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3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110062, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786514

RESUMO

The renowned work of Clyde Snow and the development of the Equipo Argentino de Anthropología Forense (EAAF) team has inspired the use of forensic anthropological and archaeological skills in human rights interventions around the world. Whether for medico-legal intervention and acquisition of evidence or humanitarian repatriation and identification of human remains, forensic expertise has garnered attention in the global arena. Arguably fulfilling evidentiary and psychosocial needs, there has been growing interest in this post-conflict redress. However, as part of the critique of these interventions, scholars and practitioners have pointed out - primarily in medico-legal investigations - a lack of sensitization of local communities regarding forensic work, increasing the potential for re-traumatization, unrealistic expectations, or an unintentional increase in political tensions. Research regarding forensic intervention and human remains have permeated social sciences, peace and conflict studies, and science and technology studies, revealing both intentional and unintentional impacts of forensic sciences after mass violence. In an effort to mitigate negative impacts of medico-legal or humanitarian interventions, the research described here sought to sensitize communities in Uganda about forensic methods. Findings from this study suggest that sensitization is necessary and desired, and that a multi-step approach can assist in managing expectations.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Antropologia Forense/organização & administração , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Altruísmo , Arqueologia , Recursos Audiovisuais , Sepultamento , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Grupos Focais , Antropologia Forense/educação , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , População Rural , Uganda
4.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(4): 227-232, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833746

RESUMO

Introduction: In the present study were determined the psychological, social and cultural factors that are related to organ donation in a Peruvian sample from the districts of San Isidro, Lince and San Juan de Lurigancho (Lima-Peru). Methods: Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study controls that included adults between 18-60 years. Districts of Lima of different socioeconomic levels (A, B and C), A - San Isidro, B - Lince, and C - San Juan de Lurigancho were included. The questionnaire was administered to people who indicated they were donors and those who were not according to their district of domicile, with an equitable distribution of the surveyed population and the sectors of each district: San Isidro, Lince and San Juan de Lurigancho (5 sectors), 32 inhabitants for each sector of the district. Results: psychological factor was significantly associated with organ donation (OR = 6.407; p <0.001), altruism and fear of disfiguring the body being the ones with the greatest strength of association to organ donation. Social factors (OR = 0.879; p> 0.05) and cultural factors (OR = 0.659; p> 0.05) were not significantly associated. Major conclusion: The statistically significant associated factor to organ donation in the three districts of Lima was the psychological factor; the social and cultural factor did not show association in the districts evaluated.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Características Culturais , Medo/psicologia , Psicologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(12): 734-736, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779303

RESUMO

As Fotaki (2019) argues, the current political climate in Europe is threatening principles of humanitarianism, particularly among refugees and asylum seekers. This commentary builds on that argument, with a spotlight on mental health and culturally relevant service design. By addressing some of the barriers faced by refugees and asylum seekers in accessing mental healthcare, we can address inequalities and develop compassionate societies.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Altruísmo , Diversidade Cultural , Empatia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Saúde Mental
6.
J Law Med ; 27(1): 94-107, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682344

RESUMO

This article focuses on the complexities of regulating Australians' access to commercial surrogacy overseas. Altruistic surrogacy is allowed in Australia but access to women willing to act as surrogates is limited and many Australians now seek surrogacy arrangements via commercial agencies overseas. This qualitative study interviewed key stakeholders in Australia, including clinicians providing reproductive medicine, lawyers providing legal services, consumer advocates, counsellors and health policy regulators. The aim of the study was to explore perceptions of various experts concerning commercial surrogacy overseas so as to identify issues for the establishment of ethical guidelines and surrogacy policies in Australia. A number of issues relevant to Australians seeking commercial surrogacy overseas were identified and in particular, relating to the level of informed decision-making required by intending parents as well as concerns for the welfare of children born. Amendments to current ethical guidelines and protections for children born and entering Australia are recommended.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Mães Substitutas , Altruísmo , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1509-1515, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719272

RESUMO

Background: Blood is the most donated tissue in medical practice and a veritable tool in many life-saving situations if used appropriately and judiciously. Despite the increased demand for blood, the supply of safe blood has been inadequate. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the perception and attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation among medical students in Abakaliki. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, between October 2017 and March 2018. Stratified and simple random sampling technique was used to recruit participants from among medical students using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: A total of 158 medical students who participated in the study were made up of 90 (57%) males and 68 (43%) females. The most prevalent age group was 20-25 years. Most of the participants, 151 (95.6%), were single. The proportion of the participants who had good knowledge about voluntary blood donation was 72.8%, while the attitudes of the respondents were positive to most aspects of blood donation considered. However, participants were found to have poor practice of voluntary blood donation as only 56 of 158 (35.4%) had ever donated blood. Conclusion: The majority of the participants have good knowledge and positive attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. However, their practice of voluntary blood donation was poor. Sustained awareness creation and enlightenment is relevant to influence the masses to have better knowledge and positive attitudes toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation with improved blood donation practices.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Altruísmo , Conscientização , Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Percepção , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários
10.
Transplant Proc ; 51(9): 3030-3033, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nondirected altruistic living kidney donor is a person who wants to donate a kidney to anyone in need. In 2010, the Spanish National Transplant Organization developed a national protocol to make the assessment of every potential nondirected living kidney donor. The aim of this study was to describe the potential donor pool and its characteristics and the overall effect of the program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using data from the Spanish National Registry of Transplant Activity, and the Nondirected Donors National Database, between 2010 and 2017. Data related to sociodemographic characteristics, main motivations toward donation, and causes of dismissal were collected from all potential donors. The assessment of each candidate was carried out in a step-by-step process based on the national protocol. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-two people contacted us, showing interest in the nondirected kidney donation, only 203 people underwent the early triage, and 16 of them successfully completed the assessment proces s, representing 8% of the total. The main motivation toward anonymous donation (n = 161) was: social awareness (22%) and to improve the quality of life of other people (9%). One hundred eighty-two candidates did not proceed, due to medical and psychological contraindications (42%) or donor refusal after specific information about the donation process (33%). The number of utilized nondirected altruistic living donors was 13 out of 203 (6%) of the candidates who began the early triage. Twelve transplant chains and a direct donation were performed, which made 38 kidney transplants possible (2.9 transplants per nondirected donor). CONCLUSIONS: We have to continue working to optimize our program. Our next steps will be to review the evaluation process, to detect areas for improvement, to understand why we lost many possible donors, and to ascertain if any of the reasons could be avoided.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Transplante de Rim , Doadores Vivos/psicologia , Doadores Vivos/provisão & distribução , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Transplantes/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração
12.
Int Health ; 11(5): 358-360, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529116

RESUMO

Attacks on humanitarianism are threefold. First, in conflict zones, over the past decade attacks on humanitarian health facilities and personnel are increasingly documented, along with a decline in respect for core humanitarian principles by state and non-state actors, and this will continue. Second, growing instrumentalisation, a failure to adequately fund the sector, antimigrant/refugee populism on the rise and the protracted nature of many crises are provoking a shift away from humanitarian to development healthcare aid over the next decade, intended to keep refugees far away from developed countries by encouraging their integration into immediate neighbouring states. This undermines humanitarian healthcare emergency response capacity. Third, the climate crisis will massively increase humanitarian healthcare needs among the most vulnerable over the next decade and challenge the sector to respond across all its programmes, not least as it absorbs a renewed youthful agency elsewhere in climate protest.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Conflitos Armados , Mudança Climática , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Refugiados
14.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 34(12): 1092-1103, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488327

RESUMO

Greenbeard genes were proposed as a cartoonish thought experiment to explain why altruism can be a selfish strategy from the perspective of genes. The likelihood of finding a real greenbeard gene in nature was thought to be remote because they were believed to require a set of improbable properties. Yet, despite this expectation, there is an ongoing explosion in claimed discoveries of greenbeard genes. Bringing together the latest theory and experimental findings, we argue that there is a need to dispose of the cartoon presentation of a greenbeard to refocus their burgeoning empirical study on the more fundamental concept that the thought experiment was designed to illustrate.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3968, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481650

RESUMO

The current study uses big data to study prosocial behavior by analyzing donations made on the GoFundMe platform. In a dataset of more than $44 million in online donations, we find that 21% were made while opting to be anonymous to the public, with survey results indicating that 11% of these anonymous donations (2.3% of all donations) are not attributable to any egoistic goal. Additionally, we find that donors gave significantly more to recipients who had the same last name as them. We find evidence that men and women donated more when more donors of the opposite sex were visible on the screen at the time of donating. Our results suggest that men and women were both significantly affected by the average donation amounts visible at the time of their decisions, and men were influenced more. We find that women expressed significantly more empathy than men in messages accompanying their donations.


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Altruísmo , Instituições de Caridade/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nomes , Sistemas On-Line , Comportamento Social , Mídias Sociais/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 77: 101187, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474495

RESUMO

In this paper, I contrast two mathematically equivalent ways of modeling the evolution of altruism, namely the classical inclusive fitness approach and a more recent, "direct fitness" approach. Though both are usually considered by evolutionists as mere different ways of representing the same causal process (i.e. that of kin selection), I argue that this consensus is misleading, for there is a fundamental ambiguity concerning the causal interpretation of the DF approach. Drawing on an analogy between the structure of inclusive fitness theory and that of causal decision theory (Stalnaker, 1972), I show that only the inclusive fitness framework can provide us with a proper, and unambiguous causal partition of the relevant variables involved in the evolution of altruism.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Evolução Biológica , Teoria da Decisão , Aptidão Genética , Modelos Biológicos
17.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e126, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407999

RESUMO

Current psychological perspectives emphasize "attack" and "defense" as the behavioral mechanisms underlying conflict. Here, we extend this view by highlighting the relevance of pathological altruism and the neuroendocrine pathways associated with hostile behaviors. Specifically, we elucidate the modulatory role of the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin in motivating extraordinary levels of in-group commitment that can promote extreme behaviors and endure conflict with out-groups.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Ocitocina , Motivação
19.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 130, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Refugees are potentially at an increased risk for health problems due to their past and current migration experiences. How migration factors shape refugee health is not well understood. We examined the association between migration factors and the self-rated general health of adult humanitarian refugees living in Australia. METHODS: We analyzed the first three waves of data from the 'Building A New Life In Australia' longitudinal survey of 2399 humanitarian refugees resettled in Australia. The study outcome was self-rated health measured by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Predictors were migration process and resettlement factors. We used generalized linear mixed models to investigate the relationship between predictor and outcome variables. RESULTS: Poor general health persisted among this refugee population at high levels throughout the three-year follow-up. At baseline, 35.7% (95% CI: 33.8-37.7%) of the study population reported poorer general health. Female gender, increasing age and post-migration financial stressors were positively associated with poorer general health. Having a university degree and absence of chronic health conditions were seemingly protective against declining general health (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.65-1.81 and OR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.09-1.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our results show that there is persisting high prevalence of poorer general health among adult refugees across the initial years of resettlement in Australia. This finding suggests unmet health needs which may be compounded by the challenges of resettlement in a new society, highlighting the need for increased clinical awareness of this sustained health burden to help inform and prepare refugee health care and settlement service providers.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Emigração e Imigração , Nível de Saúde , Refugiados , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Altruísmo , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Public Health Genomics ; 22(1-2): 36-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal genetic information (PGI) about HIV is produced in research and entering the clinic and direct-to-consumer market, but little consideration has been given to ethical and social issues, public perspectives, and potential behavioral implications. OBJECTIVES: This research queried the views of research participants at risk for or infected with HIV, exploring their perspectives on HIV-related PGI and its ethical, social, and behavioral implications. METHODS: We used focus groups to collect rich information about participants' perspectives on the ethical, social, and behavioral implications of PGI about HIV and host genetic research. We evaluated their reactions to three different types of genetic variants: those that made them more susceptible to HIV, more protected from or resistant to HIV, or more likely to transmit HIV to others. RESULTS: Overall, participants wanted PGI about HIV. Their reasons included a mix of personal or family health benefit and benefit to others, which varied in emphasis depending on variant type. While susceptibility variant information was seen primarily in terms of personal or family health benefit, for transmissibility and protective variant information, benefit to others emerged as a major reason for wanting PGI about HIV. Participants thought transmissibility variant information would help them prevent others from becoming infected, and protective variant information would allow them to volunteer for targeted research to help treat, cure, or prevent HIV. Possible harms were raised regarding the tendencies among some individuals to increase risky behavior with modulations in perceived risk. Potential behavioral implications were seen as significant, though complex, reflecting multifaceted risk perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds to the evidence that participants in genetic research, across disease type, have a strong desire for PGI. For participants in research on the genetics of HIV, and potentially other infectious diseases, their desire for PGI is grounded in a perceived duty not to infect others, where they feel a moral responsibility regarding research participation and behavior change. Wider dissemination of HIV-related PGI may well increase research participation, but could have mixed effects on risk behavior. More research is needed on the implications of different variant types of PGI beyond susceptibility factors, especially protective variants or resistance factors.


Assuntos
Privacidade Genética/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Altruísmo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Privacidade Genética/ética , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Mutação/genética , Receptores CCR5/genética , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
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