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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117820, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712163

RESUMO

A high-performance flexible conductive substrate is one of the key components for developing promising wearable devices. Concerning this, a sustainable, flexible, transparent, and conductive cellulose/ZnO/AZO (CZA) film was developed in this study. The cellulose was used as the transparent substrate. The added AZO was as the conductive layer and ZnO functioned as an interface buffer layer. Results showed that the interface buffer layer of ZnO effectively alleviated the intrinsic incompatibility of organic cellulose and inorganic AZO, resulting in the improvement of the performance of CZA film. In compared with the controlled cellulose/AZO (CA) film with 365 Ω/sq sheet resistance and 87% transmittance, this CZA film featured a low conductive sheet resistance of 115 Ω/sq and high transmittance of 89%, as well as low roughness of 1.85 nm Moreover, the existence of conducive ZnO buffer layer enabled the conductivity of CZA film to be stable under the bending treatment. Herein, a flexible electronic device was successfully prepared with the biomass materials, which would be available by a roll-to-roll production process.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Eletrônica , Alumínio/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Óxido de Zinco/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562208

RESUMO

MgAl2O4-spinel has wide industrial and geological applications due to its special structural and physical-chemical features. It is presumably the most important endmember of complex natural spinel solid solutions, and therefore provides a structural model for a large group of minerals with the spinel structure. There exists a well known but still inadequately understood phenomenon in the structure of MgAl2O4-spinel, the Mg-Al cations readily exchanging their positions in response to variations of temperature, pressure, and composition. A large number of experiments were performed to investigate the Mg-Al cation order-disorder process usually quantified by the inversion parameter x (representing either the molar fraction of Al on the tetrahedral T-sites or the molar fraction of Mg on the octahedral M-sites in the spinel structure), and some thermodynamic models were thereby constructed to describe the x-T relation. However, experimental data at some key T were absent, so that the different performance of these thermodynamic models could not be carefully evaluated. This limited the interpolation and extrapolation of the thermodynamic models. By performing some prolonged annealing experiments with some almost pure natural MgAl2O4-spinel plates and quantifying the x values with single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique, we obtained some critical equilibrium x values at T down to 773 K. These new x-T data, along with those relatively reliable x values at relatively high T from early studies, clearly indicate that the CS94 Model (a model constructed by Carpenter and Salje in 1994) better describes the Mg-Al cation order-disorder reaction in MgAl2O4-spinel for a wide range of T. On the basis of the CS94 Model, a geothermometer was established, and its form is T-closure = 21362 × x3 - 12143 × x2 + 6401 × x - 10 (T-closure standing for the closure temperature of the Mg-Al cation exchange reaction). This geothermometer can be used to constrain the thermal history of the geological bodies containing MgAl2O4-spinel.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Magnésio/química , Óxidos/química , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Minerais/química , Modelos Moleculares , Soluções/química , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Difração de Raios X
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560900

RESUMO

Removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from water was evaluated using a low-cost coated sand adsorbent for potential application in a flow-through filter system using permeable adsorption media. Manganese-aluminum coated sand (MACS) was investigated as a hybrid metal oxide based adsorbent due to the potential efficacy of manganese oxide and aluminum oxide for adsorption of Cr(VI) from water. Adsorbent characterization was performed using XRD, SEM/EDX, XPS and BET. Adsorption experiments were performed to determine adsorption capacity and kinetics. The effect of pH, common co-existing ions found in natural water, and the recyclability of adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent characterization showed that the MACS sorbent contained aluminum oxide, manganese (III) oxide and manganese (IV) oxide. Adsorption followed the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations, indicating favorable adsorption of Cr(VI) onto the MACS sorbent, while results from the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation were suggestive of physical adsorption of Cr(VI). Cr(VI) adsorption onto the MACS sorbent followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The adsorbent was effective in removing Cr(VI) over a broad pH range from 3 to 9.5, while surface charge analysis confirmed the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto the acidic surface of the MACS sorbent with a pHPZC of 9.72. The presence of co-existing ions bicarbonate, sulfate and phosphate in water resulted in a decrease in Cr(VI) uptake in the following order: phosphate > bicarbonate > sulfate. The presence of calcium resulted in a slight increase in Cr(VI) uptake. The MACS sorbent is a recyclable sorbent for adsorption and removal of Cr(VI) from water within 30 minutes of contact time.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Cromo/química , Manganês/química , Areia/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Compostos de Manganês/química , Concentração Osmolar , Óxidos/química
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2211: 171-182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336277

RESUMO

Polysaccharides are excellent candidates for drug delivery applications as they are available in abundance from natural sources. Polysaccharides such as starch, cellulose, lignin, chitosan, alginate, and tragacanth gum are used to make hydrogels beads. Hydrogels beads are three-dimensional, cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers formed in spherical shape and sized in the range of 0.5-1.0 mm of diameter. Beads are formed by various cross-linking methods such as chemical and irradiation methods. Natural polymer-based hydrogels are biocompatible and biodegradable and have inherently low immunogenicity, which makes them suitable for physiological drug delivery approaches. The cross-linked polysaccharide-based hydrogels are environment-sensitive polymers that can potentially be used for the development of "smart" delivery systems, which are capable of control release of the encapsulated drug at a targeted colon site. This topic focuses on various aspects of fabricating and optimizing the cross-linking of polysaccharides, either by a single polysaccharide or mixtures and also natural-synthetic hybrids to produce polymer-based hydrogel vehicles for colon-targeted drug delivery.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Hidrogéis/química , Polímeros/química , Alumínio/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Química Farmacêutica , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Emulsões , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Polissacarídeos/química
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 489-498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959262

RESUMO

Aluminum salts are used as an adjuvant in many human and veterinary vaccines. However, aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines are sensitive to temperature change and must be stored at 2-8 °C. Inadvertently exposing them to slow freezing temperatures can cause irreversible aggregation of aluminum salt microparticles and loss of potency and/or immunogenicity of the vaccines. There have been efforts to overcome this limitation by either adding stabilizing agents to the liquid vaccine or converting the vaccine from a liquid to a dry powder. Thin-film freeze-drying (TFFD) has proven to be an effective process to convert aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines from liquid to dry powder without causing particle aggregation or loss of immunogenicity upon reconstitution. This chapter provides a review of the TFFD process and examples for preparing stable aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccine dry powders using TFFD.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Alumínio , Criopreservação , Vacinas , Alumínio/química , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Liofilização , Humanos , Camundongos , Vacinas/imunologia
6.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128072, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182132

RESUMO

A new synthesis method was developed to prepare an aluminum-based metal organic framework (MIL-96) with a larger particle size and different crystal habits. A low cost and water-soluble polymer, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), was added in varying quantities into the synthesis reaction to achieve >200% particle size enlargement with controlled crystal morphology. The modified adsorbent, MIL-96-RHPAM2, was systematically characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, BET and TGA-MS. Using activated carbon (AC) as a reference adsorbent, the effectiveness of MIL-96-RHPAM2 for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) removal from water was examined. The study confirms stable morphology of hydrated MIL-96-RHPAM2 particles as well as a superior PFOA adsorption capacity (340 mg/g) despite its lower surface area, relative to standard MIL-96. MIL-96-RHPAM2 suffers from slow adsorption kinetics as the modification significantly blocks pore access. The strong adsorption of PFOA by MIL-96-RHPAM2 was associated with the formation of electrostatic bonds between the anionic carboxylate of PFOA and the amine functionality present in the HPAM backbone. Thus, the strongly held PFOA molecules in the pores of MIL-96-RHPAM2 were not easily desorbed even after eluted with a high ionic strength solvent (500 mM NaCl). Nevertheless, this simple HPAM addition strategy can still chart promising pathways to impart judicious control over adsorbent particle size and crystal shapes while the introduction of amine functionality onto the surface chemistry is simultaneously useful for enhanced PFOA removal from contaminated aqueous systems.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Caprilatos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/análogos & derivados , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal/química , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 253: 117207, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278976

RESUMO

Superfine pulverisation (SFP) pretreatment of Lycium barbarum L. leaves was performed to obtain highly crystalline cellulose. Compared with other common pulverisation methods, SFP enhanced cellulosic crystallinity by 18.3 % and 8.4 %, with and without post-acid treatments, respectively. XRD and solid-state NMR analyses showed that SFP facilitated the exposure of amorphous substances (i.e., hemicellulose and lignin) to NaOH and H2O2. Large amounts of silicon (5.5 %) and aluminium (2.1 %) were found to incorporate into the crystalline regions of SFP-produced cellulose. Further FTIR and thermogravimetric analyses revealed that SFP-produced cellulose contained large amounts of hydroxyl groups, affecting the cellulosic crystallinity and thermal stability. These findings demonstrate the potential for SFP to serve as a green technology for production of highly crystalline and mineral-rich cellulose.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Alumínio/química , Cristalização , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Lignina/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissacarídeos/química , Pós/química , Silício/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química , Temperatura
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(1): 1353-1366, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351585

RESUMO

Stimulus-responsive hydrogels, such as conductive hydrogels and thermoresponsive hydrogels, have been explored extensively and are considered promising candidates for smart materials such as wearable devices and artificial muscles. However, most of the existing studies on stimulus-responsive hydrogels have mainly focused on their single stimulus-responsive property and have not explored multistimulus-responsive or multifunction properties. Although some works involved multifunctionality, the prepared hydrogels were incompatible. In this work, a multistimulus-responsive and multifunctional hydrogel system (carboxymethyl cellulose/poly acrylic-acrylamide) with good elasticity, superior flexibility, and stable conductivity was prepared. The prepared hydrogel not only showed excellent human motion detection and physiological signal response but also possessed the ability to respond to environmental temperature changes. By integrating a conductive hydrogel with a thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel to form a bilayer hydrogel, the prepared bilayer also functioned as two kinds of actuators owing to the different degrees of swelling and shrinking under different thermal stimuli. Furthermore, the different thermochromic properties of each layer in the bilayer hydrogel endowed the hydrogel with a thermoresponsive "smart" feature, the ability to display and conceal information. Therefore, the prepared hydrogel system has excellent prospects as a smart material in different applications, such as ionic skin, smart info-window, and soft robotics.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Hidrogéis/química , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Alumínio/química , Elasticidade , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Movimento , Temperatura , Termômetros
9.
Molecules ; 26(1)2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374496

RESUMO

The development of low-cost electrode devices from conductive materials has recently attracted considerable attention as a sustainable means to replace the existing commercially available electrodes. In this study, two different electrode surfaces (surfaces 1 and 2, denoted as S1 and S2) were fabricated from chocolate wrapping aluminum foils. Energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to investigate the elemental composition and surface morphology of the prepared electrodes. Meanwhile, cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to assess the electrical conductivities and the electrochemical activities of the prepared electrodes. It was found that the fabricated electrode strips, particularly the S1 electrode, showed good electrochemical responses and conductivity properties in phosphate buffer (PB) solutions. Interestingly, both of the electrodes can respond to the ruthenium hexamine (Ruhex) redox species. The fundamental results presented from this study indicate that this electrode material can be an inexpensive alternative for the electrode substrate. Overall, our findings indicate that electrodes made from chocolate wrapping materials have promise as electrochemical sensors and can be utilized in various applications.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Chocolate , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Metais/química , Reciclagem/métodos , Oxirredução , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 8075-8095, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116519

RESUMO

Purpose: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a new therapeutic modality for the noninvasive cancer treatment based on the association of ultrasound and sonosensitizer drugs. Topical SDT requires the development of delivery systems to properly transport the sonosensitizer, such as zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), to the skin. In addition, the delivery system itself can participate in sonodynamic events and influence the therapeutic response. This study aimed to develop ZnPc-loaded micelle to evaluate its potential as a topical delivery system and as a cavitational agent for low-frequency ultrasound (LFU) application with the dual purpose of promoting ZnPc skin penetration and generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) for SDT. Methods: ZnPc-loaded micelles were developed by the thin-film hydration method and optimized using the Quality by Design approach. Micelles' influence on LFU-induced cavitation activity was measured by potassium iodide dosimeter and aluminum foil pits experiments. In vitro skin penetration of ZnPc was assessed after pretreatment of the skin with LFU and simultaneous LFU treatment using ZnPc-loaded micelles as coupling media followed by 6 h of passive permeation of ZnPc-loaded micelles. The singlet oxygen generation by LFU irradiation of the micelles was evaluated using two different hydrophilic probes. The lipid peroxidation of the skin was estimated using the malondialdehyde assay after skin treatment with simultaneous LFU using ZnPc-loaded micelles. The viability of the B16F10 melanoma cell line was evaluated using resazurin after treatment with different concentrations of ZnPc-loaded micelles irradiated or not with LFU. Results: The micelles increased the solubility of ZnPc and augmented the LFU-induced cavitation activity in two times compared to water. After 6 h ZnPc-loaded micelles skin permeation, simultaneous LFU treatment increased the amount of ZnPc in the dermis by more than 40 times, when compared to non-LFU-mediated treatment, and by almost 5 times, when compared to LFU pretreatment protocol. The LFU irradiation of micelles induced the generation of singlet oxygen, and the lipoperoxidation of the skin treated with the simultaneous LFU was enhanced in three times in comparison to the non-LFU-treated skin. A significant reduction in cell viability following treatment with ZnPc-loaded micelles and LFU was observed compared to blank micelles and non-LFU-treated control groups. Conclusion: LFU-irradiated mice can be a potential approach to skin cancer treatment by combining the functions of increasing drug penetration and ROS generation required for SDT.


Assuntos
Indóis/farmacologia , Micelas , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Ultrassom , Alumínio/química , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Iodeto de Potássio/química , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Suínos
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461354, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797834

RESUMO

The Al-doped mesoporous crystalline material-41 (Al-MCM-41) composite was prepared and applied as fiber coating material of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from human urine. Five PAHs including acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene are chosen as target analytes to evaluate the performance of the material by GC-FID analysis. The mesoporous Al-MCM-41 composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement, and thermogravimetric analysis. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of HS-SPME were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the method exhibits ideal linearity for target analytes in the range of 0.3-600 ng⋅mL-1 with the coefficients (R2) equal or higher than 0.9906. The enrichment factors are calculated from 540 to 1760. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) are between the ranges of 0.06-0.18 and 0.3-0.9 ng⋅mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 5) of intra-day and inter-day are in the ranges of 1.08-7.49% and 2.84-18.3% respectively. The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n = 3) is in the range of 6.47-13.9%. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in human urine with reasonable recoveries which is ranging from 73.29 to 116.1%.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Dióxido de Silício/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Cristalização , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Porosidade , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461358, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797837

RESUMO

In this study, the in-situ conversion of the synthesized Co-Al layered double hydroxide (Co-Al LDH) nanosheets to three dimensional hierarchical zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (3D HZIF-67) was presented as a cost-effective, highly efficient, flexible and robust sorbent to carry out the microextraction process. In the first stage, the anodized aluminum foil was prepared electrochemically. Then, the Co-Al LDH precursor was constructed on the surface of the previously-prepared anodized Al foil applying in-situ formation approach. The procedure is followed by the conversion of the prepared Co-Al LDH film to 3D HZIF-67 film via a facile solvothermal method without adding cobalt salt. The in-situ prepared 3D HZIF-67-anodized Al was used for the thin film microextraction (TFME) of caffeine. The effective factors in TFME procedure were investigated and optimized through applying Central Composite Design (CCD). In the obtained optimal condition, the calibration curves for TFME-HPLC-UV of caffeine were linear in the range of 1-200 µg L-1 with the coefficient of determination (r2) higher than 0.9915. The limits of detection were 0.33 and 0.38 µg L-1, in water and urine matrices, respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors (EFs) and absolute recoveries (%AR) were also calculated as 173-198 and 57.1%-65.3%, respectively. The inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were evaluated as the method precision for 20 and 200 µg L-1 of spiked sample and were between 4.9-6.1%. The repeatability of the preparation step was investigated as batch-to-batch reproducibility and it was found to be 4.9%; as a result, the reproducibility of the presented film was approved. Finally, the proposed method was utilized to determine caffeine (as the model analyte) from different types of real samples including urine, coffee, beverage (Pepsi) and shampoo. The obtained recoveries (higher than 88%) confirmed the capability of the method for real sample analysis.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Cafeína/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cobalto/química , Hidróxidos/química , Imidazóis/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Zeolitas/química , Adsorção , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0227530, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663212

RESUMO

Soil solution chemistry is influenced by atmospheric deposition of air pollutants, exchange processes with the soil matrix and soil-rhizosphere-plant interactions. In this study we present the results of the long-term Intercantonal Forest Observation Program in Switzerland with soil solution measurements since 1998 on a current total of 47 plots. The forest sites comprise two major forest types of Switzerland including a wide range of ecological gradients such as different nitrogen (N) deposition and soil conditions. The long-term data set of 20 years of soil solution measurements revealed an ongoing, but site-specific soil acidification. In strongly acidified soils (soil pH below 4.2), acidification indicators changed only slowly over the measured period, possibly due to high buffering capacity of the aluminum buffer (pH 4.2-3.8). In contrast, in less acidified sites we observed an increasing acidification rate over time, reflected, for example, by the continuous decrease in the ratio of base cations to aluminum (BC/Al ratio). Nowadays, the main driver of soil acidification is the high rate of N deposition, causing cation losses and hampering sustainable nutrient balances for tree nutrition. Mean nitrate leaching rates for the years 2005-2017 were 9.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1, ranging from 0.04 to 53 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Three plots with high N input had a remarkable low nitrate leaching. Both N deposition and nitrate leaching have decreased since 2000. However, the latter trend may be partly explained due to increased drought in recent years. Nonetheless, those high N depositions are still affecting the majority of the forest sites. Taken together, this study gives evidence of anthropogenic soil acidification in Swiss forest stands. The underlying long-term measurements of soil solution provides important information on nutrient leaching losses and the impact climate change effects such as droughts. Furthermore, this study improves the understanding of forest management and tree mortality regarding varying nitrate leaching rates.


Assuntos
Solo/química , Alumínio/química , Cátions/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Nitrogênio/análise , Suíça
14.
Food Chem ; 331: 127352, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652343

RESUMO

The influence of some additives, including metal ions, antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and organic solvents, on the storage stability of four organophosphorus pesticides in cucumber samples were investigated. It was found that metal ions, including Al3+, Fe3+, and Co2+, increased the stability of dichlorvos, malathion, and chlorpyrifos. Conversely, Al3+, Fe3+, Fe2+, and Co2+ caused catalytic degradation of diazinon. With the addition of organic solvents (CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3OH and CH3COCH3), remaining of diazinon residues was higher (16-54%) after storage for seven days. CCl4 was associated with the highest retention of malathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos (33%, 48% and 44%, respectively) in samples. SDS also stabilized the pesticides since residues were, again, higher (13-38%) after seven days storage. Furthermore, addition of Al3+ and Fe3+ decreased peroxidase (POD) activity and inhibited degradation of dichlorvos and malathion. After 14 days, lyophilization increased the pesticide residues remaining by 36%, 29%, and 58% for diazinon, malathion and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Overall, the stability of these pesticides during storage is impacted by water content and addition of exogenous substances. This could ensure higher quality of pesticide residue data in samples.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Inseticidas/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Alumínio/química , Clorpirifos/análise , Clorpirifos/química , Diazinon/análise , Diazinon/química , Diclorvós/análise , Diclorvós/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Liofilização , Inseticidas/análise , Malation/análise , Malation/química , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Oxirredutases/química , Peroxidases/química , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Água/química
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110858, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563161

RESUMO

This work presents the research on the treatment of an anthraquinone derivatives of disperse dye Blue SI from aqueous solution using aluminium for the optimization of operational parameters like pH, current density, addition of electrolyte, contact time for the color removal efficiency (CRE) and the results are compared with the performance of copper electrodes in electrocoagulation (EC). The parameters for maximum CRE was found with Al at current density 40 Am-2, time 10 min at pH 7, and for Cu at 60 Am-2 15 min, at pH 6 were optimized. The characterization of the treated water using HPLC, MS studies revealed intermediate compounds. From the XPS analysis of the sludge obtained, the mechanism of EC was deduced. Treated aqueous solution was studied for its phytotoxicity with Vigna radiata and ecotoxicity studies were conducted on Artemia salina to study the toxicity effect of the intermediatory products in the treated dye solution. Blue SI dye aqueous solution treated with aluminium electrodes shows no or lesser toxicity in plants as well as in ecotoxic study compared with copper electrodes.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Antraquinonas/análise , Cobre/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Antraquinonas/química , Antraquinonas/toxicidade , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrodos , Floculação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esgotos/química , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478723

RESUMO

In single molecule fluorescence enzymology, background fluorescence from labeled substrates in solution often limits fluorophore concentration to pico- to nanomolar ranges, several orders of magnitude less than many physiological ligand concentrations. Optical nanostructures called zero mode waveguides (ZMWs), which are 100-200 nm in diameter apertures fabricated in a thin conducting metal such as aluminum or gold, allow imaging of individual molecules at micromolar concentrations of fluorophores by confining visible light excitation to zeptoliter effective volumes. However, the need for expensive and specialized nanofabrication equipment has precluded the widespread use of ZMWs. Typically, nanostructures such as ZMWs are obtained by direct writing using electron beam lithography, which is sequential and slow. Here, colloidal, or nanosphere, lithography is used as an alternative strategy to create nanometer-scale masks for waveguide fabrication. This report describes the approach in detail, with practical considerations for each phase. The method allows thousands of aluminum or gold ZMWs to be made in parallel, with final waveguide diameters and depths of 100-200 nm. Only common lab equipment and a thermal evaporator for metal deposition are required. By making ZMWs more accessible to the biochemical community, this method can facilitate the study of molecular processes at cellular concentrations and rates.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Fluorescência , Microtecnologia/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Alumínio/química , Coloides/química , Cobre/química , Cristalização , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ouro/química , Microesferas , Poliestirenos/química , Porosidade
17.
Chemistry ; 26(41): 8976-8982, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428253

RESUMO

The addition of aluminum-based adjuvants in vaccines enhances the immune response to antigens. The strength of antigen adsorption on adjuvant gels is known to modulate vaccine efficacy. However, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between aluminum gels and antigens is still missing. Herein, a new analytical approach based on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced NMR spectroscopy under magic angle spinning (MAS) is implemented to provide a molecular description of the antigen-adjuvant interface. This approach is demonstrated on hepatitis B surface antigen particles in combination with three aluminum gels obtained from different suppliers. Both noncovalent and covalent interactions between the phospholipids of the antigen particles and the surface of the aluminum gels are identified by using MAS DNP NMR 27 Al and 31 P correlation experiments. Although covalent interactions were detected for only one of the formulations, dipolar recoupling rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiments reveal significant differences in the strength of weak interactions.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Alumínio/química , Antígenos/química , Vacinas/química , Adsorção , Antígenos/imunologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vacinas/imunologia
18.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126937, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402882

RESUMO

Phosphate competes with arsenate for sorption sites on poorly crystalline iron and aluminum (hydr)oxides. The competition has implications e.g. for the management of arsenic-contaminated soil and water. Phosphate competition with arsenate on mixed phases containing both iron and aluminum (hydr)oxides has rarely been investigated. Here, the phosphate competition with arsenate on mixtures of poorly crystalline aluminum hydroxide (Alhox) and ferrihydrite (Fh), was investigated in batch experiments at pH 6.5. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed on the phosphorus and arsenic K edges, which offered a unique insight in the partitioning of arsenate and phosphate on mixed Alhox-Fh sorbents. Under the studied conditions the sorption capacity of the mixed sorbents (per mol Al or Fe) increased at higher Alhox to Fh ratios. The XAS measurements provided direct evidence that phosphate competed more effectively with arsenate for sorption sites on Alhox than on Fh. For example, in a mixture with 50% of both sorbents and with similar additions of arsenate and phosphate, 71% of the oxyanions adsorbed on Fh and 46% on Alhox were arsenate. Consequently, phosphate may mobilize arsenate more easily from mixed iron-aluminum matrices that are rich in aluminum.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Arseniatos/química , Fosfatos/química , Adsorção , Alumínio/química , Arsênico/química , Compostos Férricos , Ferro/química , Óxidos/química , Água
19.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127158, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470741

RESUMO

When the nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) is used for the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) to trivalent chromium (Cr3+) in groundwater, the reduction efficiency is decreased due to the passivation of reactive sites by precipitation. The bimetallic nanoparticle (BNP) can be created with the addition of the second metal to achieve a higher activity and reduce the occurrence of the ferrous/ferric hydroxide precipitation. In this study, the iron-coated aluminum (Fe/Al) BNP and aluminum-coated iron (Al/Fe) BNP systems were designed for remediating Cr6+-contaminated groundwater. The chemical liquid-phase deposition and co-reduction method was applied to produce BNPs. Cr6+ removal rate by Fe/Al BNPs was directly proportional to the saturation concentration and reactive sites, which caused a higher Cr6+ removal rate. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model could be used to describe the Cr6+ adsorption mechanism by Fe/Al BNPs. Results show that Fe/Al BNPs and Al/Fe BNPs could reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+, and the removal efficiencies for Cr6+ were 1.47 g/g BNP and 0.07 g/g BNP, respectively. Detection of Cr3+ in the aqueous phase was observed during the Cr6+ removal process. Results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that Cr(OH)3 was present on the surface of BNPs. Main mechanisms caused Cr6+ removal included reduction, precipitation, and adsorption. The reduction of Cr6+ produced OH-, which created alkaline environment and facilitated the formation of chromium hydroxide precipitates [Cr(OH)3]. Thus, the migration of Cr3+ was prevented and the environmental risk was reduced. BNP had a higher activity and stability, and it was applicable for Cr6+-contaminated site remediation.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Cromo/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Ferro/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Cromo/química , Cinética , Nanopartículas/química , Água/química
20.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(7): 075010, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242527

RESUMO

Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) utilizes highly collimated synchrotron generated x-rays to create narrow planes of high dose radiation for the treatment of tumors. Individual microbeams have a typical width of 30-50 µm and are separated by a distance of 200-500 µm. The dose delivered at the center of the beam is lethal to cells in the microbeam path, on the order of hundreds of Grays (Gy). The tissue between each microbeam is spared and helps aid in the repair of adjacent damaged tissue. Radiation interactions within the peak of the microbeam, such as the photoelectric effect and incoherent (atomic Compton) scattering, cause some dose to be delivered to the valley areas adjacent to the microbeams. As the incident x-ray energy is modified, radiation interactions within a material change and affect the probability of interactions, as well as the directionality and energy of ionizing particles (electrons) that deposit energy in the valley regions surrounding the microbeam peaks. It is crucial that the valley dose between microbeams be minimal to maintain the effectiveness of MRT. Using a monochromatic x-ray source with x-ray energies ranging from 30 to 150 keV, a detailed investigation into the effect of incident x-ray energy on the dose profiles of microbeams was performed using samarium doped fluoroaluminate (FA) glass as the medium. All dosimetric measurements were carried out using a purpose-built fluorescence confocal microscope dosimetric technique that used Sm-doped FA glass plates as the irradiated medium. Dose profiles are measured over a very a wide range of x-ray energies at micrometer resolution and dose distribution in the microbeam are mapped. The measured microbeam profiles at different energies are compared with the MCNP6 radiation transport code, a general transport code which can calculate the energy deposition of electrons as they pass through a given material. The experimentally measured distributions can be used to validate the results for electron energy deposition in fluoroaluminate glass. Code validation is necessary for using transport codes in future treatment planning for MRT and other radiation therapies. It is shown that simulated and measured micro beam-profiles are in good agreement, and micrometer level changes can be observed using this high-resolution dosimetry technique. Full width at 10% of the maximum peak (FW@10%) was used to quantify the microbeam width. Experimental measurements on FA glasses and simulations on the dependence of the FW@10% at various energies are in good agreement. Simulations on energy deposited in water indicate that FW@10% reaches a local minimum around energies 140 keV. In addition, variable slit width experiments were carried out at an incident x-ray energy of 100 keV in order to determine the effect of the narrowing slit width on the delivered peak dose. The microbeam width affects the peak dose, which decreases with the width of the microbeam. Experiments suggest that a typical microbeam width for MRT is likely to be between 20-50 µm based on this work.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Flúor/química , Vidro/química , Método de Monte Carlo , Doses de Radiação , Samário/química , Terapia por Raios X , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Síncrotrons
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