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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111545, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326847

RESUMO

Proper waste utilization in order to promote value added product is a promising scientific practice in recent era. Inspiring from the recurring trend, we propose a single step oxidative pyrolysis derived fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) from Allium sativum peel, which is a natural, nontoxic, and waste raw material. Because of its excellent optical properties, and photostability this C-dots have been used in versatile area of applications. Due to its immediate water dispersing character, C-dots reinforced Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) films revealed improvement in uniaxial stretching behavior and can be used as transparent sunlight conversion film. The nanocomposite film has been tested against rigorous simulated sunlight which proved almost identical sunlight conversion behavior with no photo-bleachable character which is definitely added an extra quality of transparent polymer films. Moreover, the C-dots dispersion has been used as in vitro biomarker for living cells owing to its ease in solubility, biocompatibility, non-cytotoxicity and bright fluorescence even in subcutaneous environment. For this case, adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) have been chosen and injected to rabbit ear skin to perform two-photon imaging experiment. The present work opens a new avenue towards the large-scale synthesis of bio-waste based fluorescent C-dots, paving the way for their versatile applications.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Nitrogênio/química , Fotodegradação/efeitos da radiação , Pontos Quânticos/química , Enxofre/química , Luz Solar , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Allium/metabolismo , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Carbono/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Química Verde , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Coelhos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Solubilidade
2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(2): 2221-2230, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747383

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the effects of dietary Allium mongolicum Regel polysaccharide (AMRP) on growth, lipopolysaccharide-induced antioxidant responses and immune responses in Channa argus. A basal diet was supplemented with AMRP at 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 g/kg feed for 56 days. After the 56 days feeding period, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly increased or decreased (P < 0.05) by dietary AMRP, with the highest WG, SGR and the minimum FCR occurring in 1.5 g/kg AMRP group. Furthermore, AMRP supplementation conferred significant protective effects against LPS challenge by preventing alterations in the levels of complements 3 (C3) and complements 4 (C4), lysozyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) while regulating the expression of immune-related genes including heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), SOD, GST, IL-1 and TNF-α. Finally, AMRP supplementation significantly increased serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations and reduced mortality after LPS challenge. Taken together, our results suggest that the administration of AMRP could attenuate LPS-induced negative effects in C. argus, with 1.5 g/kg considered a suitable dose.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Allium/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0194242, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677195

RESUMO

Understanding species-specific changes in water-use patterns under recent climate scenarios is necessary to predict accurately the responses of seasonally dry ecosystems to future climate. In this study, we conducted a precipitation manipulation experiment to investigate the changes in water-use patterns of two coexisting species (Achnatherum splendens and Allium tanguticum) to alterations in soil water content (SWC) resulting from increased and decreased rainfall treatments. The results showed that the leaf water potential (Ψ) of A. splendens and A. tanguticum responded to changes in shallow and middle SWC at both the control and treatment plots. However, A. splendens proportionally extracted water from the shallow soil layer (0-10cm) when it was available but shifted to absorbing deep soil water (30-60 cm) during drought. By contrast, the A. tanguticum did not differ significantly in uptake depth between treatment and control plots but entirely depended on water from shallow soil layers. The flexible water-use patterns of A.splendens may be a key factor facilitating its dominance and it better acclimates the recent climate change in the alpine grassland community around Qinghai Lake.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Pradaria , Poaceae/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Allium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Deutério/análise , Secas , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Água/química
4.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0190305, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281705

RESUMO

Inflammation is a commonly observed immune reaction, and rheumatoid arthritis is a particularly severe inflammatory disease. In this study, we used an air pouch mouse model to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Allium hookeri, which has both been used as a culinary material and a traditional medicine in south-eastern Asia for many years. Allium hookeri suppressed typical symptoms of inflammation, such as condensation of the air pouch membrane, and inhibited the expression of several inducible proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-13, and TNF-α. In order to determine the molecules modulating the inflammatory effect of carrageenan treatment, the components in Allium hookeri were analyzed by GC-MS, and linoleic acid, which have anti-inflammatory effect, was detected. From the results, we concluded that the anti-inflammatory effect of Allium hookeri might be attributed to linoleic acid, which could be promising candidates for anti-inflammatory drugs that have no adverse effects.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Carragenina/toxicidade , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(26): 5238-5243, 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562038

RESUMO

Fe-impregnated biochar was assessed as a method to remove the pesticide pollutant chlorpyrifos, utilizing biochar/FeOx composite synthesized via chemical coprecipitation of Fe3+/Fe2+ onto Cyperus alternifolius biochar. Fe-impregnated biochar exhibited a higher sorption capacity than pristine biochar, resulting in more efficient removal of chlorpyrifos from water. Soil was dosed with pristine or Fe-impregnated biochar at 0.1 or 1.0% w/w, to evaluate chlorpyrifos uptake in Allium fistulosum L. (Welsh onion). The results showed that the average concentration of chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), decreased in A. fistulosum L. with increased levels of pristine biochar and Fe-biochar. Fe-biochar was found to be more effective in reducing the uptake of chlorpyrifos by improving the sorption ability and increasing plant root iron plaque. Bioavailability of chlorpyrifos is reduced with both biochar and Fe-biochar soil dosing; however, the greatest persistence of chlorpyrifos residues was observed with 1.0% pristine biochar. Microbial community analysis showed Fe-biochar to have a positive impact on the efficiency of chlorpyrifos degradation in soils, possibly by altering microbial communities.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Clorpirifos/química , Cyperus/química , Inseticidas/química , Ferro/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Adsorção , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
6.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 469(1): 192-5, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27595829

RESUMO

The first results of the use of the Allium test for estimation of toxicity of bottom sediments in the Yenisei River and the effect of external γ-radiation under laboratory conditions are presented. The effect of stimulation of the onion root growth, i.e., the absence of toxicity was discovered in toxicological experiments using bottom sediments and under external γ-radiation. The stimulating effect of radiation on the growth of onion roots limits the use of the Allium test for testing samples from the Yenisei River ecosystem in the zone subjected to the impact of radioactive discharges from the Mining and Chemical Combine.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Raios gama , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/metabolismo , Sibéria
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(7)2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27376286

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is important for exploiting heterosis in crop plants and also serves as a model for investigating nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction. The molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration was investigated in several important economic crops but remains poorly understood in the Welsh onion. Therefore, we compared the differences between the CMS line 64-2 and its maintainer line 64-1 using transcriptome sequencing with the aim of determining critical genes and pathways associated with male sterility. This study combined two years of RNA-seq data; there were 1504 unigenes (in May 2013) and 2928 unigenes (in May 2014) that were differentially expressed between the CMS and cytoplasmic male maintainer Welsh onion varieties. Known CMS-related genes were found in the set of differentially expressed genes and checked by qPCR. These genes included F-type ATPase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, etc. Overall, this study demonstrated that the CMS regulatory genes and pathways may be associated with the mitochondria and nucleus in the Welsh onion. We believe that this transcriptome dataset will accelerate the research on CMS gene clones and other functional genomics research on A. fistulosum L.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Allium/genética , Citosol/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , NADH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 9: 133, 2016 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants produce and emit important volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which have an essential role in biotic and abiotic stress responses and in plant-plant and plant-insect interactions. In order to study the bouquets from plants qualitatively and quantitatively, a comprehensive, analytical method yielding reproducible results is required. RESULTS: We applied in-tube extraction (ITEX) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for studying the emissions of Allium plants. The collected HS samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), and the results were subjected to multivariate analysis. In case of ITEX-method Allium cultivars released more than 300 VOCs, out of which we provisionally identified 50 volatiles. We also used the VOC profiles of Allium samples to discriminate among groups of A. fistulosum, A. chinense (rakkyo), and A. tuberosum (Oriental garlic). As we found 12 metabolite peaks including dipropyl disulphide with significant changes in A. chinense and A. tuberosum when compared to the control cultivar, these metabolite peaks can be used for chemotaxonomic classification of A. chinense, tuberosum, and A. fistulosum. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to SPME-method our ITEX-based VOC profiling technique contributes to automatic and reproducible analyses. Hence, it can be applied to high-throughput analyses such as metabolite profiling.


Assuntos
Allium/classificação , Allium/metabolismo , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Microextração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Allium/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/classificação
9.
Anal Chem ; 87(5): 2878-83, 2015 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25679258

RESUMO

Characterization of enzymatic reactions occurring in untreated biological samples is of increasing interest. Herein, the chemical conversion of alliin to allicin, catalyzed by allinase, in raw garlic cloves has been followed in vivo by internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS). Both precursors and products of the enzymatic reaction were instantaneously extracted by infused solution running throughout the tissue and directly electrospray ionized on the edge of the bulk sample for online MS analysis. Compared to the room-temperature (+25 °C) scenario, the alliin conversion in garlic cloves decreased by (7.2 ± 1.4) times upon heating to +80 °C and by (5.9 ± 0.8) times upon cooling to -16 °C. Exposure of garlic to gentle ultrasound irradiation for 3 h accelerated the reaction by (1.2 ± 0.1) times. A 10 s microwave irradiation promoted alliin conversion by (1.6 ± 0.4) times, but longer exposure to microwave irradiation (90 s) slowed the reaction by (28.5 ± 7.5) times compared to the reference analysis. This method has been further employed to monitor the germination process of garlic. These data revealed that over a 2 day garlic sprouting, the allicin/alliin ratio increased by (2.2 ± 0.5) times, and the averaged degree of polymerization for the detected oligosaccharides/polysaccharides decreased from 11.6 to 9.4. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of iEESI-MS for in vivo studies of enzymatic reactions in native biological matrices.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Liases de Carbono-Enxofre/metabolismo , Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Ácidos Sulfínicos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Alho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micro-Ondas , Oligossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/química
10.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 78(7): 1112-22, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25229844

RESUMO

To investigate the involvement of Allium roylei metabolites in the plant's defenses, a comprehensive analysis of the content of cysteine sulfoxides, flavonols, polyphenols, ascorbic acid, and saponins was carried out in the various organs of this species. Metabolomics high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectral-based analysis, and histochemcial studies have given important insight to the validity of saponins as a key component involved in plant protection. The root-basal stem, bulb, and leaf extracts exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with inhibition concentration (IC(50)) ranging from 0.649 to 0.757 mg/mL. The antimicrobial properties of the saponin and flavonoid crude extracts were evaluated. The saponin extracts demonstrated significant antifungal activity depending on the applied concentration, and the growth inhibition rate of the tested fungal pathogens ranged from 1.07 to 47.76%. No appreciable antibacterial activity was recorded in the same sample.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Sulfóxidos/metabolismo
11.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 12(12): 1991-2001.e1-4; quiz e121, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24681077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Laboratory studies have provided evidence that allium vegetables and garlic supplements might protect against colorectal cancer (CRC), but epidemiologic studies have produced inconsistent findings. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies evaluating the associations between allium vegetables, garlic supplements, and CRC risk. We pooled effect measures using fixed- or random-effect models, assessing the highest vs the lowest intakes. We used a dose-response regression model to evaluate the relationship between allium vegetable intake and CRC risk. RESULTS: Our analysis included 8 studies with 20 reports of the effects of allium vegetables (5458 patients with CRC including 7,125,067 person-years) and 5 studies with 11 reports of the effects of garlic supplements (2685 patients with CRC including 2,304,439 person-years). We found no association between higher intake of allium vegetables and CRC risk (relative risk [RR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.17; P = .26). Intake of allium vegetables did not correspond to CRC risk (P for nonlinear = .24, P for linear = .20). In subgroup analysis, a higher consumption of allium vegetables was associated marginally with increased risk of colon cancer among women (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01-1.50; P = .05). Use of garlic supplements was associated significantly with an increased risk of CRC (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.36; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis, we found no evidence that higher intake of allium vegetables reduced the risk for CRC. We observed that garlic supplements increased the risk for CRC, but this finding requires external validation.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Alho , Verduras , Adulto , Idoso , Allium/efeitos adversos , Colo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
12.
Chemosphere ; 109: 213-20, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24582602

RESUMO

Applying biochar products from sewage sludge (SS) pyrolysis as soil amendment for plant cultivation was investigated in this study with special attention paid to heavy metal accumulation in the plants when pyrolysis temperature and biochar-to-soil mass ratio (C:S) were changed. Biochar obtained at four different temperatures were adopted as soil amendment for Allium sativum L. garlic plant cultivation. Experimental results revealed that biochars were rich in nutrient contents and they improved garlic yields. Although contents of heavy metals including As, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr and Cu, etc. were elevated in the biochars compared to local soil, they fell within the acceptable limits for land application and SS is a suitable biochar resource, especially biochar produced at 450°C had rich micropores, relatively stable functional groups in structure and rugged surface to contact well with soil, conducive to its usage as a biochar. The garlic grew faster when planted in the biochar-amended soil and had higher final dry matter yields than those planted in the reference soil, especially biochar produced at 450°C corresponding to the highest final yields. The C:S ratio related to the highest garlic yields changed when the pyrolysis temperature was changed and this ratio was 1:4 for the biochar produced at 450°C. General heavy metal accumulation in the garlic occurred only for the most enriched Zn and Cu, and mainly in the roots & bulbs; in addition this bioaccumulation was increasing as leaching from biochar increased but not increasing with C:S ratio. The garlic planted in soil amended with biochar of 450°C contained the lowest level of heavy metals compared to other biochars. Those results indicated that heavy metal accumulation in plants can be inhibited through proper pyrolysis temperature choice and prevention of heavy metal leaching from the SS biochar.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Esgotos/química , Solo/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Allium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/química , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Food Chem ; 152: 251-60, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24444934

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to develop a simple and rapid in vitro evaluation method for screening and discovery of uncharacterised and untapped prebiotic foods. Using a NMR-based metabolomic approach coupled with multivariate statistical analysis, the metabolic profiles generated by intestinal microbiota after in vitro incubation with feces were examined. The viscous substances of Japanese bunching onion (JBOVS) were identified as one of the candidate prebiotic foods by this in vitro screening method. The JBOVS were primarily composed of sugar components, especially fructose-based carbohydrates. Our results suggested that ingestion of JBOVS contributed to lactate and acetate production by the intestinal microbiota, and were accompanied by an increase in the Lactobacillus murinus and Bacteroidetes sp. populations in the intestine and fluctuation of the host-microbial co-metabolic process. Therefore, our approach should be useful as a rapid and simple screening tool for potential prebiotic foods.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Prebióticos/análise , Allium/metabolismo , Allium/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Alimento Funcional/análise , Alimento Funcional/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microbiota , Prebióticos/microbiologia
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 88: 225-34, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24080525

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia (MI) refers to a pathological state of the heart caused by reduced cardiac blood perfusion, which leads to a decreased oxygen supply in the heart and an abnormal myocardial energy metabolism. Acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) has posed a significant health risk for humans. Allium macrostemon Bunge (AMB), a popular traditional Chinese medicine, is used for MI treatment. The therapeutic effects of AMB were assessed and the detailed mechanisms of AMB for AMI treatment were investigated. We characterized the metabonomic variations in rats from the sham surgery, AMI, and AMB-pretreated AMI groups through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Thirty-five metabolites including carbohydrates, a range of amino acids, and organic acids were detected. The (1)H NMR spectra of the rat serum were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). Results showed that AMI induced some physiological changes in rats and also led to metabolic disorders related to glycolysis promotion, amino acid metabolism disruption, and other metabolite metabolism perturbation. AMB pretreatment reduced the AMI injury and maintained metabolic balance, possibly by limiting the change in energy metabolism and regulating amino acid metabolism. These findings provide a comprehensive insight on the metabolic response of AMI rats to AMB pretreatment and are important for the use of AMB for AMI therapy.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Glicólise , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Análise Multivariada , Consumo de Oxigênio , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 77(12): 2486-8, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24317054

RESUMO

We measured the antioxidant contents and antioxidative activities in eight Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (MAL; FF+1A-FF+8A). The high antioxidative activity lines (FF+2A and FF+6A) showed high polyphenol accumulation. These additional chromosomes (2A and 6A) would therefore have anonymous genes related to the upregulation of polyphenol production, the antioxidative activities consequently being increased in these MALs.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Allium/genética , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Picratos/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 8(9): e72542, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24023750

RESUMO

Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects.


Assuntos
Aglutininas/metabolismo , Allium/metabolismo , Allium/parasitologia , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Aglutininas/genética , Allium/genética , Animais , Gossypium/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
17.
Ann Bot ; 111(3): 419-31, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23348752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although the large variation in genome size among different species is widely acknowledged, the occurrence and extent of variation below the species level are still controversial and have not yet been satisfactorily analysed. The aim of this study was to assess genome size variation in six ploidy levels (2n = 3x-8x) of the polyploid Allium oleraceum over a large geographical gradient and to search for potential interpretations of the size variation. METHODS: The genome sizes of 407 individuals of A. oleraceum collected from 114 populations across Europe were determined by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. The genome size variation was correlated with spatial, climatic and habitat variables. KEY RESULTS: The mean holoploid genome size (2C DNA) was 42·49, 52·14, 63·34, 71·94, 85·51 and 92·12 pg at the tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta- and octoploid levels, respectively. Genome size varied from a minimum of 2·3 % in the octoploids to a maximum of 18·3 % in the tetraploids. Spatial structuring of genome size was observed within the tetra- and pentaploids, where 2C DNA significantly increased with both latitude and longitude, and correlated with several climatic variables, suggesting a gradient of continentality. Genome size in hexaploids showed low variation, weak correlation with climatic variables and no spatial structuring. Downsizing in monoploid genome size was observed between all cytotypes except for heptaploids. Splitting populations into western and eastern European groups resulted in strong differences in monoploid genome size between groups in tetra- and pentaploids but not in hexaploids. The monoploid genome sizes of the cytotypes were similar in the western group but diverged in the eastern group. CONCLUSIONS: Complex patterns of holoploid and monoploid genome size variation found both within and between A. oleraceum cytotypes are most likely the result of several interacting factors, including different evolutionary origins of cytotypes via hybridization of parental combinations with different genome sizes in the south-western and south-eastern part of Europe, introgression between cytotypes, and antropic dispersal. The role of broad-scale and fine-scale environmental variables in shaping genome size is probably of minor importance in A. oleraceum.


Assuntos
Allium/genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma de Planta , Poliploidia , Adaptação Biológica , Allium/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Clima , DNA de Plantas/análise , DNA de Plantas/genética , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Evolução Molecular , Citometria de Fluxo , Variação Genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Propídio/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 7(9): e44658, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23024755

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Diet is known to play an important role in the etiology of colon cancer and dietary chemoprevention is receiving increasing attention for prevention and/or alternative treatment of colon cancers. Allium fistulosum L., commonly known as scallion, is popularly used as a spice or vegetable worldwide, and as a traditional medicine in Asian cultures for treating a variety of diseases. In this study we evaluated the possible beneficial effects of dietary scallion on chemoprevention of colon cancer using a mouse model of colon carcinoma (CT-26 cells subcutaneously inoculated into BALB/c mice). Tumor lysates were subjected to western blotting for analysis of key inflammatory markers, ELISA for analysis of cytokines, and immunohistochemistry for analysis of inflammatory markers. Metabolite profiles of scallion extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Scallion extracts, particularly hot-water extract, orally fed to mice at 50 mg (dry weight)/kg body weight resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth and enhanced the survival rate of test mice. At the molecular level, scallion extracts inhibited the key inflammatory markers COX-2 and iNOS, and suppressed the expression of various cellular markers known to be involved in tumor apoptosis (apoptosis index), proliferation (cyclin D1 and c-Myc), angiogenesis (VEGF and HIF-1α), and tumor invasion (MMP-9 and ICAM-1) when compared with vehicle control-treated mice. Our findings may warrant further investigation of the use of common scallion as a chemopreventive dietary agent to lower the risk of colon cancer.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Allium/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Dieta , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2012: 138579, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22619588

RESUMO

Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 µL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Carboidratos/análise , Ecossistema , Néctar de Plantas , Allium/química , Flores
20.
Metallomics ; 4(3): 267-76, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22278221

RESUMO

While continuing efforts are devoted to studying the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, few studies have investigated the mercury-selenium antagonism in plants. In this study, we report the metabolic fate of mercury and selenium in Allium fistulosum (green onion) after supplementation with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Analysis of homogenized root extracts via capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capRPLC-ICP-MS) suggests the formation of a mercury-selenium containing compound. Micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of freshly excised roots show Hg sequestered on the root surface and outlining individual root cells, while Se is more evenly distributed throughout the root. There are also discrete Hg-only, Se-only regions and an overall strong correlation between Hg and Se throughout the root. Analysis of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a "background" of methylselenocysteine within the root with discrete spots of SeO(3)(2-), Se(0) and solid HgSe on the root surface. Mercury outlining individual root cells is possibly binding to sulfhydryl groups or plasma membrane or cell wall proteins, and in some places reacting with reduced selenium in the rhizosphere to form a mercury(ii) selenide species. Together with the formation of the root-bound mercury(ii) selenide species, we also report on the formation of cinnabar (HgS) and Hg(0) in the rhizosphere. The results presented herein shed light on the intricate chemical and biological processes occurring within the rhizosphere that influence Hg and Se bioavailability and will be instrumental in predicting the fate and assisting in the remediation of these metals in the environment and informing whether or not fruit and vegetable food selection from aerial plant compartments or roots from plants grown in Hg contaminated soils, are safe for consumption.


Assuntos
Allium/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
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