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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44488, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1096023

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar dúvidas de puérperas e familiares sobre cuidados domiciliares com o recém-nascido de baixo risco e analisar a roda de conversa, mediada por simulador realístico de baixa fidelidade, como uma tecnologia educativa para o preparo de famílias no processo de alta da maternidade. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, incluindo dezenove familiares de recém-nascidos de baixo risco em um hospital municipal de Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, de maio a outubro de 2018, por entrevista semiestruturada. Dados submetidos à Análise Temática. Resultados: as dúvidas dos familiares versaram sobre cuidados com higiene, alimentação, ambiente, afeto, saúde, sono e doenças. A roda de conversa com simulador de baixa fidelidade foi considerada uma estratégia positiva para mediar o aprendizado. Conclusão: a tecnologia educativa revelou-se útil na instrumentalização de famílias no processo de alta da maternidade, visto que o cuidador fortalece suas potencialidades, retira dúvidas e troca informações e experiências no grupo.


Objective: to identify puerperal and family members' questions about home care with low-risk newborns and to analyze the conversation circle, mediated by a realistic low fidelity simulator, as an educational technology for the preparation of families in the maternity discharge process. Method: qualitative research conducted with nineteen relatives of low-risk newborns in the municipal hospital in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from May to October 2018, through semi-structured interview. Data submitted to thematic analysis. Results: the family members' doubts were about care with hygiene, food, environment, affection, health, sleep and diseases. The conversation wheel with low fidelity simulator was considered a positive strategy to mediate learning. Conclusion: the educational technology proved to be useful in the instrumentalization of families in the maternity discharge process, as the caregiver strengthens their potential, removes doubts and exchanges information and experiences in the group.


Objetivo: identificar dudas puerperales y familiares sobre atención domiciliaria con recién nacidos de bajo riesgo y analizar el círculo de conversación, mediado por simulador realista de baja fidelidad, como una tecnología educativa de preparación de familias en el proceso de alta de la maternidad. Método: investigación cualitativa, con diecinueve familiares de recién nacidos de bajo riesgo en un hospital municipal en Río das Ostras, Río de Janeiro, de mayo a octubre de 2018, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas. Se utilizó a Análisis temático. Resultados: las dudas fueron sobre higiene, alimentación, medio ambiente, afecto, salud, sueño y enfermedades. El círculo de conversación con simulador se consideró una estrategia positiva para mediar en el aprendizaje. Conclusión: la tecnología educativa demostró ser útil en la instrumentalización de familias en el proceso de alta de la maternidad, porque el cuidador fortalece su potencial, elimina dudas e intercambia información y experiencias en el grupo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Alta do Paciente , Recém-Nascido , Família , Cuidadores/educação , Tecnologia Educacional , Assistência Domiciliar/educação , Brasil , Tecnologia Educacional/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Treinamento por Simulação , Maternidades , Hospitais Municipais
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2138387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029494

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide since December 2019. This retrospective study determined the characteristics and prognostic factors of COVID-19 patients, focusing on inpatients who died or were discharged between 30 December 2019 and 29 February 2020 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. Patients' medical histories, comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory findings, computed tomography (CT) findings, and clinical management were recorded. All 293 patients were divided into the nonsurviving (n = 116) and surviving (n = 177) groups. The median age was older in the nonsurviving group than in the surviving group; most patients were older than 65 years in the nonsurviving group. The incidence rates of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and leukocytosis were significantly higher in the nonsurviving group than in the surviving group. More patients in the nonsurviving group had increased levels of nonspecific infection markers, abnormal liver and kidney function, cardiac injury, and blood coagulation abnormalities on admission. Immune and inflammatory responses were more severely disturbed in the nonsurviving group than in the surviving group. The incidence rates of complications during hospitalization were higher in the nonsurviving group than in the surviving group. Cox regression results also showed that older age, symptoms of dyspnea, comorbidities, and complications were all predictors of death. Close monitoring and timely treatment are needed for high-risk COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007008

RESUMO

Given the global spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), strict discharge standard is of great significance for the prevention and control of the epidemic, thus, the purpose of this study is to formulate more strict and scientific discharge standards. A total of 845 patients with mild and general COVID-19 who were considered to be discharged from hospital were included in this study. The median time from the onset of COVID-19 to the occurrence of two consecutive negative nucleic acid tests of these patients was 21 days. 223 of the 845 patients were tested again after two consecutive negative nucleic acid tests and 17.49% of the patients were positive. Moreover, 82.51% (184 of 223) of these patients experienced negative results from three consecutive nucleic acid tests, the median time from the onset of COVID-19 to the occurrence of three consecutive negative nucleic acid tests was 23 days (range: 3-56 days), and 38 of which were further tested after three consecutive negative nucleic acid tests, while about 5.26% (2 of 38) patients showed positive nucleic acid test results. Thus, we suggested that the patient should be negative for at least 3 consecutive nucleic acid tests before discharge, and the test time should be no earlier than the 23rd day since the onset of the disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3130-3133, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018668

RESUMO

With the development of advanced robotic hands, a reliable neural-machine interface is essential to take full advantage of the functional dexterity of the robots. In this preliminary study, we developed a novel method to estimate isometric forces of individual fingers continuously and concurrently during dexterous finger flexion and extension. Specifically, motor unit (MU) discharge activity was extracted from the surface high-density electromyogram (EMG) signals recorded from the finger extensors and flexors, respectively. The MU information was separated into different groups to be associated with the flexion or extension of individual fingers and was then used to predict individual finger forces during multi-finger flexion and extension tasks. Compared with the conventional EMG amplitude-based method, our method can obtain a better force estimation performance (a higher correlation and a smaller estimation error between the predicted and the measured force) when a linear regression model was used. Further exploration of our method can potentially provide a robust neural-machine interface for intuitive control of robotic hands.


Assuntos
Alta do Paciente , Robótica , Eletromiografia , Dedos , Mãos , Humanos
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the survival and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants at 18 to 26 months with early hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). We also assessed whether African American infants with early HRF had improved outcomes after exposure to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). METHODS: ELBW infants ≤1000 g and gestational age ≤26 weeks with maximal oxygen ≥60% on either day 1 or day 3 were labeled as "early HRF" and born between 2007 and 2015 in the Neonatal Research Network were included. Using a propensity score regression model, we analyzed outcomes and effects of exposure to iNO overall and separately by race. RESULTS: Among 7639 ELBW infants born ≤26 weeks, 22.7% had early HRF. Early HRF was associated with a mortality of 51.3%. The incidence of moderate-severe NDI among survivors was 41.2% at 18 to 26 months. Mortality among infants treated with iNO was 59.4%. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-3.3), birth weight ≥720 g (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and complete course of antenatal steroids (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2) were associated with intact survival. African American infants had a similar incidence of early HRF (21.7% vs 23.3%) but lower exposure to iNO (16.4% vs 21.6%). Among infants with HRF exposed to iNO, intact survival (no death or NDI) was not significantly different between African American and other races (aOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.6-3.6). CONCLUSIONS: Early HRF in infants ≤26 weeks' gestation is associated with high mortality and NDI at 18 to 26 months. Use of iNO did not decrease mortality or NDI. Outcomes following iNO exposure were not different in African American infants.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia/complicações , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Administração por Inalação , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etnologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/administração & dosagem , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etnologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970753

RESUMO

Wuhan, China was the epicenter of the 2019 coronavirus outbreak. As a designated hospital for COVID-19, Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital has received over 700 COVID-19 patients. With the COVID-19 becoming a pandemic all over the world, we aim to share our epidemiological and clinical findings with the global community. We studied 340 confirmed COVID-19 patients with clear clinical outcomes from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, including 310 discharged cases and 30 death cases. We analyzed their demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data and implemented our findings into an interactive, free access web application to evaluate COVID-19 patient's severity level. Our results show that baseline T cell subsets results differed significantly between the discharged cases and the death cases in Mann Whitney U test: Total T cells (p < 0.001), Helper T cells (p <0.001), Suppressor T cells (p <0.001), and TH/TSC (Helper/Suppressor ratio, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression model with death or discharge as the outcome resulted in the following significant predictors: age (OR 1.05, 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.10), underlying disease status (OR 3.42, 95% CI, 1.30 to 9.95), Helper T cells on the log scale (OR 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.40), and TH/TSC on the log scale (OR 4.80, 95% CI, 2.12 to 11.86). The AUC for the logistic regression model is 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95), suggesting the model has a very good predictive power. Our findings suggest that while age and underlying diseases are known risk factors for poor prognosis, patients with a less damaged immune system at the time of hospitalization had higher chance of recovery. Close monitoring of the T cell subsets might provide valuable information of the patient's condition change during the treatment process. Our web visualization application can be used as a supplementary tool for the evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 662, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that was firstly reported in Wuhan, China, with cases now confirmed in more than 100 countries. However, COVID-19 pneumonia with spontaneous pneumothorax is unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a case of 66-year-old man infected with COVID-19, presenting with fever, cough and myalgia; The patient received supportive and empirical treatment including antiviral treatment, anti-inflammatory treatment, oxygen supply and inhalation therapy; The symptoms, CT images, laboratory results got improved after the treatments, and a throat swab was negative for COVID-19 PCR test; However, on the hospital day 30, the patient presented with a sudden chest pain and dyspnea. CT showed a 30-40% left-sided pneumothorax. Immediate thoracic closed drainage was performed and his dyspnea was rapidly improved. With five more times negative PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 virus, the patient was discharged and home quarantine. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance for clinicians to pay attention to the appearance of spontaneous pneumothorax, especially patients with severe pulmonary damage for a long course, as well as the need for early image diagnose CT and effective treatment once pneumothorax occurs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/complicações , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Dor no Peito/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tosse/complicações , Drenagem , Dispneia/complicações , Febre/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pneumotórax/terapia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008648, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866168

RESUMO

The phenomenon of COVID-19 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge (redetectable as positive, RP) emerged globally. The data of incidence rate and risk factors for RP event and the clinical features of RP patients may provide recommendations for virus containment and cases management for COVID-19. We prospectively collected and analyzed the epidemiological, clinical and virological data from 285 adult patients with COVID-19 and acquired their definite clinical outcome (getting PCR positive or not during post-discharge surveillance). By March 10, 27 (9.5%) discharged patients had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in their nasopharyngeal swab after a median duration of 7·0 days (IQR 5·0-8·0). Compared to first admission, RP patients generally had milder clinical symptoms, lower viral load, shorter length of stay and improved pulmonary conditions at readmission (p<0.05). Elder RP patients (≥ 60 years old) were more likely to be symptomatic compared to younger patients (7/8, 87.5% vs. 3/19, 18.8%, p = 0.001) at readmission. Age, sex, epidemiological history, clinical symptoms and underlying diseases were similar between RP and non-RP patients (p>0.05). A prolonged duration of viral shedding (>10 days) during the first hospitalization [adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.50-13.57 for N gene; aOR: 9.64, 95% CI: 3.91-23.73 for ORF gene] and higher Ct value (ORF) in the third week of the first hospitalization (aOR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50-0.95) were associated with RP events. In conclusion, RP events occurred in nearly 10% of COVID-19 patients shortly after the negative tests, were not associated with worsening symptoms and unlikely reflect reinfection. Patients' lack of efficiency in virus clearance was a risk factor for RP result. It is noteworthy that elder RP patients (≥ 60 years old) were more susceptible to clinical symptoms at readmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 41, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887670

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)"; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Alta do Paciente/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
13.
J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520956834, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967488

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate associations between the clinical characteristics and incubation periods of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. METHODS: Complete clinical and epidemiological data from 149 patients with COVID-19 at a hospital in Hunan Province, China, were collected and retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Analysis of the distribution and receiver operator characteristic curve of incubation periods showed that 7 days was the optimal cut-off value to assess differences in disease severity between groups. Patients with shorter (≤7 days) incubation periods (n = 79) had more severe disease, longer durations of hospitalization, longer times from symptom onset to discharge, more abnormal laboratory findings, and more severe radiological findings than patients with longer (>7 days) incubation periods. Regression and correlation analyses also showed that a shorter incubation period was associated with longer times from symptom onset to discharge. CONCLUSION: The associations between the incubation periods and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients suggest that the incubation period may be a useful marker of disease severity and prognosis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 194-199, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890389

RESUMO

G.B., 21-year-old patient of Albanian origin suffering from acute psychotic burning on schizotypal personality disorder induced by substance abuse, was admitted to the Psychiatric Service at Perugia' General Hospital, Italy. On admission, antipsychotic therapy was set up which had the role to reduced delusional and hallucinatory symptoms but the suspiciousness, the presence of magical thought and the closure towards surrounding world that characterize it, combined with the presence of intrusive images, consequently increased the anxiety experiences and negatively affects the establishment of a therapeutic relationship with the operators. During the hospitalization, daily support interviews were carried out: G.B. showed clear difficulty in expressing his own thought contents in presence of more than two operators emerged jointly with the tendency to project different emotional experiences based on the gender of the operator. Following these observations, with the aim to carrying out an intervention that could integrate a psychological approach to the pharmacological therapy in place, a specific personalized support setting was set up, consisting of a female and a male operator. This setting was structured coherently with the therapeutic goals to be achieved: creation of a therapeutic alliance, the integration of the patient's emotional experiences and containing the splitting through the transference analysis. By means of this setting, the patient has obtained a substantial improvement of the splitting framework allowing a better integration of his emotional experiences. At the end of the sessions, G.B. showed more confidence with the medical staff and showed himself to be more aware of his pathological and non-pathological mental states and consequently more adherent to taking drug therapy and to the continuation of post-discharge psychological therapy.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Assistência ao Convalescente , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Itália , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/terapia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of the disease caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to the use of multiple therapeutic agents whose efficacy has not been previously demonstrated. The objective of this study was to analyze whether there is an association between the use of azithromycin and the evolution of the pulmonary disease or the time to discharge, in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This was an observational study on a cohort of 418 patients admitted to three regional hospitals in Catalonia, Spain. As primary outcomes, we studied the evolution of SAFI ratio (oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen) in the first 48 hours of treatment and the time to discharge. The results were compared between patients treated and untreated with the study drug through subcohort analyses matched for multiple clinical and prognostic factors, as well as through analysis of non-matched subcohorts, using Cox multivariate models adjusted for prognostic factors. RESULTS: There were 239 patients treated with azithromycin. Of these, 29 patients treated with azithromycin could be matched with an equivalent number of control patients. In the analysis of these matched subcohorts, SAFI at 48h had no significant changes associated to the use of azithromycin, though azithromycin treatment was associated with a longer time to discharge (10.0 days vs 6.7 days; log rank: p = 0.039). However, in the unmatched cohorts, the increased hospital stay associated to azithromycin use, was no significant after adjustment using Multivariate Cox regression models: hazard ratio 1.45 (IC95%: 0.88-2.41; p = 0.150). This study is limited by its small sample size and its observational nature; despite the strong pairing of the matched subcohorts and the adjustment of the Cox regression for multiple factors, the results may be affected by residual confusion. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a clinical benefit associated with the use of azithromycin, in terms of lung function 48 hours after treatment or length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 14: 1753944720948651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the safety of endovascular procedures undertaken in a single outpatient center located in a rural, underserved area. Endovascular procedures for Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) have become increasingly common in outpatient settings; their safety is yet to be determined in a rural, underserved area with no stand-by vascular surgeon on site. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective case review of endovascular procedures for the investigation and management of lower extremity PAD between December 2012 and August 2015. Patients were classified by Rutherford score, degree of stenosis and length of lesions. Complications were major (requiring hospitalization) or minor, including perforation, distal embolization, hematoma, and allergic reactions, which could be treated immediately in the catheterization laboratory with no sequelae. Patients were monitored in the facility and followed up using clinical, biochemical and radiological parameters at 24 h and 1 month. RESULTS: A total of 692 patients underwent endovascular procedures for the investigation and/or treatment of PAD, of which 608 were interventional. Of these patients, 10.20% experienced procedural complications, of which 0.66% were classified as major, including wire retention and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. In total, 99.34% were discharged safely on the same day as the procedure. No adverse events were reported at follow up. CONCLUSION: Endovascular procedures for PAD can be performed safely in a rural outpatient setting with low complication rates. Most complications are minor and do not require hospitalization. Outpatient procedures for PAD are safe and may widen access to specialist procedures in areas of socio-economic deprivation.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Tempo de Internação , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Alta do Paciente , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 644, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the clinical features and CT findings of clinically cured coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with viral RNA positive anal swab results after discharge. METHODS: Forty-two patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Yongzhou Central Hospital, Hunan, China, between January 20, 2020, and March 2, 2020, were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using anal swab viral RT-PCR. In this report, we present the clinical characteristics and chest CT features of six patients with positive anal swab results and compare the clinical, laboratory, and CT findings between the positive and negative groups. RESULTS: The anal swab positivity rate for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in discharged patients was 14.3% (6/42). All six patients were male. In the positive group, 40% of the patients (2/5) had a positive stool occult blood test (OBT), but none had diarrhea. The median duration of fever and major symptoms (except fever) in the positive patients was shorter than that of the negative patients (1 day vs. 6 days, 4.5 days vs. 10.5 days, respectively). The incidence of asymptomatic cases in the positive group (33.3%) was also higher than that of the negative group (5.6%). There were no significant differences in the CT manifestation or evolution of the pulmonary lesions between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In our case series, patients with viral RNA positive anal swabs did not exhibit gastrointestinal symptoms, and their main symptoms disappeared early. They had similar CT features to the negative patients, which may be easier to be ignored. A positive OBT may indicate gastrointestinal damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , RNA Viral/análise , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canal Anal/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Febre , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015470, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876682

RESUMO

Importance: Home health care is one of the fastest growing postacute services in the US and is increasingly important in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 and payment reform, yet it is unknown whether patients who need home health care are receiving it. Objective: To examine how often patients referred to home health care at hospital discharge receive it and whether there is evidence of disparities. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used Medicare data regarding the postacute home health care setting from October 1, 2015, through September 30, 2016. The participants were Medicare fee-for-service and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries who were discharged alive from a hospital with a referral to home health care (2 379 506 discharges). Statistical analysis was performed from July 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Hospital referral to home health care. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included whether discharges received their first home health care visit within 14 days of hospital discharge and the number of days between hospital discharge and the first home health visit. Differences in the likelihood of receiving home health care across patient, zip code, and hospital characteristics were also examined. Results: Among 2 379 506 discharges from the hospital with a home health care referral, 1 358 697 patients (57.1%) were female, 468 762 (19.7%) were non-White, and 466 383 (19.6%) were dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid; patients had a mean (SD) age of 73.9 (11.9) years and 4.1 (2.1) Elixhauser comorbidities. Only 1 284 300 patients (54.0%) discharged from the hospital with a home health referral received home health care services within 14 days of discharge. Of the remaining 1 095 206 patients (46.0%) discharged, 37.7% (896 660 discharges) never received any home health care, while 8.3% (198 546 discharges) were institutionalized or died within 14 days without a preceding home health care visit. Patients who were Black or Hispanic received home health at lower rates than did patients who were White (48.0% [95% CI, 47.8%-48.1%] of Black and 46.1% [95% CI, 45.7%-46.5%] of Hispanic discharges received home health within 14 days compared with 55.3% [95% CI, 55.2%-55.4%] of White discharges). In addition, disadvantaged patients waited longer for their first home health care visit. For example, patients living in high-unemployment zip codes waited a mean of 2.0 days (95% CI, 2.0-2.0 days), whereas those living in low-unemployment zip codes waited 1.8 days (95% CI, 1.8-1.8 days). Conclusions and Relevance: Disparities in the use of home health care remain an issue in the US. As home health care is increasingly presented as a safer alternative to institutional postacute care during coronavirus disease 2019, and payment reforms continue to pressure hospitals to discharge patients home, ensuring the availability of safe and equitable care will be crucial to maintaining high-quality care.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare , Medicare Part C , Alta do Paciente , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
19.
Rech Soins Infirm ; (141): 70-77, 2020 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988193

RESUMO

Patient education prior to discharge from hospital is a practice developed under the name of "discharge education" (DE) in the Anglo-Saxon countries. This new form of patient education targets acute and sometimes chronic patients and concerns all hospital specialties ; it aims to facilitate the transition "hospitalhome" and avoid early readmissions. In this article we want to outline a framework of indications and effects of DE, starting from an analysis of the international literature, and identify its quality criteria in order to forecast the conditions of its application to our context. A scoping review allowed us to examine 43 scientific studies specifically related to the description, analysis and evaluation of discharge education, as well as some recommendations. Almost half of the studies are published in Nursing Science journals. DE is an intense and short educational intervention (30 minutes to an hour) delivered mainly in acute situations. Paediatrics has the largest number of publications together with post-operative care. In most studies, DE is effective in improving clinical and psychosocial parameters, reducing early admissions, increasing skills and patient compliance. To achieve its goals, DE must be structured and include systematic follow up. Focused on the patient's needs and his learning ability, it uses a specific interactive pedagogy to which caregivers must be trained. The analysis of the international research leaves no doubt about the positive contributions of DE. It would be important for caregivers and policymakers to look at it as an opportunity to improve the quality of care and to humanize it.


Assuntos
Alta do Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 711, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis could infect patients with immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive conditions via Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Tuberculosis-related hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is reported, but not HPS caused by Mycobacterium bovis in children. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-month Chinese boy presented fever and cough. The initial laboratory investigation showed the lymphocyte count of 0.97 × 109/L, which decreased gradually. HPS was diagnosed based on the test results that fulfilled the HLH-2004 criteria. In addition, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was detected from his peripheral blood via metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and M. bovis was identified by polymerase chain reaction-reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB). Thus, the patient was treated with Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Pyrazinamide, but not improved. However, parents refused to accept further therapy, and was discharged on the day 12 of admission. To confirm the pathogenesis, genetic analysis was performed. Mutation in the interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma gene: Exon 6: c.854G > A; p. Arg285Gln was detected in the patient and the mother, which could underlie X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. CONCLUSIONS: A boy with X-SCID was diagnosed with M. bovis-associated HPS, emphasizing that X-SCID should be considered when M. bovis is detected in a male infant with low lymphocyte counts.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/complicações , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/microbiologia , Masculino , Mutação , Alta do Paciente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pirazinamida/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia
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