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1.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 52(3): 140-146, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775266

RESUMO

Paracelsus, the first person in the history of modern Western medicine, specified to break the shackles of the traditional medical system thoroughly and revolutionise the classical medical system completely. He introduced traditional alchemy into medicine, and changed it from making gold into producing drugs which were helpful to human health. He believed that nature and human were made by God with "three principles" - sulphur, salt and hydrargyrum. He also believed that human body, as a "chemical system", was full of a variety of chemical reactions. His ideas brought a new worldview, a chemical one, to the medical field influenced by the concept of"Humorism" for ages. The chemical worldview laid the foundation for "iatrochemistry" and channelled a path for the following medical development. The "three principles" of Paracelsus did not surpass the "Humorism" proposed by Galen in terms of underlining the balance of human health. However, the idea, that the mineral substances in nature in the "three principles" could be taken as medicines to help the recovery of human body, broke through the traditional medical system proposed by Galen, offered valuable ideological resources and experience for the following expansion and development of medicines.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Medicina , Humanos
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2123171119, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671430

RESUMO

This paper explores the chemistry of mercury as described in ancient alchemical literature. Alchemy's focus on the knowledge and manipulation of natural substances is not so different from modern chemistry's purposes. The great divide between the two is marked by the way of conceptualizing and recording their practices. Our interdisciplinary research group, composed of chemists and historians of science, has set off to explore the cold and hot extraction of mercury from cinnabar. The ancient written records have been perused in order to devise laboratory experiments that could shed light on the material reality behind the alchemical narratives and interpret textual details in a unique perspective. In this way, it became possible to translate the technical lore of ancient alchemy into the modern language of chemistry. Thanks to the replication of alchemical practices, chemistry can regain its centuries-long history that has fallen into oblivion.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Química , Mercúrio , Química/história , História Antiga , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Conhecimento , Mercúrio/história , Narração
3.
Ambix ; 69(2): 118-138, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350971

RESUMO

This article examines the career of Erasmus Purling, an English engineer who wrote a short alchemical treatise in 1657. After serving the Royalist cause in the late 1640s, he joined the Commonwealth forces in the early 1650s. He then attempted to manufacture and market a tin alloy supposedly resembling silver, first in England, where he was opposed by the London pewterers and imprisoned. In 1657, he was granted a monopoly privilege from the French Crown for his invention, which he promoted in his alchemical pamphlet. This publication, as well the other works he used to promote his discoveries, attracted the hostility of Parisian pewterers. They attempted to bring his enterprise, and transmutational alchemy in general, into disrepute. Despite this, Purling's pewter sold well, attracted influential investors, and was even protected by a second privilege obtained in 1659. At the Restoration, Purling returned to England, where he tried to implement similar projects, probably without success. Nevertheless, his troubled and little-known career illustrates several facets of alchemical entrepreneurship in the seventeenth century, including conflicting relationships within the world of crafts and trades and ambiguous relationships with state administrations on the eve of the reign of Louis XIV.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Estanho , Inglaterra , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Redação
4.
Ambix ; 69(2): 95-117, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350972

RESUMO

Among the cross currents of social and intellectual life in the early modern era, wonder, utility, and playfulness combined to inspire curiosity and to give value to novel alchemical procedures and chemical remedies. One of the most skilful alchemical and medical performers, who brought theatrical techniques to bear upon an economy of alchemical secrets and magic, was the self-trained Paracelsian physician, mining expert, and alchemical adept, Leonhard Thurneisser zum Thurn (1531-1596). In creatively designed and illustrated books produced for a luxury market, he constructed, in words and images, theatres of procedure, instrumentation, and chemical curiosity based in traditions of Renaissance magic and Paracelsian natural philosophy. Thurneisser's books combined strategies of spectacle and performance within the context of chemical analysis, and in one text especially brought the dramatic technique of "making strange" to bear upon promoting alchemical procedures for purposes of exposing the hidden powers within plants. In staging analytical spectacles involving measurement, instrumentation, and distillation as part of the analysis of minerals, waters, and plants, Thurneisser brought together laboratory-based procedures and theoretically grounded performances within the alchemical marketplace and engaged the agency of readers in establishing the credibility of the philosophy of nature that underscored the products he produced and sold.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Livros Ilustrados , Destilação , Filosofia , Jogos e Brinquedos
5.
Ambix ; 69(1): 65-83, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272570

RESUMO

Alchemical language has been addressed in several lexicographical studies, historically and recently. This paper discusses the current state of the field and proposes a digital distant-reading approach to the issue of decoding alchemical Decknamen. This paper presents an algorithm for the digital analysis of alchemical language using the corpus of printed works by Michael Maier (1568-1622). Alchemical language was used as a medium for negotiating authority, inclusion, and exclusion in alchemical and chymical communities and also as a tool for social and scholarly knowledge-making. This paper addresses the historical problem of understanding early modern alchemical language by computational analysis. Previous studies have applied close reading methodologies to decode Decknamen; however, this paper offers a machine reasoning approach to analyse patterns in alchemical language.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Idioma , Algoritmos , Resolução de Problemas
6.
Ambix ; 69(1): 1-18, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35272571

RESUMO

This special issue of Ambix is an outgrowth of the Tenth Annual Postgraduate Workshop titled "Society and the Creation of (al)Chemical Knowledge" hosted by the Embassy of the Free Mind in Amsterdam, 29-30 November 2019. This meeting of early career scholars with a shared interest in the history of alchemy and chemistry illustrated the diversity of methodological approaches that contribute to this subfield. Alchemical knowledge, created through practice, language, and material culture, has permeated society since the ancient world. Adepts and laity alike learned to navigate and appropriate the seemingly paradoxical hermetic language and images of alchemy, applying them to an array of societal needs that span time and place. The editorial essay to this special issue of Ambix considers alchemical knowledge-creation through the social lens of language and practice and proposes the inclusive concept of the "Chemical Humanities" to address variations within alchemical practice and the diverse scholarly research methodologies presented in this special issue. We examine the history of chemistry using approaches from the humanities, arts, and sciences and consider the effects of interdisciplinary research today and for the future of alchemical scholarship.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Ciências Humanas , Conhecimento , Sociedades
7.
Ambix ; 69(1): 49-64, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129099

RESUMO

This article investigates how the Letter from Isis to Horus (first-fourth century CE) explores the literary potentialities allowed by the complex cultural backdrop one finds in late antique Egypt. By looking into how this example of alchemical writing both engages with and departs from shared motifs of Hermetism, the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri, and 1 Enoch, it demonstrates how the Letter uses literary artifice in a way that gives alchemical knowledge a specific and distinct voice. It also argues that the cultural mixture of Hermetism, magic, and Scripture represented in the Letter reflects the alchemical procedure of mixing frequently mentioned in the text.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Antozoários , Cyperus , Animais , Egito , Conhecimento
10.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(4): 887-906, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758128

RESUMO

This paper is a response to William Meredith-Owen's paper presented at the inaugural joint conference on 'Alchemy, a bridge to Jung's objective psyche', for The Society of Analytical Psychology and the West Midlands Institute of Psychotherapy in autumn 2020. The paper presents a way of understanding the collective unconscious through the functioning of the core self, and thus offers a bridge which addresses the indivisibility of the personal and collective psyche/unconscious, referencing Mary Williams' (1963) classic paper. Specifically, this is applied to Winnicott's dream of destruction that he had after reviewing Memories, Dreams, Reflections, as well as to parts of the psyche that were dissociated due to significant early deprivation - the primary narcissistic wounds. Alchemical metaphors are shown to relate to the analytic process, which allows the primitive core self (with its identificatory, participatory, connecting nature), when integrated through relationship, to sink back into the unconscious and function as the Self.


Cet article est une réponse à l'article que William Meredith-Owen a présenté à la conférence inaugurale commune à la Society of Analytical Psychology et l'Institut de Psychothérapie des West Midlands, à l'automne 2020, conférence intitulée « L'Alchimie, un Pont vers la Psyché Objective de Jung ¼. L'article présente une manière de comprendre l'inconscient collectif à travers le fonctionnement du noyau du soi, et offre ainsi une passerelle permettant de rendre compte de l'indivisibilité de la psyché/de l'inconscient collectifs et individuels, en référence à l'article bien connu de Mary Williams (1963). Plus spécifiquement, ceci est appliqué au rêve de destruction que Winnicott a eu après avoir fait la critique de « Ma vie: Souvenirs, Rêves et Pensées ¼. Ceci est également appliqué à des parties de la psyché qui ont été dissociées du fait de carences précoces importantes - les blessures narcissiques primaires. Il est montré que les métaphores alchimiques rendent compte du processus analytique, qui permet au noyau primitif du soi (avec sa nature identificatoire, participative et liante), quand il est intégré par le biais de la relation, de se retirer dans l'inconscient et de fonctionner en tant que Soi.


El presente trabajo es una respuesta al trabajo presentado por William Meredith-Owen en la Conferencia Inaugural conjunta entre la Sociedad de Psicología Analítica y el Instituto de Psicoterapia West Midlands, sobre 'Alquimia, un Puente hacia la Psique Objetiva de Jung', en el otoño del 2020. El trabajo presenta un modo de comprender el inconsciente colectivo a través del funcionamiento del self nuclear ('core-self'), y ofrece así un puente que da cuenta de la indivisibilidad de psique personal y colectiva, referenciando el clásico trabajo de Mary Williams (1963). Específicamente, se aplica al sueño de destrucción que Winnicott tuvo luego de su revisión de Recuerdos, Sueños, Pensamientos, así como a partes de la psique que fueron disociadas debido a una significativa falta temprana - herida narcisista temprana. Se muestran metáforas alquímicas relacionadas al proceso analítico, el cual posibilita al self nuclear primitivo (con su naturaleza conectora, participativa e identificatoria), hundirse en el inconsciente y funcionar como Sí Mismo, cuando es integrado a través de una relación.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Humanos , Masculino , Narcisismo , Psicoterapia
11.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(5): 267-271, 20210000.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359355

RESUMO

Este proyecto trata dos temas históricos, la alquimia y el desarrollo del método científico, y se analiza cómo estos saberes están relacionados entre sí. El uso de biografías científicas es hoy una de las tendencias más innovadoras en educación de distintas disciplinas, el método biográfico se justifica porque los expertos en cada materia y contexto entienden que las biografías de personajes característicos pueden ser útiles para conocer un determinado proceso. Se estudiaron y comprendieron las teorías de diferentes científicos y alquimistas, como Paracelso. Nos dedicaremos a su historiografía, que aportan ideas sobre el método científico y, sobre todo, relacionado con la ciencia experimental.


This project deals with two historical themes, alchemy, and the development of the method scientific, and it is analyzed how these knowledges are related to each other. The use of Scientific biographies is today one of the most innovative trends in education of different disciplines, the biographical method is justified because the experts in each subject and context understand that biographies of characteristic characters can be useful to know a certain process. They studied and understood the theories of different scientists and alchemists, such as Paracelsus. Us We will dedicate to his historiography, which provide ideas about the scientific method and, above all, related to experimental science.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciência/classificação , Biografia , Alquimia , Métodos
12.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 77: 101717, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146941

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to examine the possible role of psychopathic traits as a moderator of the aggression-antisociality/delinquency link. Our sample was composed of 567 youth (M = 15.91 years, SD = 0.99 years, age range = 14-18 years) from Portugal. Results indicated that psychopathic features significantly moderate four different forms and functions of aggression - proactive overt, proactive relational, reactive overt, and reactive relational - when predicting delinquency. However, psychopathic traits only significantly moderate proactive relational aggression when predicting Conduct Disorder. Psychopathic traits and aggression constitute an antisocial alchemy for antisocial behavior but more research is needed about moderation effects therein particularly among clinical and justice system involved samples of youth to inform behavioral interventions.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Transtorno da Conduta , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Humanos , Portugal
13.
Ambix ; 68(2-3): 154-179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058962

RESUMO

The chair of chymiatria created at the University of Marburg was among the earliest academic initiatives aiming to integrate chymistry into the medical curriculum. If its practical applications in pharmacy and its relationship with patronage have been examined by historians, the theoretical part of the chymiatria programme still remains to be explored. In the form of student disputations and dissertations held or presided over by Heinrich Petraeus, a professor of medicine at Marburg and Johannes Hartmann's son-in-law, "chymiatric" essays expounded various medical issues. Centred on pathology, therapy, and physiology, these theoretical explanations proposed a "hermetic-dogmatic" interpretation merging the views of Paracelsus and Galen. This article examines these disputations and their stance concerning the living body, sickness, and treatment, and how they shaped the status of chymistry as an art and a science on the verge of institutionalisation.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Dissidências e Disputas/história , História da Farmácia , Farmácia/métodos , Alemanha , História da Medicina , História do Século XVII , Universidades
14.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 85: 185-191, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966774

RESUMO

Though Robert Boyle called final causes one of the most important subjects for a natural philosopher to study, his own treatise on the subject, the Disquisition about Final Causes, has received comparatively little scholarly attention. In this paper, I explicate Boyle's complex argument against the use of teleological explanations for inanimate bodies, such as metals. The central object of this argument is a mysterious allusion to a silver plant. I claim that the silver plant is best understood as a reference to alchemical product: the Arbor Dianae, an offshoot of George Starkey's recipe for the Philosophers' Stone. Then, I show how the context of alchemy not only clarifies Boyle's argument but also places it within a wider dialectic about matter and teleology. I then contrast the parallel arguments of Boyle and John Ray on the question of whether metals have divine purposes and show that the difference is explained by Boyle's belief in the transmutation of metals.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Humanos , Prata
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(4): 52, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108539

RESUMO

The theories of reproduction that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century exhibited a range in experimental thinking about concepts of gender and sexuality. This essay focuses on the work of a writer who proposed an unusual alternative to polarity-based ideas of reproduction. Johann Wilhelm Ritter (1776-1810) was a physicist and friend to the German Romantics and someone whose writing also shares many interests with German Naturphilosophie. The essay discusses how, inspired by ideas from the alchemical tradition, Ritter challenged conventional thinking about reproduction in two significant ways: by linking it to the idea of rotation, and by using the figure of the androgyne to understand reproductive models in terms of triads, rather than oppositional pairings. A further objective of this essay is to consider which aspects of the alchemical tradition proved the most useful for Ritter's experimental thinking and to show how he integrated them with reflections on contemporary scientific developments around 1800.


Assuntos
Fisiologia/história , Reprodução , Alquimia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(12): 2872-2880, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627462

RESUMO

UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS/MS and ICP-MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was employed to explore the differences in chemical compositions of Guilingji(GLJ) before and after alchemy.The changes in organic chemical compositions and inorganic elements were observed and 39 differential organic compositions were found in GLJ after alchemy, 24 compounds of which were identified. The differential compositions of GLJ included violet ketones, chalcones, amides, and fatty acids whose contents were increased after alchemy, as well as flavones, isoflavones, dihydroflavones, flavonoid glycosides, and coumarins whose content were decreased after alchemy. This study showed 6 inorganic elements filtered out as markers for distinguishing GLJ before and after alchemy, including B, Si, Mg, K, Cr, and Ni.The contents of Mg, K, Cr and Ni were increased while the contents of B and Si were decreased after alchemy.The difference of the contents after alchemy changed the cold and hot properties of the compound, showing the decrease of dryness, and the hot property was changed to warm and neutral properties; in addition, the membrane permeability and absorption of the compound compositions were improved. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the changes of chemical compositions in GLJ before and after alchemy as well as the effects of alchemy on physical and chemical properties and cold-heat nature of GLJ, laying a foundation for further clarifying the scientific connotation of alchemy process.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glicosídeos , Análise Multivariada , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Ann Sci ; 77(2): 139-154, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419635

RESUMO

While the emergence of a new scientific culture in 16th-century Europe is well known, the role of the actors of the Hispanic New World in this time of renewal of knowledge has long been judged marginal for two reasons: first, because the strong presence of the Inquisition in the Hispanic World has been considered by historians to have been an obstacle for research or scientific innovation; and second, because the discontinuity of the territories of the Hispanic Monarchy and the problem of distances between Spain and the New World have long been interpreted in ways that suggest the marginality and peripheral status of the American colonies. However, some works counterbalance this dismissal and shed new light on the scientific activity of the Hispanic New World. This is the case with the treatise Arte de los Metales, by the secular priest Alvaro Alonso Barba, which would achieve remarkable fame and circulation, and would become a seminal work in the fields of metallurgy and mining until the mid-1700s. The article demonstrates that this treatise also presents ideas that can be traced back to a set of Paracelsian ideas combining alchemy, pharmacopoeia, and medicine, and studies specific examples of these ideas - the description of three fundamental substances (salt, mercury and sulphur) as components of all matter, references to Epatica sulfuris, an oil capable of turning silver into gold and curing certain diseases; and the use of antimony - that together testify to the spread of the ideas of Basil Valentine and of Paracelsian influences. From this point of view, Arte de los Metales can be viewed as part of a tradition unexpectedly renewed by the author through many observations based on his own work in Peru and the discoveries he made thanks to alternative techniques. This demonstrates the richness and diversity of knowledge rooted in the New World, and links Alonso Barba's scholarly activity to some of the great schools of thought that spanned the Early Modern European world.


Assuntos
Alquimia , América Central , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , América do Sul
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemistry as experimental science began in the seventeenth century, when it began moving away from being one of the alchemical doctrines and toward analyzing matter and its transformations using scientific methods. Previously, the ancient Pre-Socratic philosophy through observation of nature was concerned with the laws that govern the natural world and the property of matter. Later, the Hellenistic Alexandrian culture took possession of the Hermetic doctrines of the Egyptians, mixing them with pre-Socratic thought and Gnosticism. At this historical moment, therefore, there was a fusion of the Greek philosophical patrimony and the Hellenistic and Alexandrian influences on medicine. The Hermetic gnosis evolved over time to become alchemy and then to usher in the birth of chemical science. Many doctors were wandering philosophers who dealt with cosmogony to understand the body and diseases and to discover new healing drugs for treatment, and thus they were the first chemist therapists. METHODS: The influence of ancient physicians through the pre-Socratic philosophy for these prochemical theories and practice has been researched through ancient texts, so these texts have been referenced to determine the legacy of paleo-chemicals doctrines. RESULTS: The study of various texts in particular from the Pre-Socratic age and the eminent physicians underline that, despite a different approach to the cosmogonic concepts of nature and the matter, the medicine of that age had an important influence on chemistry as an experimental science, especially concerning therapy with drugs. CONCLUSION: The Pre-Socratic philosophers have influenced the medical practice and guided it toward the concept of the properties of matter for medical treatment and an understanding of the causes of diseases.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Química/história , Preparações Farmacêuticas/história , Filosofia/história , Médicos/história , Antigo Egito , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Humanos
19.
Ambix ; 67(2): 107-134, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285758

RESUMO

The article explores the use of minerals and the nature of chemical methods employed in Lima in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. It does so through examining the availability of mineral resources, including pre-European knowledge of their use, through surveying the books and equipment used by physicians and apothecaries, and finally by examining prescriptions for medicines that were used to treat patients. It concludes that minerals were probably more commonly employed in medicines in Lima than in Spain but suggests that their preparation and use at this time drew on Spain's alchemical tradition rather than on writings by Paracelsus and his followers. It argues that this did not reflect the effectiveness of censorship by the Inquisition.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Minerais/história , Médicos/história , Prescrições/história , Colonialismo , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Minerais/química , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Peru , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha
20.
Ambix ; 67(1): 47-61, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118522

RESUMO

As William R. Newman has already shown, the alchemical homunculus described in the pseudo-Paracelsian writing De natura rerum was not the only kind of "homunculus" present in the works of (or attributed to) Paracelsus. Two other important kinds of "homunculi" indeed appeared in other treatises: one in De homunculis et monstris and the other in both Vom langen Leben and the Liber de imaginibus. This article focuses on the latter tract and its relationships with De natura rerum. After discussing the authenticity of the Liber de imaginibus, I will provide a brief analysis of its content and discuss the major topics common to the two treatises: the "signatures of things" and the homunculus. By studying the reception of the latter, I will show how the alchemical conception of the homunculus, as explained in De natura rerum, quickly established itself as the most prominent notion despite the fact that the golem-like version of Vom langen Leben and De imaginibus had nearly as much success at first among Paracelsians.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Médicos/história , História do Século XVI
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