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1.
Mycopathologia ; 184(4): 505-515, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study focused on the differences in hairy root fungal microecology between androgenetic alopecia patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: Light microscopy was used to observe the morphology of hairy roots. Morphological observations were also performed in the positive specimens using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The high-throughput sequencing method was used to detect the fungal microecology of hairy roots at different sites. Moreover, the comparison of fungal loads of Malassezia in different group and scalp area were tested by PCR. RESULTS: The fungi in the hair root observed by optical microscopy are mainly Malassezia yeast. The positive rate of Malassezia in the hair loss group (60%) was higher than that in the control group (40%). The detection efficiency of Malassezia examined by scanning electron microscopy was higher than that by light microscopy. Results acquired from high-throughput molecular sequencing of fungi suggested that Ascomycota was the dominant species, whereas in the occipital hair roots of the control group Basidiomycota was the dominant species in the hair loss group. Malassezia followed by Trichosporon were the most abundant fungal genera. The changes in abundance at the top and occipital region of the control group were more significant than those of the genus Fusarium, followed by Epicoccum and Malassezia. The load of Malassezia located on calvaria in the alopecia group was significantly higher than that in the control group. In the alopecia group, the load of Malassezia on the scalp was higher than that on the occipital region. The load of Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta in the hair loss group was higher on calvaria and occipital areas. CONCLUSION: Malassezia had a positive correlation with the incidence of androgenic alopecia.


Assuntos
Alopecia/microbiologia , Disbiose , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Folículo Piloso/microbiologia , Microbiota , Adulto , Feminino , Fungos/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
2.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050675

RESUMO

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in males. It is a multifactorial condition involving genetic predisposition and hormonal changes. The role of microflora during hair loss remains to be understood. We therefore analyzed the microbiome of hair follicles from hair loss patients and the healthy. Hair follicles were extracted from occipital and vertex region of hair loss patients and healthy volunteers and further dissected into middle and lower compartments. The microbiome was then characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. Distinct microbial population were found in the middle and lower compartment of hair follicles. Middle hair compartment was predominated by Burkholderia spp. and less diverse; while higher bacterial diversity was observed in the lower hair portion. Occipital and vertex hair follicles did not show significant differences. In hair loss patients, miniaturized vertex hair houses elevated Propionibacterium acnes in the middle and lower compartments while non-miniaturized hair of other regions were comparable to the healthy. Increased abundance of P. acnes in miniaturized hair follicles could be associated to elevated immune response gene expression in the hair follicle.


Assuntos
Alopecia/microbiologia , Folículo Piloso/microbiologia , Microbiota , Burkholderia/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Masculino , Propionibacterium/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 65, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tinea capitis is a cutaneous fungal infection common among 3 to 7 year old children but it is rare in the first year of life. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 12-month-old infant with erythematous scalp lesions combined with hair loss. He was suspected of dermatophytosis and mycological analysis of all suspected lesions was performed. Clinical features and culture results confirmed tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis. The infant patient was treated with griseofulvin for 2 months. However, 15 days later at the end of treatment he presented with a single vesicle positive for M. canis. Griseofulvin therapy continued for another month. After 3 months of follow-up, no recurrence was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In infant, sometimes tinea capitis is misdiagnosed and underreported because it is similar to other scalp pathologies. Therefore, if erythematous scalp lesions are present, they must be examined from a mycological point of view to inform the differential diagnosis. Once diagnosed, treatment of tinea capitis can pose a dilemma because different factors may influence the choice between equally effective therapies (i.e. safety, age, formulation, cost). This case report suggests that it is important to establish an accurate diagnosis and  treatment for this dermatophytosis to avoid recurrences or therapeutic failures, especially in infants.


Assuntos
Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Alopecia/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Griseofulvina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Recidiva , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/complicações , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico
5.
J Mycol Med ; 29(1): 62-66, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799183

RESUMO

A 3-year-old boy presented with multiple lesions of tinea corporis with dermatophytids, and subsequent inflammatory lesions with alopecia on the scalp. At the beginning, topical clobetasone butyrate was prescribed. The infection was diagnosed as dermatophytosis on the basis of positive direct microscopy and fungal culture. The etiological agent was isolated from all sampled sites and identified as Trichophyton verrucosum. Clonal nature of the infection was confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The child lived in close vicinity of cattle. He was successfully treated with itraconazole.


Assuntos
Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Alopecia/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Trichophyton/genética
11.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 43(1): 46-49, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940572

RESUMO

Folliculitis decalvans (FD) is classified as a primary neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia, and is estimated to account for approximately 10% of all cases of primary cicatricial alopecia. The role of dysfunctional immune activity and the presence of bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, appear pivotal. We describe a 26-year-old man with a 4-year history of FD that was recalcitrant to numerous systemic and topical therapies, whose disease was virtually cleared during a follow-up of 25 months following a course of treatment with systemic photodynamic therapy (PDT) using ultraviolet light (100-140 J/cm2 ) with porfimer sodium 1 mg/kg as monotherapy. This is the first report of the use of systemic PDT as a treatment for FD. Systemic PDT has potent antibacterial effects with little or no resistance. In addition, systemic PDT provides local immunomodulation and improved scar healing. Significant adverse effects following systemic PDT with appropriate aftercare are rare. This case demonstrates that systemic PDT is a useful therapy option in the treatment of recalcitrant FD.


Assuntos
Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Éter de Diematoporfirina/uso terapêutico , Fotoquimioterapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Alopecia/microbiologia , Alopecia/patologia , Foliculite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Pele/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
13.
G Ital Dermatol Venereol ; 152(5): 520-523, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28906089

RESUMO

Alopecia is an uncommon manifestation of syphilis, simulating other common forms of hair-loss, but representing a crucial complaint for the patient, who might by converse have not noticed other signs and symptoms of the disease. Esthetic issues undervaluation might prolong illness, and postpone appropriate treatment. A 42-year-old patient, HIV negative, presented with a 2-month history of progressive generalized thinning of the hairs and small non-scarring irregular alopecia patches of the parietal-occipital areas of the scalp. The patient was under sertraline hydrochloride therapy for a recent diagnosis of bipolar disorder, and expressed the concern that the drug was causing the hair-loss. Accurate anamnesis and visiting of the patients revealed asymptomatic pale pink speckles of the trunk and limbs, and a bilateral psoriasis-like palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis, suggestive of secondary syphilis, further confirmed by serology. Specific antibiotic treatment healed all skin and scalp manifestations, but also the moodiness disorders, which allowed complete psychiatric drug dismissing. Skilled expertise and careful patient's examination are the clue to recognize minimal signs of serious systemic disease, such as syphilis, considered disappeared for decades. The risk of minimizing esthetic complaints, such as hair-loss can deceive a not trained eye, or escape in busy daily practice. Physicians should maintain a high level of clinical suspicion to contain the disease burden, especially among heterosexual apparently not at risk patients.


Assuntos
Alopecia/etiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Alopecia/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Cell Rep ; 20(7): 1513-1524, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813664

RESUMO

Metabolism by the gut microbiota affects host physiology beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we find that antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, in particular, overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus (L. murinus), impaired gut metabolic function and led to the development of alopecia. While deprivation of dietary biotin per se did not affect skin physiology, its simultaneous treatment with vancomycin resulted in hair loss in specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Vancomycin treatment induced the accumulation of L. murinus in the gut, which consumes residual biotin and depletes available biotin in the gut. Consistently, L. murinus induced alopecia when monocolonized in germ-free mice fed a biotin-deficient diet. Supplementation of biotin can reverse established alopecia symptoms in the SPF condition, indicating that L. murinus plays a central role in the induction of hair loss via a biotin-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that luminal metabolic alterations associated with gut dysbiosis and dietary modifications can compromise skin physiology.


Assuntos
Alopecia/microbiologia , Biotina/deficiência , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Alopecia/metabolismo , Alopecia/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Lactobacillus/genética , Masculino , Metagenoma , Camundongos , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Vancomicina/farmacologia
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 24: 194, 2016.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27795791

RESUMO

Dermatophytic disease, described for the first time in 1959 by Hadida and Schousboe, is a chronic dermatophyte infection of the skin and viscera. It is a rare disease occurring mainly in Maghreb. Immunological studies have highlighted a deficit of cellular immunity with autosomal recessive transmission responsible for tolerance to dermatophyte. The first signs of this disease usually occur during childhood. Our patient suffered from pachyonychia affecting all his nails and erythematous, circinate, pruritic, scaly lesions occurring in all his seed coat from the age of 50 years. These disorders were gradually followed by alopecia and hair removal of all body hairy areas, palmoplantar keratoderma as well as bilateral axillary and inguinal adenopathies. Tricophyton violaceum was isolated from patient's nails. No immune deficiency was found or visceral involvement within the limits of the assessments made. The evolution was marked by transient improvements, resistance of adenopathies and skin appendage involvement as well as by multiple relapses despite griseofulvin therapy. Dermatophytic disease is a serious life-threatening disease due to its inexorable evolution toward visceral involvement. The improvement of patient's immune system associated with antifungal therapy may be the best treatment.


Assuntos
Alopecia/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Unhas Malformadas/microbiologia , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Idade de Início , Idoso , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Unhas/microbiologia , Unhas/patologia , Unhas Malformadas/patologia
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 69-71, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-837954

RESUMO

Abstract Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This bacillus has a high predilection for skin and peripheral nerves. The scalp’s anatomical properties do not favor the development of such mycobacterium. We report a case of leprosy with scalp involvement, a rare occurrence in our literature.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/patologia , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Biópsia , Alopecia/microbiologia , Alopecia/patologia , Hanseníase Multibacilar/complicações
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