsas con baja carga energética y de alta calidad de la grasa y por los postres caseros compuestos principalmente por harina, huevos y frutos secos. La dieta atlántica gallega es saludable, funcional y bioactiva, y, sin duda, junto a un perfil genético beneficioso y unos estilos de vida, una actividad física e inactividad adecuados, favorecidos por nuestro urbanismo -con una población distribuida en pequeños núcleos rurales-, ha contribuido a que tengamos una de las poblaciones más longevas y con una alta calidad de vida. Actualmente, los datos reflejan cifras alarmantes de sobrepeso y obesidad, especialmente en la etapa infantil-juvenil, relacionadas, muy probablemente, entre otros aspectos, con la pérdida de adherencia a nuestra dieta tradicional. De seguir como hasta ahora, los niños y adolescentes gallegos podrían vivir menos que sus abuelos y, además, con más comorbilidades asociadas. Se hace necesario establecer estrategias de promoción para la recuperación y fidelización de nuestra dieta atlántica del noroeste de España


The diet of Galicia is the result of a perfect combination between the quality and diversity of the products of their lands and seas and a simple and healthy elaboration. To the benefits of the Galician products already known by the Celts, the Romans or the Early Medieval pilgrims have been added the inheritances received from the American shore of this ocean that we share, constituting the bases of the Atlantic diet. Galician food is characterized by an abundance of seasonal foods from plants (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, bread and cereals, nuts, chestnuts, honey and legumes), high consumption of fish and shellfish, moderate milk, veal meat fed exclusively with breast milk and pastures, olive oil, use of sauces with low energy load and high-quality fat and homemade desserts composed mainly of flour, eggs and nuts. The Galician Atlantic diet is healthy, functional and bioactive, and without doubt along with a favorable genetic profile, and adequate lifestyles, physical activity and inactivity, favored by our urbanism, with a distribution of the population in small rural areas, has collaborated so that we have one of the longest living populations with a high quality of life. Currently, the data reflect alarming figures of overweight and obesity, especially in the infant-juvenile age, most likely in relation to, among others, the loss of adherence to our traditional diet. To continue as before, Galician children and adolescents could live less than their grandparents, but also with more associated comorbidities. It is necessary to establish strategies to promote recovery and adherence of our Atlantic diet in north-western Spain


Assuntos
Humanos , Dieta/normas , Alimentos/normas , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Gorduras na Dieta , Consumo de Energia , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Preferências Alimentares , Estilo de Vida , Longevidade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Espanha
18.
Public Health Res Pract ; 29(1)2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Health Star Rating (HSR) system is an interpretative front-of-pack labelling (FOPL) scheme for Australia and New Zealand, which aims to guide consumers towards foods higher in components associated with a healthy diet and lower in energy and nutrients associated with an increased risk of disease, and thereby reduce the diet-related burden of disease. Type of program: A government-endorsed and funded nutrient profiling model for application to packaged foods and beverages in retail environments. METHODS: By considering the nutritional profile of a product, based on widely accepted risk-increasing and beneficial components, and assigning a rating from 0.5 to 5 stars, the HSR system simplifies complex nutrition information and messages to highlight the healthier options within a given product range. RESULTS: Implementation of the HSR system is progressing well, with a rapidly increasing presence in supermarkets. Consumer understanding and use of the system is increasing and sentiments are generally favourable. People are changing purchasing behaviour by using the system to select healthier choices. The great majority of HSRs displayed on packs are accurate and industry is reformulating products to improve nutritive quality. However, some issues of concern have been raised during the implementation period. These are being investigated through an independent review of the system. LESSONS LEARNT: The experience of the HSR system, particularly its governance structures, has demonstrated that when disparate stakeholders are included in the process, a workable and acceptable system that achieves tangible outcomes can be implemented.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Austrália , Alimentos/normas , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Valor Nutritivo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959787

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate health professionals' unhygienic practices and the stages of behaviour change in Brazilian public hospital restaurants. We evaluated all medium/large-sized public hospital restaurants (HRs) from the Brazilian Federal District (n = 9); a representative sample of 128 users). We evaluated the HRs' physical structures, their consumers' socio-demographic characteristics, their unhygienic practices, as well as the stages of behavioural change concerning unhygienic practices. All the HRs presented their menus for self-service distribution, so customers entered in lines to serve themselves. All the HRs had hand-wash sinks for customers; 77.8% offered antiseptic liquid soap; 33.3% offered alcohol gel; and 77.8% offered storage for professional accessories before serving food. Almost half (46.8%) of the customers did not sanitise their hands (with water and antiseptic soap and/or use of alcohol gel) immediately before serving, and 24.2% wore professional uniforms at HRs. Almost half (43.5%) of the customers spoke with each other in line while serving their plates and arranged the food on their plates with the serving utensils from the distribution counter. The declaration of behavioural change was inversely associated with the hygiene practices. Almost half of the individuals did not sanitize their hands; however, 90.4% declared "changed behaviour" when this contaminant practice was presented to them. We verified a high percentage of hygiene practices inconsistent with most of the customers´ answers about their stage of behaviour change. Based on the observations of this study, it is necessary for an awareness program to be developed that is focused on customers of HRs in order to reduce unhygienic practices. Also, it is important to promote new policies for proper hygiene practices in hospital restaurants.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Alimentos/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Política de Saúde , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Higiene/normas , Restaurantes/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(5): 880-884, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989844

RESUMO

Health food containing Chinese materia medica has many advantages in health preservation and reducing the risk of disease occurrence,which meets people's demands for " great health" and " preventive treatment of disease". However,due to its complex ingredients,diverse quality of raw materials,as well as the vagueness and lack of integrity for existing quality standards,chaos is caused in the health food market,which restricts its healthy development and also poses new challenges to the quality control of healthy food. At present,the total component content or single component content is determined in most functional/marker component examinations. Safety and microbial detection methods fail to cover the contamination range of the raw materials of Chinese materia medica.Therefore,it is impossible to meet the purpose of ensuring authenticity,safety and efficacy. In recent years,a lot of Chinese materia medica extracts have been used as raw materials for food products,but many extracts lack standards. The author believes that the quality control of health food containing Chinese materia medicas should start with the quality control of Chinese materia medica extracts. In this way,product quality is controlled from source to ensure product consistency; secondly,the overall quality control should be strengthened to ensure the authenticity of the products; the scope of safety inspection shall be expanded to fundamentally ensure the safety of products. At the same time,we should strengthen the quality control of whole process and strengthen the overall quality control of raw materials to produce health food of high quality.


Assuntos
Alimentos/normas , Materia Medica/normas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Controle de Qualidade , Projetos de Pesquisa
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