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1.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891454

RESUMO

Putative replication-associated protein (REP) and capsid-like (CAP) proteins are encoded by circular single-stranded DNA viruses (CRESS DNA), which have been found in samples from most eukaryotic groups. However, the details of these viruses' life cycles and their significance in diseases have yet to be established. We presented and analyzed two full-length CRESS DNA genomes acquired from two children diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis (GI) in the northeast state of Tocantins, Brazil, using next-generation sequencing and a virus-like filtration approach. Both sequences (named SmaCV3BR08 and SmaCV3BR291) are closely similar to a prior CRESS DNA sequence discovered in the feces of a new world monkey (Alouatta caraya) from the United States in 2009 and termed Howler monkey-associated porprismacovirus 1 (Genbank ID: NC 026317). According to our comparative study, these porprismacovirus genomes deviate by 10% at the nucleotide level. For comparative reasons, the divergence between our sequences (SmaCV3BR08 and SmaCV3BR291) and a porprismacovirus recently identified in a human fecal sample from Peru is 37%. These data suggest that there is a great diversity of porprismacoviruses in South America, perhaps more than two species. In addition, the finding of closely related sequences of porprismacoviruses in humans and native monkeys highlights the zoonotic potential of these viruses.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Gastroenterite , Alouatta/genética , Animais , Brasil , Criança , Vírus de DNA/genética , DNA Circular , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia
2.
J Med Primatol ; 51(4): 223-233, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparative studies of kidney morphophysiology in nonhuman primates can help us investigate interspecies differences in growth and aging patterns. METHODS: We tested the effect of age and sex in renal morphophysiology in 21 Alouatta caraya and 21 Sapajus apella (age range = 0.5-26 years) by ultrasound, red blood cell (RBC) count, and kidney function tests. RESULTS: A. caraya had greater growth rate and absolute renal volume than S. apella, but the latter showed a greater relative renal volume and RBC count. There was a negative relationship between RBC and age, a positive relationship between creatinine and body mass, and an apparent negative relationship between creatinine and age only in S. apella. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that A. caraya has a faster aging mechanism than S. apella, and the higher relative kidney volume in S. apella is suggestive of high metabolic demands in this species.


Assuntos
Alouatta caraya , Alouatta , Alouatta/fisiologia , Animais , Creatinina , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/fisiologia , Primatas , Sapajus apella
3.
Mol Ecol ; 31(15): 4146-4161, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665560

RESUMO

Mammals rely on the metabolic functions of their gut microbiota to meet their energetic needs and digest potentially toxic components in their diet. The gut microbiome plastically responds to shifts in host diet and may buffer variation in energy and nutrient availability. However, it is unclear how seasonal differences in the gut microbiome influence microbial metabolism and nutrients available to hosts. In this study, we examine seasonal variation in the gut metabolome of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) to determine whether those variations are associated with differences in gut microbiome composition and nutrient intake, and if plasticity in the gut microbiome buffers shortfalls in energy or nutrient intake. We integrated data on the metabolome of 81 faecal samples from 16 individuals collected across three distinct seasons with gut microbiome, nutrient intake and plant metabolite consumption data from the same period. Faecal metabolite profiles differed significantly between seasons and were strongly associated with changes in plant metabolite consumption. However, microbial community composition and faecal metabolite composition were not strongly associated. Additionally, the connectivity and stability of faecal metabolome networks varied seasonally, with network connectivity being highest during the dry, fruit-dominated season when black howler monkey diets were calorically and nutritionally constrained. Network stability was highest during the dry, leaf-dominated season when most nutrients were being consumed at intermediate rates. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome buffers seasonal variation in dietary intake, and that the buffering effect is most limited when host diet becomes calorically or nutritionally restricted.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Alouatta/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Fezes , Mamíferos , Metaboloma , Estações do Ano
4.
Acta Trop ; 231: 106468, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429458

RESUMO

The early detection and diagnosis of deaths in free-ranging non-human primates (NHPs) are key points for the surveillance of Yellow Fever (YF) in Brazil. The histopathological identification of infectious diseases remains very useful and reliable in the screening and detection of emerging zoonotic diseases such as YF. We surveyed data records and liver slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin from the Epizootics Surveillance Network to control YF, Ministry of Health of Brazil, to evaluate histopathological hallmarks for the diagnosis of the YF virus infection. We selected natural fatal cases in NHPs from the genera Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., and Sapajus spp. with a positive immunohistochemical assay for YF in liver samples. Our findings showed the full-spectrum YF-associated hepatic lesions in all NHPs, but some histopathological findings differed in the distribution and intensity between the three genera. In our study, South American NHPs showed significant differences in the YF-associated hepatic histopathological features compared to fatal cases reported in humans.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Febre Amarela , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Callithrix , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
5.
Am J Primatol ; 84(6): e23377, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417046

RESUMO

Anthropogenic noise is increasingly disturbing natural soundscapes and affecting the physiology, behavior, and fitness of wildlife. However, our knowledge about the impact of anthropogenic noise on wild primates is scant. Here, we assess the effects of anthropogenic noise on the behavior of male mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Specifically, we describe the types, rates, and sound pressure level (SPL) of anthropogenic noise that occurs in areas inhabited by mantled howler monkeys and determine if the behavioral responses of males to anthropogenic noise are influenced by noise attributes. For 1 year (1753 h), we characterized anthropogenic noise in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve (Veracruz, Mexico) and studied the behavior of males belonging to five groups. Anthropogenic noise was common, diverse, and varied among areas in terms of rate, type, and SPL. Males did not display behavioral responses toward most (60%) anthropogenic noises, but were more likely to respond to certain noise types (e.g., aerial traffic) and toward noise with high SPL. Group identity influenced the likelihood of displaying behavioral responses to noise. The most common behavioral responses were vocalizations and vigilance. Males vocalized in response to noise with high SPL, although this relationship depended on group identity. The effect of the number of noises on vocalizations also varied among groups. Males were more likely to display vigilance toward high SPL and infrequent noise, but, again, these relationships varied among groups. In sum, anthropogenic noise is pervasive in areas inhabited by mantled howler monkeys and influences male behavior. Experience and frequency of exposure may modulate the behavioral responses of male mantled howler monkeys to noise and explain the group differences.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Alouatta/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Atividades Humanas , Masculino , México , Ruído
6.
Primates ; 63(3): 293-303, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289382

RESUMO

There is extensive knowledge about the visual system and the implications of the evolution of trichromatic color vision in howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) related to food selection; however, information about the other sensory systems is limited. In this study we assessed the use of touch, sniffing, and taste in fruit evaluation by 20 adult mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on Agaltepec Island, Mexico. During 9 months of observation, we recorded the frequency that each monkey used touch, sniffing, and taste in evaluating cryptic fruits (that remain green during their ripening process) and conspicuous fruits (with red, yellow, or orange colorations when they are ripe). Sucrose content and hardness measurements were made to establish the degree of ripeness of the fruits. We found that mantled howler monkeys used long behavioral sequences during conspicuous fruit investigations. Sniffing was used infrequently, but significantly more often in the evaluation of conspicuous-ripe and unripe fruits compared to cryptic-ripe and unripe fruits. During the evaluation of cryptic-ripe fruits, mantled howler monkeys increased the use of touch compared to evaluating cryptic-unripe fruits. We did not find significant differences in the use of taste in the evaluation of cryptic and conspicuous fruits (both ripe and unripe). Our results suggest that the non-visual senses play an essential role in fruit selection by howler monkeys, with differences in the behavioral strategy according to the fruit's conspicuity. The multimodal signals of ripe and unripe fruits allow the howler monkeys to assess their palatability before being consumed.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Visão de Cores , Animais , Preferências Alimentares , Frutas
7.
Arch Virol ; 167(5): 1257-1268, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the occurrence of papillomavirus (PV) infection in non-human primates (NHPs) in northeastern Argentina. We also explored their evolutionary history and evaluated the co-speciation hypothesis in the context of primate evolution. METHODS: We obtained DNA samples from 57 individuals belonging to wild and captive populations of Alouatta caraya, Sapajus nigritus, and Sapajus cay. We assessed PV infection by PCR amplification with the CUT primer system and sequencing of 337 bp (112 amino acids) of the L1 gene. The viral sequences were analyzed by phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescence methods to estimate the time to the most common recent ancestor (tMRCA) using BEAST, v1.4.8 software. We evaluated viral/host tree congruence with TreeMap v3.0. RESULTS: We identified two novel putative PV sequences of the genus Gammapapillomavirus in Sapajus spp. and Alouatta caraya (SPV1 and AcPV1, respectively). The tMRCA of SPV1 was estimated to be 11,941,682 years before present (ybp), and that of AcPV1 was 46,638,071 ybp, both before the coalescence times of their hosts (6.4 million years ago [MYA] and 6.8 MYA, respectively). Based on the comparison of primate and viral phylogenies, we found that the PV tree was no more congruent with the host tree than a random tree would be (P > 0.05), thus allowing us to reject the model of virus-host coevolution. CONCLUSION: This study presents the first evidence of PV infection in platyrrhine species from Argentina, expands the range of described hosts for these viruses, and suggests new scenarios for their origin and dispersal.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Sapajus , Vírus não Classificados , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Papillomaviridae/genética , Filogenia , Platirrinos
8.
Vet Pathol ; 59(3): 482-488, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130802

RESUMO

From 2016 to 2019, Southeastern Brazil faced an outbreak of yellow fever (YF) affecting both humans and New World primates (NWP). The outbreak was associated with a marked increase in traumatic lesions in NWP in the affected regions. Non-thrombotic pulmonary embolization (NTPE) can be a consequence of massive traumatic events, and it is rarely reported in human and veterinary medicine. Here, we describe NTPE of the brain, liver, and bone marrow in free-ranging NWP, highlighting the epidemiological aspects of these findings and the lesions associated with this condition, including data on traumatic injuries in wild NWP populations during the course of a recent YF outbreak. A total of 1078 NWP were necropsied from January 2017 to July 2019. Gross traumatic injuries were observed in 444 marmosets (44.3%), 10 howler monkeys (23.2%), 9 capuchins (31.0%), 1 titi-monkey (50.0%), and 1 golden lion tamarin (33.3%). NTPE was observed in 10 animals, including 9 marmosets (2.0%) and 1 howler monkey (10.0%). NTPE was identified in the lung and comprised hepatic tissue in 1 case, brain tissue in 1 case, and bone marrow tissue in 8 cases. Although uncommon, it is important to consider NTPE with pulmonary vascular occlusion during the critical care of traumatized NWP. In addition, this study highlights the importance of conservational strategies and environmental education focusing on One Health, not only to protect these free-ranging NWP populations but also to maintain the efficacy of epidemiological surveillance programs.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Doenças dos Macacos , Embolia Pulmonar , Febre Amarela , Animais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Callithrix , Fígado/patologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/veterinária , Febre Amarela/patologia , Febre Amarela/veterinária
9.
Primates ; 63(3): 283-291, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218456

RESUMO

The transformation and depletion of primary forest over the past few decades have placed almost half of the world's primate species under the threat of extinction. Developing any successful conservation program for primates requires distribution and demography data, as well as an understanding of the relationships between these factors and their habitat. Between March and June 2010 and 2011 we collected data on the presence and demographic parameters of howler and spider monkeys by carrying out surveys, and validated our findings using local knowledge. We then examined the relationship between forest type and the presence of these primates at 54 sites in the northern area of the Selva Zoque Corridor, Mexico. We detected 86 spider monkey groups across 31 plots and censused 391 individuals (mean ± SD = 5.9 ± 3.0 individuals per sub-group, n = 67 sub-groups). We also detected 69 howler monkey groups across 30 plots and censused 117 individuals (mean ± SD = 5.3 ± 2.4 individuals per group, n = 22 groups). Howler monkey presence was not related to any specific vegetation type, while spider monkeys were present in areas with a higher percentage of tall forest (trees > 25 m high). Overall, spider monkeys were more prevalent than howler monkeys in our sampling sites and showed demographic characteristics similar to those in better protected areas, suggesting that the landscape features in the Uxpanapa Valley are suitable for their needs. Conversely, howler monkey presence was found to be more limited than in other regions, possibly due to the extended presence of spider monkeys.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Atelinae , Animais , Florestas , Prevalência , Floresta Úmida
10.
Primates ; 63(2): 161-171, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142940

RESUMO

Increasing urbanisation is encroaching into natural habitats and sometimes forcing wildlife into urban centres. Whether or not wildlife can thrive in an urban environment is dependent on many factors, one of which is how the species is perceived by local people. This study focuses on the city of Pilar in south-west Paraguay, which is home to a population of urban-dwelling black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya). Using semi-structured interviews, we assessed peoples' attitudes towards the presence of howlers, whether they perceived the monkeys to cause problems in the city, what they believed were the biggest threats to the monkeys, and whether they felt that the presence of monkeys in the city was compatible with their way of life in the long term. Overall, we found that the majority of interviewees had positive attitudes towards the monkeys, believing that they brought benefits to the city and that they should be protected from potential risks in the urban environment. Our results provide the basis for collaborative, community-based development of management strategies for the long-term survival of these urban monkeys.


Assuntos
Alouatta caraya , Alouatta , Animais , Atitude , Ecossistema , Paraguai/epidemiologia
11.
Malar J ; 21(1): 17, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South and Central America, Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium simium, and Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in New World primates (NWP). Specifically in Costa Rica, the presence of monkeys positive to P. malariae/P brasilianum has been identified in both captivity and in the wild. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of P. brasilianum, P. falciparum, and P. vivax, and the potential distribution of these parasites-infecting NWP from Costa Rica. METHODS: The locations with PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) positive results and bioclimatic predictors were used to construct ecological niche models based on a modelling environment that uses the Maxent algorithm, named kuenm, capable to manage diverse settings to better estimate the potential distributions and uncertainty indices of the potential distribution. RESULTS: PCR analysis for the Plasmodium presence was conducted in 384 samples of four primates (Howler monkey [n = 130], White-face monkey [n = 132], Squirrel monkey [n = 50], and red spider monkey [n = 72]), from across Costa Rica. Three Plasmodium species were detected in all primate species (P. falciparum, P. malariae/P. brasilianum, and P. vivax). Overall, the infection prevalence was 8.9%, but each Plasmodium species ranged 2.1-3.4%. The niche model approach showed that the Pacific and the Atlantic coastal regions of Costa Rica presented suitable climatic conditions for parasite infections. However, the central pacific coast has a more trustable prediction for malaria in primates. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the regions with higher suitability for Plasmodium transmission in NWP coincide with regions where most human cases have been reported. These regions were also previously identified as areas with high suitability for vector species, suggesting that enzootic and epizootic cycles occur.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Ateles geoffroyi , Cebus capucinus , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Saimiri , Animais , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 821: 152883, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038525

RESUMO

Urbanization and deforestation impose severe challenges to wildlife, particularly for forest-living vertebrates. Understanding how the peri-urban matrix impacts their survival is critical for designing strategies to promote their conservation. We investigated the threats faced by brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in peri-urban regions of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Santa Catarina (SC) states, southern Brazil, by compiling negative interaction events (hereafter NIE) reported over more than two decades. We assessed the major NIEs, their distribution among age-sex classes, and the predictors of NIE-related mortality. After 20+ years of monitoring, we compiled 540 NIEs (RS = 248 and SC = 292). Electrocution by power lines was the most frequent cause of death or injury (37%), followed by dog attack (34%), vehicle collision (17%), and human mistreatment (12%). The occurrence of lethal injuries ranged from 5% to 69% depending on the type of NIE and on which state it occurred in. The overall post-NIE mortality was 56%. Adults of both sexes were the most affected individuals in both study regions. The minimal adequate GLM model explained 83% of the variation in NIE-related mortality. State, NIE type, and age-sex class were the main predictors of mortality. Overall, mortality was lower in SC and higher among adult females than in the other classes. We found that the survival of brown howler monkeys in the forest-urban interface is constrained by both the urban infrastructure and the growing interactions with humans and domestic and stray dogs (Canis familiaris). We propose the placement of aerial bridges, road signs and speed bumps in areas of frequent animal crossing, the sterilization of stray dogs, and the sensitization of local inhabitants on the importance of respecting and protecting wildlife to reduce their NIEs with humans and domestic animals in the forest-urban interface.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Animais Selvagens , Árvores , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino
13.
Am J Primatol ; 84(1): e23346, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783067

RESUMO

Primate-parasite interactions are often investigated via coprological studies given ethical and conservation restrictions of collecting primate hosts. Yet, these studies are inadequate to recover adult helminths for taxonomic identification and to accurately assess their prevalence, intensity, abundance, and site of infection. Fresh carcasses found in anthropogenic landscapes come as informative and reliable alternatives. In this study, we identified the helminths of brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) and their sites of infection, and measured their prevalence, intensity, and abundance of infection. We necropsied 18 adult males, 11 adult females, and 7 juvenile males that died in conflicts with the anthropogenic environment (domestic dog attacks, n = 11; electrocutions and road-kills, n = 10 each; unknown, n = 5) in periurban landscapes of southern Brazil between 2013 and 2019. We found three nematodes (Trypanoxyuris minutus, Dipetalonema gracile, and Parabronema bonnei) and one cestode (Bertiella cf. studeri), a diversity estimated to account for a sampling completeness of 99%. Prevalence ranged from 3% for P. bonnei to 100% for T. minutus. Mean abundance ranged from 2 (D. gracile and B. cf. studeri) to 55,116 (T. minutus) and mean intensity of infection ranged from 4 (B. cf. studeri) to 55,116 (T. minutus). Trypanoxyuris minutus sex ratio was strongly male-biased. The intensity of infection with T. minutus was higher in juvenile males and adult females than in adult males. The low parasite diversity and the helminths' mode of transmission are compatible with howlers' arboreality and folivorous-frugivorous diet. The howlers were not infected with soil-transmitted helminth parasites of humans and domestic animals on the ground and probably did not eat invertebrates to complement the diet. Given the lack of evidence of howler health problems, we suggest that the causes of death of the necropsied howlers are the major threats to the long-term conservation of the species at the study periurban landscapes.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Cestoides , Helmintos , Alouatta/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino
14.
Am J Primatol ; 84(2): e23354, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878682

RESUMO

To define the chances of a dispersed seed to produce a new recruit, it is essential to consider all stages of the dispersal process. Howler monkeys are recognized to have positive impacts on forest regeneration, acting as primary dispersers. Furthermore, dung beetles attracted to their feces protect the seeds against predators, and provide a better microenvironment for germination due to the removal of fecal matter, to seed burial, and/or by reducing the spatial aggregation of seeds in fecal clumps. Despite the recognized positive effects of primary seed dispersal through defecation by howler monkeys for plant recruitment, there are some important aspects of their behavior, such as the habit of defecating in latrines, that remain to be explored. Here, we investigated the fate of Campomanesia xanthocarpa seeds defecated by brown howlers, Alouatta guariba clamitans, and the secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles, considering how this process is affected by the monkey's defecation patterns. We found that brown howler monkeys dispersed seeds from several species away from fruit-feeding trees, partly because defecation under the canopy of such trees was not very frequent. Instead, most defecations were associated with latrines under overnight sleeping trees. Despite a very similar dung beetle community attracted to howler feces in latrines and fruit-feeding sites, seeds were more likely to be buried when deposited in latrines. In addition, C. xanthocarpa seeds showed higher germination and establishment success in latrines, but this positive effect was not due to the presence of fecal matter surrounding seeds. Our results highlight that A. guariba clamitans acts as a legitimate seed disperser of C. xanthocarpa seeds in a preserved context of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and that defecations in latrines increase the dispersal effectiveness.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Defecação , Comportamento Alimentar , Sementes , Árvores
15.
J Med Primatol ; 51(1): 27-32, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul) is one of 116 imperiled Brazilian primate species. We aimed to determine the serum biochemical profile of free-ranging red-handed howler monkeys in a highly disturbed area of the eastern Amazon. METHODS: We obtained serum samples from 26 monkeys, in which we analyzed 20 biochemical variables. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Calcium concentration was significantly lower in adult males (1.82 ± 0.25 mmol/L) than in adult females (2.10 ± 0.50 mmol/L). Both adults (males = 89 ± 85 UI/L, females = 62 ± 23 UI/L) had lower alkaline phosphatase serum activity than juvenile females (178 ± 120 UI/L). Adult male had higher levels of the direct bilirubin (13.9 ± 8.2 µmol/L) and creatinine (74.3 ± 19.4 µmol/L) than juvenile females (5.1 ± 1.4 µmol/L and 38.9 ± 15.0 µmol/L, respectively). This detailed biochemical profile may be useful for the management of red-handed howler monkeys in the wild and to support further studies at ex situ facilities.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Primatas
16.
Mol Ecol ; 31(1): 391-406, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661321

RESUMO

Dispersal is a fundamental process in the functioning of animal societies as it regulates the degree to which closely related individuals are spatially concentrated. A species' dispersal pattern can be complex as it emerges from individuals' decisions shaped by the cost-benefit tradeoffs associated with either remaining in the natal group or dispersing. Given the potential complexity, combining long-term demographic information with molecular data can provide important insights into dispersal patterns of a species. Based on a 15-year study that integrates multiyear demographic data on six groups with longitudinal and cross-sectional genetic sampling of 20 groups (N = 169 individuals, N = 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci), we describe the various dispersal strategies of male and female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting Palenque National Park, Mexico. Genetically confirmed dispersal events (N = 21 of 59 males; N = 6 of 65 females) together with spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed that the dispersal pattern of black howlers is bisexual with strong sex-biases in both dispersal rate (males disperse more often than females) and dispersal distance (females disperse farther than males). Observational and genetic data confirm that both males and females can successfully immigrate into established groups, as well as form new groups with other dispersing individuals. Additionally, both males and females may disperse singly, as well as in pairs, and both may also disperse secondarily. Overall, our findings suggest multiple dispersal trajectories for black howler males and females, and longer multiyear studies are needed to unravel which demographic, ecological and social factors underlie individuals' decisions about whether to disperse and which dispersal options to take.


La dispersión es un proceso fundamental en el funcionamiento de las sociedades animales, ya que regula el grado en que los individuos parentados se concentran espacialmente. El patrón de dispersión de una especie puede ser complejo ya que surge de las decisiones de los individuos conformadas por las compensaciones de costo-beneficio asociadas con permanecer en el grupo natal o dispersarse. Dada esta posible complejidad, la combinación de información demográfica a largo plazo con datos moleculares puede proporcionar información importante sobre los patrones de dispersión de una especie en particular. Basado en un estudio de 15 años que integra datos demográficos de seis grupos sociales con muestreo genético longitudinal y transversal de 20 grupos (N = 169 individuos, N = 21 loci de microsatélites polimórficos), describimos las diversas estrategias de dispersión de machos y hembras del mono aullador negro (Alouatta pigra) que habitan el Parque Nacional Palenque, México. Los eventos de dispersión confirmados genéticamente (N = 21 de 59 machos; N = 6 de 65 hembras), junto con los análisis de autocorrelación espacial revelaron que el patrón de dispersión de los monos aulladores negros es bisexual con fuertes sesgos sexuales en ambas tasas de dispersión (los machos se dispersan más a menudo que las hembras) y distancia de dispersión (las hembras se dispersan más lejos que los machos). Los datos de observación y genéticos confirman que tanto machos como hembras pueden inmigrar con éxito a grupos ya establecidos, así como formar nuevos grupos con otros individuos que se están dispersando. Además, tanto los machos como las hembras pueden dispersarse individualmente, así como en parejas, y ambos también pueden dispersarse secundariamente. En general, nuestros hallazgos sugieren múltiples trayectorias de dispersión para aulladores negros de los dos sexos, y se necesitan más estudios para desentrañar qué factores demográficos, ecológicos y sociales subyacen en las decisiones de los individuos sobre si dispersarse y qué opciones de dispersión tomar.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Alouatta/genética , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Masculino , México
17.
J Med Primatol ; 51(1): 3-19, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-human primates can present oral diseases. However, differences among the dentition of the various species make it difficult to understand their dental features and associated diseases. This research hypothesizes that the prevalence of dental disorders varies in the species studied according to distinct types of diet. METHODS: Forty-five syncraniums of the species Alouatta caraya, Alouatta guariba clamitans, Sapajus nigritus, Callithrix jacchus, and Callithrix penicillata were evaluated by visual inspection, magnifying glasses, and on cone-beam computed tomography. RESULTS: Disorders identified consisted of missing teeth before death, agenesis, dental calculus, dental wear, dental staining, dental fracture, exposure of pulp chamber, alveolar bone resorption, tooth discoloration, and persistence of deciduous teeth. Alouatta guariba clamitans presented the most disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that neotropical primates have a high prevalence of dental changes, even in free-living conditions, and that the differences observed among them may be associated with different diet patterns.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Cebinae , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Callithrix , Prevalência , Crânio
18.
Primates ; 63(1): 65-78, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716855

RESUMO

Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) exhibit the most extensive distribution among platyrrhines, comprising Mesoamerican and South American species groups, with the South American group including the Brazilian endemic A. belzebul species complex encompassing A. belzebul, A. discolor, and A. ululata. We herein analyzed their phylogenetic relationship, nucleotide and haplotype diversity, and population demography based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. The phylogenetic and median-joining network analyses distinguished A. discolor, distributed in the west bank of the Xingu River, from A. belzebul on the east bank. This river is a zoogeographic barrier for these species. We did not find evidence of phylogenetic structure between the A. belzebul populations of opposite banks of the Tocantins River, likely related to the changes in the position of this river to the northeast in the late Pleistocene. The A. belzebul along this river showed great morphologic and haplotype diversity, and A. belzebul from the Amazon have kept a larger population size than A. discolor. We herein describe the karyotype of A. discolor, which was similar to those described for A. ululata and A. belzebul. Our results showed two well-defined and supported clades for A. discolor and A. belzebul. However, a new assessment of A. ululata across a large distribution of sampling is required due to the lack of a clear phylogenetic structure.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Atelidae , Alouatta/genética , Alouattinae , Animais , Filogenia , Densidade Demográfica
19.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696363

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is responsible for the worst pandemic of the 21st century. Like all human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 originated in a wildlife reservoir, most likely from bats. As SARS-CoV-2 has spread across the globe in humans, it has spilled over to infect a variety of non-human animal species in domestic, farm, and zoo settings. Additionally, a broad range of species, including one neotropical monkey, have proven to be susceptible to experimental infection with SARS-CoV-2. Together, these findings raise the specter of establishment of novel enzootic cycles of SARS-CoV-2. To assess the potential exposure of free-living non-human primates to SARS-CoV-2, we sampled 60 neotropical monkeys living in proximity to Manaus and São José do Rio Preto, two hotspots for COVID-19 in Brazil. Our molecular and serological tests detected no evidence of SAR-CoV-2 infection among these populations. While this result is reassuring, sustained surveillance efforts of wildlife living in close association with human populations is warranted, given the stochastic nature of spillover events and the enormous implications of SARS-CoV-2 spillover for human health.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Primatas/virologia , Alouatta/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , Callicebus/virologia , Callithrix/virologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão
20.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696408

RESUMO

The 2021 re-emergence of yellow fever in non-human primates in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southernmost Brazil, resulted in the death of many howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) and led the state to declare a Public Health Emergency of State Importance, despite no human cases reported. In this study, near-complete genomes of yellow fever virus (YFV) recovered from the outbreak were sequenced and examined aiming at a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships and the spatio-temporal dynamics of the virus distribution. Our results suggest that the most likely sequence of events involved the reintroduction of YFV from the state of São Paulo to RS through the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, by the end of 2020. These findings reinforce the role of genomic surveillance in determining the pathways of distribution of the virus and in providing references for the implementation of preventive measures for populations in high risk areas.


Assuntos
Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/genética , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Alouatta/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Genômica , Filogenia , Primatas/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Vírus da Febre Amarela/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/virologia
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