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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108965, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726324

RESUMO

Tritrichomonas foetus isolates from feline and bovine origin has been previously shown to carry a certain degree of genetic heterogeneity. Here, novel candidate molecular markers were developed by means of multilocus sequence typing of the gap2 gene (encoding for T. foetus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), ITS region, the TR7/TR8 variable-length repeat and microsatellite genotyping. These markers were used to characterize T. foetus field isolates from bulls and domestic cats and to compare phylogenetically with the following ATCC isolates: T. foetus isolated from cattle and pig (syn. Tritrichomonas suis), Tritrichomonas mobilensis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Pentatrichomonas hominis. Among them, TFMS10 and TFMS7 were found to be the most polymorphic markers. Moreover, an 809 bp fragment of the gap2 gene was successfully amplified from all the trichomonads included in this study and the sequence analysis revealed differences between T. foetus porcine and feline genotypes and T. mobilensis in comparison to the bovine T. foetus ATCC isolate. The TR7/TR8 repeat pattern was not reproducible, being only consistent the fragments of approximately 110 and 217 bp. Sequence analysis of the latter revealed the existence of 3 SNPs resulting in 98.6 % homology between bovine and feline isolates. A search for similar sequences was carried out to develop a Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism analysis. A 503 bp region, named TF1, revealed the existence of two BbvI restriction enzyme sites that were able to generate different length fragments for T. foetus feline and bovine isolates. Finally, the neighbour-joining analyses showed that T. foetus porcine genotype clusters together with bovine genotype, whereas T. mobilensis and the feline genotype form a separate cluster.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Tritrichomonas foetus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Gatos , Bovinos , Sequência Consenso , DNA Ribossômico/química , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/genética , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Repetições Minissatélites , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Tritrichomonas foetus/classificação
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107771, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585116

RESUMO

A PCR targeting mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit III (cox3) for molecular detection of Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs has been developed in this study. Fifty blood samples from suspected clinical cases from dogs, brought to the veterinary college clinics, were examined for presence of B. gibsoni using conventional diagnosis by microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin blood smears. In addition, species specific PCRs targeting ITS-1 region (BgITS-1 PCR) and nested PCR targeting 18S ribosomal RNA gene (Bg18SnPCR) were carried out. A 634 bp PCR fragment of B. gibsoni cox3 gene was amplified in positive samples from three geographical locations of Satara, Wai and Pune in Maharashtra state of India. From analysis of the sequence of the B. gibsoni cox3 gene, we found that the Indian isolate had 96-98% similarity to the isolate from Japan and China. Post sequencing, de-novo diagnostic primer pair for species specific amplification of 164 bp fragment of B. gibsonicox3 was designed and the PCR was standardized. The diagnostic results of de-novo Bgcox3 PCR were compared with BgITS-1 PCR and Bg18S nPCR. Thin blood smears detected 22% (11/50) samples positive for small form of Babesia species. The BgITS-1 PCR detected 25% samples (15/50) as positive and Bg18S nPCR detected 80% (40/50) B. gibsoni positive samples. The de-novo Bgcox3 PCR detected 66% (33/50) samples positive for B. gibsoni (at 95% CI). The analytical sensitivity of cox3 PCR was evaluated as 0.000003% parasitaemia or 09 parasites in 100  µl of blood. The de-novo diagnostic cox3 PCR did not cross react with control positive DNA from other haemoprotozoa and rickettsia like B. vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Trypanosoma evansi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys. Statistically, cox3 PCR had better diagnostic efficiency than ITS-1 PCR in terms of sensitivity (p = 0.0006). No statistically significant difference between results of cox3 PCR and 18S nPCR was observed (p = 0.1760). Kappa values estimated for each test pair showed fair to moderate agreement between the observations. Specificity of Bgcox3 PCR was 100% when compared with microscopy or BgITS-1 PCR. Sensitivity of Bgcox3 PCR was 100% when compared with that of Bg18S nPCR.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Sequência de Bases , Reações Cruzadas , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 482, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A century ago, pantheras were abundant across Asia. Illegal hunting and trading along with loss of habitat have resulted in the designation of Panthera as a genus of endangered species. In addition to the onslaught from humans, pantheras are also susceptible to outbreaks of several infectious diseases, including babesiosis. The latter is a hemoprotozoan disease whose causative agents are the eukaryotic parasites of the apicomplexan genus Babesia. Babesiosis affects a varied range of animals including humans (Homo sapiens), bovines (e.g. Bos taurus), pantheras (e.g. Panthera tigris, P. leo, P. pardus) and equines. Babesia spp. are transmitted by the tick vector Ixodes scapularis or ticks of domestic animals, namely Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) decoloratus. At the level of protein translation within these organisms, the conserved aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS) family offers an opportunity to identify the sequence and structural differences in the host (Panthera) and parasites (Babesia spp.) in order to exploit these for drug targeting Babesia spp. METHODS: Using computational tools we investigated the genomes of Babesia spp. and Panthera tigris so as to annotate their aaRSs. The sequences were analysed and their subcellular localizations were predicted using Target P1.1, SignalP 3.0, TMHMM v.2.0 and Deeploc 1.0 web servers. Structure-based analysis of the aaRSs from P. tigris and its protozoan pathogens Babesia spp. was performed using Phyre2 and chimera. RESULTS: We identified 33 (B. bovis), 34 (B. microti), 33 (B. bigemina) and 33 (P. tigris) aaRSs in these respective organisms. Poor sequence identity (~ 20-50%) between aaRSs from Babesia spp. and P. tigris was observed and this merits future experiments to validate new drug targets against Babesia spp. CONCLUSIONS: Overall this work provides a foundation for experimental investigation of druggable aaRSs from Babesia sp. in an effort to control Babesiosis in Panthera.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/efeitos dos fármacos , Babesia/enzimologia , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Panthera/parasitologia , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/química , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/transmissão , Domínio Catalítico , Biologia Computacional , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/veterinária , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Genoma de Protozoário , Isocumarinas/metabolismo , Cadeias de Markov , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Panthera/genética , Panthera/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
4.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(4): 423-427, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533410

RESUMO

Coenurosis is an important zoonotic helminthic disease caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia multiceps. This parasite typically infects the brain of the intermediate hosts, including sheep, goat, cattle and even humans. We report a case of T. multiceps infection in a yak confirmed by clinical symptoms, morphological characteristics, and molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The coenurus was thin-walled, whitish, and spherical in shape with a diameter of 10 cm. The parasite species was identified as T. multiceps by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA, cox1 and nad1 genes. Three gene sequences all showed high homology (all above 97%) with the reference sequences from different hosts. Moreover, phylogenetic reconstructions with the 3 published Taenia gene sequences confirmed that the Qinghai yak isolate was closely related to T. multiceps. Although there are advanced diagnosis and treatment methods for coenurosis, early infection is difficult to diagnose. Importantly, the findings of yak infection case should not be ignored due to its zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Neurocisticercose/veterinária , Taenia/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar/veterinária , Masculino , NAD/genética , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Tibet
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107734, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394093

RESUMO

Parasitism by Haemonchus contortus is one of the main limiting factors in small ruminant production around the globe. Although several studies suggest the use of integrated management practices, these parasites have been controlled essentially with synthetic anthelmintic drugs. The resistance mechanism against the imidazothiazole derivative levamisole in Haemonchus contortus has not been fully described. Recently, resistance was associated with a 63bp deletion in the Hco-acr-8b gene that encodes a subunit for a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This study aimed to standardize a real time PCR (qPCR) protocol for levamisole resistance diagnosis in H. contortus populations based on this polymorphism and use it to characterize 23 field H. contortus populations obtained from different localities of Ceará State, Northeast Brazil. In addition, two populations of H. contortus were used as a standard of susceptibility and resistance, Inbred Strain Edinburgh (ISE) and Kokstad, respectively. Larval development tests (LDT) were performed on five field isolates and both EC50 and EC95 were estimated. LDT EC95 values provided a wider interval between susceptible and resistant populations than EC50 values (EC95 = 1.96-57.93 µM; EC50 = 0.05-0.39 µM), and were found to be more appropriate for differentiating them. Real time PCR results showed resistance allele frequencies ranged from 20.9 to 76.7%. Our results suggest that levamisole resistance may be present in field populations but it is not as widespread as benzimidazole resistance. This methodology may be useful to monitor levamisole resistance in field populations of H. contortus.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Levamisol/farmacologia , Animais , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Junção Neuromuscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Receptores Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Nicotínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tetramizol/farmacologia
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 567-574, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394161

RESUMO

HMGB2, a member of the high mobility group box family, plays an important role in host immune responses. However, the mechanism of action of HMGB2 is not well understood. Herein, a homologue from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) was cloned and named PfHMGB2. The deduced amino acid sequence of PfHMGB2 possessed a typical tripartite structure (two DNA binding boxes and an acid tail) and shared 90% identity with the predicted HMGB2 from I. punctatus. The mRNA of PfHMGB2 was widely distributed in all 11 tested tissues in healthy fish bodies and was significantly induced in the liver and head kidney when yellow catfish were injected with inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila. Consistently, PfHMGB2 mRNA could also be induced in yellow catfish peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) by lipopolysaccharide. The recombinant PfHMGB2 protein was purified from E. coli BL21 (DE3):pET-28a/PfHMGB2 and showed DNA-binding affinity. Moreover, rPfHMGB2 improved the phagocytosis and proliferation activity and upregulated the mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα in yellow catfish PBL. These results indicated that PfHMGB2 could protect yellow catfish from pathogen infection by activating PBL.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Peixes-Gato/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Proteína HMGB2/genética , Proteína HMGB2/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Proteína HMGB2/química , Leucócitos/imunologia , Fagocitose/imunologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 406-415, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369857

RESUMO

Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) is a universally farmed fish species in China and has a large farming scale and economic value. With the high-density cultural mode in mandarin fish, viral diseases, such as infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) and Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV), have increased loss, which has seriously restricted the development of aquaculture. Y-Box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a member of cold shock protein family that regulates multiple cellular processes. The roles of mammalian YB-1 protein in environmental stress and innate immunity have been studied well, but its roles in teleost fishes remain unknown. In the present study, the characteristic of S. chuatsi YB-1 (scYB-1) and its roles in cold stress and virus infection were investigated. The scYB-1 obtained an 1541 bp cDNA that contains a 903 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 300 amino acids. Tissue distribution results showed that the scYB-1 is a ubiquitously expressed gene found among tissues from mandarin fish. Overexpression of scYB-1 can increase the expression levels of cold shock-responsive genes, such as scHsc70a, scHsc70b, and scp53. Furthermore, the role of scYB-1 in innate immunity was also investigated in mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) cells. The expression level of scYB-1 was significant change in response to poly (I:C), poly (dG:dC), PMA, ISKNV, or SCRV stimulation. The overexpression of scYB-1 can significantly increase the expression levels of NF-κB-responsive genes, including scIL-8, scTNF-α, and scIFN-h. The NF-κB-luciferase report assay results showed that the relative expression of luciferin was significantly increased in the cells overexpressed with scYB-1 compared with those in cells overexpressed with control plasmid. These results indicate that scYB-1 can induce the NF-κB signaling pathway in MFF-1 cells. Overexpressed scYB-1 can downregulate the expression of ISKNV viral major capsid protein (mcp) gene but upregulates the expression of SCRV mcp gene. Moreover, knockdown of scYB-1 using siRNA can upregulate the expression of ISKNV mcp gene but downregulates the expression of SCRV mcp gene. These results indicate that scYB-1 suppresses ISKNV infection while enhancing SCRV infection. The above observations suggest that scYB-1 is involved in cold stress and virus infection. Our study will provide an insight into the roles of teleost fish YB-1 protein in stress response and innate immunity.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Iridoviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Rhabdoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Y-Box/química
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 702-710, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421242

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-step lysosomal degradation process used to maintain cell survival and homeostasis. A series of autophagy-related genes (Atgs) are involved in the autophagic pathway. In mammals, a growing number of studies have attributed functions to some Atgs that are distinct from their classical role in autophagosome biogenesis, such as resistance to pathogens. However, little is known about the functions of fish Atgs. In this study, we cloned and characterized an atg12 homolog from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (Ecatg12). Ecatg12 encodes a 117 amino acid protein that shares 94.0% and 76.8% identity with gourami (Anabas_testudineus) and humans (Homo sapiens), respectively. The transcription level of Ecatg12 was lower in cells infected with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) than in non-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that EcAtg12 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus in grouper spleen cells. Overexpression of EcAtg12 significantly increased the replication of SGIV, as evidenced by increased severity of the cytopathic effect, transcription levels of viral genes, levels of viral proteins, and progeny virus yield. Further studies showed that EcAtg12 overexpression decreased the expression levels of interferon (IFN) related molecules and pro-inflammatory factors and inhibited the promoter activity of IFN-3, interferon-stimulated response element, and nuclear factor-κB. Together, these results demonstrate that EcAtg12 plays crucial roles in SGIV replication by downregulating antiviral immune responses.


Assuntos
Proteína 12 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 12 Relacionada à Autofagia/imunologia , Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteína 12 Relacionada à Autofagia/química , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 823-831, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422181

RESUMO

Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and multi-functional protein with diverse localizations. CRT has lectin-like properties and possesses important immunological activities in mammalian. In teleost, very limited studies on CRT immunologic function have been documented. In the present study, a CRT homologue (SsCRT) was cloned, identified and characterized from black rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, an important aquaculture species in East Asia. The full length of SsCRT cDNA is 2180 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 425 amino acids. SsCRT contains a signal peptide, three distinct structural and functional domains (N-, P- and C-domains), and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval signal sequence (KDEL). The deduced amino acid sequence of SsCRT shares 89-92% overall sequence identities with the CRT proteins of several fish species. SsCRT was distributed ubiquitously in all the detected tissues and was highly expressed in the spleen, muscle and liver. After the infection of fish extracellular bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum and intracellular bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella tarda, the mRNA transcripts of SsCRT in spleen, liver, and head kidney were significantly up-regulated. The expression patterns were time-dependent and tissue-dependent. Recombinant SsCRT (rSsCRT) exhibited apparent binding activities against different bacteria and PAMPs. In vivo studies showed that the expressions of multiple immune-related genes such as TNF13B, IL-1ß, IL-8, SAA, Hsp70, and ISG15 in head kidney were significantly enhanced when black rockfish were treated with rSsCRT. Furthermore, rSsCRT reduced pathogen dissemination and replication in fish kidney and spleen. These results indicated that SsCRT served as an immune receptor to recognize and eliminate the invading pathogens, which played a vital role in the immune response of Sebastes schlegeli. These findings provide new insights into understanding the roles of CRT proteins in immune response and pathogen infection in teleost.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/genética , Calreticulina/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Calreticulina/química , Edwardsiella tarda/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/farmacologia , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/imunologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 597-611, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400511

RESUMO

The transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), is a dimeric protein and a downstream member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. It regulates a wide array of functions including, cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, response to UV-irradiation, immune responses, and inflammatory conditions. AP-1 belongs to the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein family, which consists of members from Jun, Fos, Maf, and ATF subfamilies. In the present study, c-Jun and c-Fos homologs were identified from a transcriptome database of Liza haematocheila and designated as Lhc-Jun and Lhc-Fos. In both sequences, the signature bZIP domain was identified and also the DNA binding sites, dimerization sites, as well as the phosphorylation sites, were found to be highly conserved through evolution. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that both Lhc-Jun and Lhc-Fos transcripts were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues of healthy mullets. In order to determine the transcriptional modulations of Lhc-Jun and Lhc-Fos, challenge experiments were carried out using LPS, poly I:C, and L. garvieae. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed significant upregulation of Lhc-Jun and Lhc-Fos in blood, gill, liver, and spleen. This is the first study that explores the correlation between UV-irradiation and AP-1 ortholog expression in teleosts. Also, this is the first time that the functional characterization of the teleost c-Fos ortholog has been carried out. Sub-cellular localization of Lhc-Jun and Lhc-Fos was observed in the nucleus. AP-1-Luc reporter assays revealed significant higher luciferase activities in both Lhc-Jun and Lhc-Fos proteins compared to mock controls. These results strongly suggest that Lhc-Jun and Lhc-Fos might play a significant role in Liza haematocheila immunity by regulating AP-1 promoter sequences in immune and stress-related genes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Lactococcus/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/química
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 623-630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400512

RESUMO

Cathepsin S belong to the cathepsin L-like family of cysteine cathepsins. It is well known that Cathepsin S participate in various physiological processes and host immune defense in mammals. However, in teleost fish, the function of cathepsin S is less investigated. In the present study, a cathepsin S homologue (SsCTSS) from the teleost fish black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) were identified and examined at expression and functional levels. In silico analysis showed that three domains, including signal peptide, cathepsin propeptide inhibitor I29 domain, and functional domain Pept_C1, were existed in the cathepsin. SsCTSS possesses a peptidase domain with three catalytically essential residues (Cys25, His162, and Asn183). Phylogenetic profiling indicated that SsCTSS are evolutionally close to the cathepsin S of other teleost fish. The expression of SsCTSS in immune-related tissues was upregulated in a time-dependent manner upon bacterial pathogen infection. Purified recombinant SsCTSS (rSsCTSS) exhibited apparent peptidase activity, which was remarkably declined in the presence of the cathepsin inhibitor E-64. rSsCTSS showed strong binding ability to LPS and PGN, the major constituents of the outer membranes of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. rSsCTSS also exhibited the capability of agglutination to different bacteria. The knockdown of SsCTSS attenuated the ability of host to eliminate pathogenic bacteria. Taken together, our results suggested that SsCTSS functions as cysteine protease which might be involved in the antibacterial immunity of black rockfish.


Assuntos
Catepsinas/genética , Catepsinas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Catepsinas/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Peptidoglicano/farmacologia , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/imunologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 683-693, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408729

RESUMO

Fish skin mucus is considered to act as the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens and to be potential source of novel antimicrobial components. Here we report the purification and characterization of a novel hepcidin type 2-like antimicrobial peptide (TpHAMP2) from the skin mucus of the pufferfish Takifugu pardalis. The purified TpHAMP2 comprised of 23 amino acids (AAs) with eight Cys residues that form four intramolecular disulfide bonds. The TpHAMP2 gene shared overall structural characteristics with all known hepcidins, which have a tripartite exon-intron gene organization and three structural signatures in the precursor protein. Phylogenetically, TpHAMP2 was classified as HAMP2 class in acanthopterygian fish. Interestingly, the AA sequence of TpHAMP2 did not contain a proprotein cleavage site (RXXR motif) that conserved in most hepcidins and showed a highly positive charged (RKR-) short N-terminus and Val18 and Gly22 residues, which are distinctive structures compared to other known active hepcidins. Recombinant TpHAMP2 identical to the native form exhibited a broad spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against tested gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Expression of TpHAMP2 mRNA was predominant in the liver and was upregulated in the liver, the spleen, the intestine, and the skin of T. pardalis post immune challenge. Thus, our findings suggests that TpHAMP2 might be of importance in the framework of discovering the fish hepcidins, especially type 2s, and provide noteworthy insight into its gene structure and expression and in the innate immunity as well as the mucosal immunity in regard to hepcidins' evolutionary history in fish species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepcidinas/genética , Hepcidinas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Takifugu/genética , Takifugu/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Hepcidinas/química , Imunidade nas Mucosas/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 308-312, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352113

RESUMO

Initiation of the innate immune response requires recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pathogen recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal) is an adaptor that responds to TLR activation and acts as a bridging adaptor for MyD88. In the present study, the open reading frame of Mal was identified in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and named EcMal. It contained 831 bp encoding 276 aa, and was encoded by a 1299 bp DNA sequence with three exons and two introns. EcMal and the Mal sequence of other species shared different degrees of sequence identity, and clustered into the same group. EcMal was distributed in all tissues tested in healthy grouper, with the highest expression level in the head kidney. After infection with Cryptocaryon irritans, the expression level of EcMal was up-regulated in the gill and spleen. In addition, EcMal exhibited global cytosolic and nucleus localization, and could significantly activate NF-κB activity in grouper spleen cells.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/imunologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/química , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 449-462, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352119

RESUMO

Galectins are ß-galactoside-binding lectins, which are involved in pattern recognition, cell adhesion, and stimulation of the host innate immune responses against microbial pathogens. In spite of several functional studies on different galectins isolated from vertebrates and invertebrates, this is the first report to present functional studies for galectin-8 from the marine teleost tissues. In the present study, we characterized galectin-8 homolog from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii), in molecular and functional aspects. Rockfish galectin-8 (SsGal8) was found to consist of a 969 bp long open reading frame (ORF), encoding a protein of 322 amino acids and the predicted molecular weight was 35.82 kDa. In silico analysis of SsGal8 revealed the presence of two carbohydrate binding domains (CRDs), at both N and C-termini and a linker peptide of 40 amino acids, in between the two domains. As expected, the phylogenetic tree categorized SsGal8 as a tandem-repeat galectin, and ultimately positioned it in the sub-clade of fish galectin-8. rSsGal8 was able to strongly agglutinate fish erythrocytes and the inhibition of agglutination was successfully exhibited by lactose and d-galactose. Bacterial agglutination assay resulted in agglutination of both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Streptococcus parauberis, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio tapetis. The tissue distribution analysis based on qPCR assays, revealed a ubiquitous tissue expression of SsGal8 for the examined rockfish tissues, with the most pronounced expression in blood, followed by brain, intestine, head kidney and kidney. Furthermore, the mRNA transcription level of SsGal8 was significantly up-regulated in spleen, liver and head kidney, upon immune challenges with Streptococcus iniae, LPS and poly I:C, in a time dependent manner. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the contribution of SsGal8 in regulating innate immune responses to protect the rockfish from bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Galectinas/genética , Galectinas/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Galectinas/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/imunologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 108-115, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326582

RESUMO

Protein arginine methylation is a prevalent posttranslational modification and protein arginine methyltransferases 6 (PRMT6) has been identified as a suppressor of TBK1/IRF3 in human and mammals. To explore the role of PRMT6 in teleost fish, PRMT6 homologue of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned and characterized in this study. Black carp PRMT6 (bcPRMT6) transcription in host cells varies in response to different stimuli and bcPRMT6 migrates around 43 kDa in the immunoblot assay. Like its mammalian counterpart, bcPRMT6 has been identified to distribute majorly in the nucleus through the immunofluorescent staining assay. bcPRMT6 shows little interferon (IFN) promoter-inducing activity in the reporter assay and bcPRMT6 shows no antiviral activity against either grass carp reovirus (GCRV) or spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in plaque assay. When co-expressed with bcPRMT6, the IFN promoter-inducing abilities of black carp TBK1 (bcTBK1) and IRF3/7 (bcIRF3/7) are fiercely attenuated. Accordingly, bcTBK1-mediated antiviral activity in EPC cells is obviously dampened by bcPRMT6. The interaction between bcPRMT6 and bcIRF3/7 has been identified by co-immunoprecipitation assay; however, no direct association between bcPRMT6 and bcTBK1 has been detected. Taken together, our data elucidates for the first time in teleost fish that PRMT6 suppresses TBK1-IRF3/7 signaling during host antiviral innate immune activation.


Assuntos
Carpas/genética , Carpas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/imunologia , Filogenia , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/química , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/imunologia , Reoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Rhabdoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 200-207, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326587

RESUMO

Extracellular nucleotides and nucleotide sugars are important danger-associated signaling molecules that play critical roles in regulation of immune responses in mammals through activation of purinergic receptors located on the cell surface. However, the immunological role of extracellular UDP-glucose-activated P2Y14 receptor (P2Y14R) in fish still remains unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a P2Y14R paralog in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The mRNA transcripts of P2Y14R are detected in all examined Japanese flounder tissues. Compared with the UDP-activated P2Y6 receptor, however, P2Y14R gene is highly expressed in Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages (HKMs). In addition, P2Y14R is significantly upregulated following inflammatory stimulation with LPS and poly (I:C) in the HKMs, suggesting a role of P2Y14R in response to inflammation in fish. Furthermore, activation of P2Y14 receptor with its potent and selective agonist MRS 2905 resulted in a decreased expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta gene in the HKMs. In contrast, inhibition of P2Y14 receptor activity or down-regulation of the endogenous expression of P2Y14R by small interfering RNA significantly upregulates the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta gene expression in the HKMs, demonstrating that P2Y14R is involved in inflammation regulation in fish. Moreover, stimulation of the Japanese flounder HKMs with UDP-glucose evoked a rapid increase of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating the involvement of P2Y14R in activation of ERK1/2 signaling in fish immune cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that the inducible P2Y14R plays an important role in regulation of fish innate immunity.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y/química , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 781-788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326588

RESUMO

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a pivotal economic fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus infections. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) is a crucial adaptor molecule, which can trigger downstream signaling cascades involved in immune pathway. In this study, Nile tilapia TRAF5 coding sequence (named OnTRAF5) was obtained, which contained typical functional domains, such as RING, zinc finger, coiled-coil and MATH domain. Different from other TRAF molecules, OnTRAF5 had shown relatively low identify with its homolog, and it was clustered into other teleost TRAF5 proteins. qRT-PCR was used to analysis the expression level of OnTRAF5 in gill, skin, muscle, head kidney, heart, intestine, thymus, liver, spleen and brain, In healthy Nile tilapia, the expression level of OnTRAF5 in intestine, gill and spleen were significantly higher than other tissues. While under Streptococcus agalactiae infection, the expression level of OnTRAF5 was improved significantly in all detected organs. Additionally, over-expression WT OnTRAF5 activated NF-κB, deletion of RING or zinc finger caused the activity impaired. In conclusion, OnTRAF5 participate in anti-bacteria immune response and is crucial for the signaling transduction.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Ciclídeos/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Fator 5 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia , Fator 5 Associado a Receptor de TNF/química , Fator 5 Associado a Receptor de TNF/imunologia
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 191-199, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326589

RESUMO

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the most pleiotropic cytokines because of its wide range of effects on cells of the immune and non-immune systems in the body. However, the role of IL-6 in fish monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ) is poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequence of the IL-6 gene from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) and demonstrated using a tissue distribution assay that ayu interleukin-6 (PaIL-6) mRNA is expressed in all tested tissues. Changes in expression were observed in immune tissues as well as in MO/MФ after a Vibrio anguillarum infection; subsequently, PaIL-6 was expressed and purified to prepare anti-PaIL-6 antibodies. Recombinant PaIL-6 protein (rPaIL-6) treatment enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Ayu interleukin-6 receptor ß (PaIL-6Rß) knockdown resulted in decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in MO/MФ treated with rPaIL-6, whereas no significant changes were observed after ayu interleukin-6 receptor α (PaIL-6Rα) knockdown in MO/MФ. PaIL-6 and PaIL-6Rß knockdown in MO/MФ inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Moreover, PaIL-6Rß knockdown inhibited the phagocytic and bactericidal ability of ayu MO/MФ treated with rPaIL-6. These data indicate that PaIL-6 may be able to regulate the function of ayu MO/MФ.


Assuntos
Receptor gp130 de Citocina/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Osmeriformes/genética , Osmeriformes/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Receptor gp130 de Citocina/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/veterinária , Interleucina-6/química , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Fagocitose/genética , Fagocitose/imunologia , Fosforilação , Filogenia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 183-190, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330254

RESUMO

In mammals, a matricellular protein, thrombospondin 2 (Thbs2) has been reported to play important roles in modulating cell-matrix interactions, vascular integrity and thrombosis formation. However, the role of gene, thbs2 has not yet been studied in teleost. In the present study, this novel fish gene from Japanese flounder was cloned and its function in resistant to lymphocystis disease virus was elucidated. The Japanese flounder thbs2 encoded a 1176-amino acid protein with 91% identity to medaka. Amino acid sequence indicated that Japanese flounder Thbs2 contained 10 typical conserved domains. The thbs2 was expressed in all stages of embryo development, and in hatched larva stage, its expression was significantly higher than that in other stages (P < 0.05). The relative expression level of thbs2 was significantly higher in the head kidney, liver, blood, gill, and heart of the lymphocystis disease virus resistant fish than in sensitive fish (P < 0.05); and in muscle, this difference was at highly significant (P < 0.01). Additionally, the distribution of Thbs2 in tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Subcellular localization analysis showed that Thbs2 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the cells. Taken together, our results provide new basic data for thbs2 function, especially its role in anti-lymphocystis disease virus immune response.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Trombospondinas/genética , Trombospondinas/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Iridoviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Trombospondinas/química
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 208-215, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306760

RESUMO

Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) is a lysosomal cysteine protease that is known to be involved in the maintenance of homeostasis and the biological mechanisms of immune cells. In this study, we have confirmed the tissue specific expression of the cathepsin Z (PmCTSZ) gene in Pagrus major, and confirmed its biological function after producing recombinant protein using Escherichia coli (E. coli). Multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed that the active site of the cysteine proteases and three N-glycosylation sites of the deduced protein sequence were highly conserved among all of the organisms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCTSZ was included in the clusters of CTSZ and the cysteine proteases of other bony fish and is most closely related to Japanese flounder CTSZ. PmCTSZ was distributed in all of the tissues from healthy red sea bream that were used in the experiment and was most abundantly found in the spleen and gill. Analysis of mRNA expression after bacterial (Edwardsiella piscicida: E. piscicida and Streptococcus iniae: S. iniae) or viral (red seabream iridovirus: RSIV) challenge showed significant gene expression regulation in immune-related tissues, but they maintained relatively normal levels of expression. We produced recombinant PmCTSZ (rPmCTSZ) using an E. coli expression system and confirmed the biological function of extracellular rPmCTSZ in vitro. We found that bacterial proliferation was significantly inhibited by rPmCTSZ, and the leukocytes of red sea bream also induced apoptosis and viability reduction.


Assuntos
Catepsina Z/genética , Catepsina Z/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Dourada/genética , Dourada/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Catepsina Z/química , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Edwardsiella/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Iridoviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia
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