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Primates ; 63(1): 65-78, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716855


Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) exhibit the most extensive distribution among platyrrhines, comprising Mesoamerican and South American species groups, with the South American group including the Brazilian endemic A. belzebul species complex encompassing A. belzebul, A. discolor, and A. ululata. We herein analyzed their phylogenetic relationship, nucleotide and haplotype diversity, and population demography based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. The phylogenetic and median-joining network analyses distinguished A. discolor, distributed in the west bank of the Xingu River, from A. belzebul on the east bank. This river is a zoogeographic barrier for these species. We did not find evidence of phylogenetic structure between the A. belzebul populations of opposite banks of the Tocantins River, likely related to the changes in the position of this river to the northeast in the late Pleistocene. The A. belzebul along this river showed great morphologic and haplotype diversity, and A. belzebul from the Amazon have kept a larger population size than A. discolor. We herein describe the karyotype of A. discolor, which was similar to those described for A. ululata and A. belzebul. Our results showed two well-defined and supported clades for A. discolor and A. belzebul. However, a new assessment of A. ululata across a large distribution of sampling is required due to the lack of a clear phylogenetic structure.

Alouatta , Atelidae , Alouatta/genética , Alouattinae , Animais , Filogenia , Densidade Demográfica
J Hum Evol ; 51(4): 339-49, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16908052


Dental microwear analysis is commonly used to infer aspects of diet in extinct primates. Conventional methods of microwear analysis have usually been limited to two-dimensional imaging studies using a scanning electron microscope and the identification of apparent individual features. These methods have proved time-consuming and prone to subjectivity and observer error. Here we describe a new methodological approach to microwear: dental microwear texture analysis, based on three-dimensional surface measurements taken using white-light confocal microscopy and scale-sensitive fractal analysis. Surface parameters for complexity, scale of maximum complexity, anisotropy, heterogeneity, and textural fill volume offer repeatable, quantitative characterizations of three-dimensional surfaces, free of observer measurement error. Some results are presented to illustrate how these parameters distinguish extant primates with different diets. In this case, microwear surfaces of Cebus apella and Lophocebus albigena, which consume some harder food items, have higher average values for complexity than do folivores or soft fruit eaters.

Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Paleodontologia/métodos , Dente/patologia , Alouattinae , Animais , Anisotropia , Cebidae , Cercopithecinae , Dieta , Fractais , Imageamento Tridimensional , Atrito Dentário