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1.
Zootaxa ; 4819(3): zootaxa.4819.3.7, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056096

RESUMO

Pantomorus albosignatus Boheman, 1840 (Entiminae: Naupactini), type species of the genus Pantomorus Schoenherr, 1840, is broadly distributed in Mexico, from Oaxaca and Veracruz to Chihuahua and Coahuila, and is probably related to P. parvulus Sharp 1891 (México: Oaxaca and Veracruz), P. andersoni sp. nov. (México: Guerrero), and P. crinitus (Boheman, 1840) (southern Mexico, El Salvador and Guatemala). The four species are small (5-8 mm), apterous, usually show a characteristic maculation and erect setae on the elytra, short antennae, vestigial to absent humeri, and well-developed, squamose corbels of the metatibiae, and are here referred to as the Pantomorus albosignatus species group. Our study was based on the examination of type material and about 500 specimens from different collections, and provides a dichotomous key, descriptions or redescriptions of the species, habitus photographs, line drawings of female and male genitalia, a map of distribution, new locality records and new plant associations. We propose that Pantomorus nobilis (Boheman 1840) is a new junior subjective synonym of P. crinitus (Boheman, 1840), and we designate lectotypes for the species Pantomorus albosignatus Boheman, P. parvulus Sharp, P. crinitus (Boheman), P. nobilis (Boheman) and P. affinis Sharp, 1891 (the latter is also a junior synonym of P. crinitus). Pantomorus albosignatus usually inhabits Acacia grasslands and cactus deserts of the Mexican Plateau, at higher elevations than remaining species; P. parvulus occurs in cloud forests and tropical deciduous forests of southern Mexico; P. crinitus in open oak pine forests, cloud forests and tropical deciduous forests of southern Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador; and P. andersoni is endemic to the state of Guerrero, in Acacia-cactus woodlands.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , América Central , Feminino , Masculino , México
2.
Zootaxa ; 4768(2): zootaxa.4768.2.1, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056521

RESUMO

Seventeen new species of the genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás Anderson 2016, are described. Images of habitus and genitalia of both sexes are presented, as well as a dichotomous key for the identification of males and females of the known species of the genus. The species included here are P. andersoni Barrios-Izás, new species (Costa Rica and Panamá), P. antonioi Barrios-Izás, new species (Honduras), P. camuna Barrios-Izás, new species (Nicaragua), P. genieri Barrios-Izás, new species (Honduras), P. guaimacaensis Barrios-Izás, new species (Honduras), P. hectori Barrios-Izás, new species (Costa Rica), P. linaresi Barrios-Izás, new species (Honduras), P. maesi Barrios-Izás, new species (Nicaragua), P. molinai Barrios-Izás, new species (Honduras), P. monzoni Barrios-Izás, new species (Guatemala), P. morronei Barrios-Izás, new species (Honduras), P. nelsoni Barrios-Izás, new species (Honduras), P. nicaraguensis Barrios-Izás, new species (Nicaragua), P. obrienorum Barrios-Izás, new species (Costa Rica), P. solisi Barrios-Izás, new species (Costa Rica), P. velizi Barrios-Izás, new species (Honduras) and P. zarazagai Barrios-Izás, new species (Honduras).


Assuntos
Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , América Central , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Zootaxa ; 4763(3): zootaxa.4763.3.1, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056852

RESUMO

The skink genus Marisora ranges from Mexico to northern South America and occurs on some islands in the Caribbean Sea. We conducted a revision of the genus Marisora from Mexico and Central America, using new morphological and molecular data, and find support for the five previously described species (Marisora alliacea, M.aurulae, M. brachypoda, M. magnacornae, and M. roatanae) and describe four new species: Marisora lineola sp. nov., M. aquilonaria sp. nov., M. syntoma sp. nov., and M. urtica sp. nov. We show that two species previously known only from Central American islands, M. magnacornae and M. roatanae, also occur on the adjacent mainland and that two species recently placed in Alinea belong to this evolutionary clade: Marisora berengerae n. comb. and Marisora pergravis n. comb. Together with M. falconensis and M. unimarginata, these 13 species of Marisora arose mostly in the Pliocene and are largely allopatric but are sympatric and nearly sympatric at several locations in Central America where they maintain their morphological and genetic distinctiveness.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , América Central , México
4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965329

RESUMO

Although Leishmania infantum is well-known as the aethiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in some Central American countries it may cause atypical non-ulcerated cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL). However, the mechanisms favoring its establishment in the skin are still unknown. Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the major Leishmania multivirulence factor involved in parasite-host interaction. In the case of viscerotropic L. infantum, it causes an immunosuppression during the interaction with macrophages. Here, we investigated the biochemical and functional roles of LPGs from four dermotropic L. infantum strains from Honduras during in vitro interaction with murine macrophages. LPGs were extracted, purified and their repeat units analysed. They did not have side chains consisting of Gal(ß1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 common to all LPGs. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c and C57BL/6 were exposed to LPG for nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine (TNF-α and, IL-6) production. LPGs from dermotropic strains from Honduras triggered higher NO and cytokine levels compared to those from viscerotropic strains. In conclusion, LPGs from dermotropic strains are devoid of side-chains and exhibit high pro-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Glicoesfingolipídeos , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Animais , América Central , Honduras , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 141: 53-69, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940251

RESUMO

Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive, opportunistically zoonotic bacterium infective to a wide variety of farmed and wild fish species worldwide. Outbreaks in wild fish can have detrimental environmental and cultural impacts, and mortality events in aquaculture can result in significant economic losses. As an emerging or re-emerging pathogen of global significance, understanding the coalescing factors contributing to piscine streptococcosis is crucial for developing strategies to control infections. Intraspecific antigenic and genetic variability of S. iniae has made development of autogenous vaccines a challenge, particularly where the diversity of locally endemic S. iniae strains is unknown. This study genetically and phenotypically characterized 11 S. iniae isolates from diseased wild and farmed fish from North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme was developed to phylogenetically compare these isolates to 84 other strains of Streptococcus spp. relevant to aquaculture. MLSA generated phylogenies comparable to established genotyping methods, and isolates formed distinct clades related to phenotype and host species. The endothelial Oreochromis mossambicus bulbus arteriosus cell line and whole blood from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus were used to investigate the persistence and virulence of the 11 isolates using in vitro assays. In vivo challenges using an O. niloticus model were used to evaluate virulence by the intragastric route of infection. Isolates showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in virulence and persistence, with some correlation to genogroup, establishing a basis for further work uncovering genetic factors leading to increased pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae , Animais , Região do Caribe , América Central , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Índias Ocidentais
6.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52527

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Universal health coverage is a public health priority in the Americas. Social innovation in health offers novel solutions to unmet needs, by enabling health care delivery to be more inclusive, affordable, and effective. In 2017, an international collaborative consortium launched an open call for solutions that sought to identify social innovations in health in Central America and the Caribbean. The focus was set on how these solutions can strengthen health care delivery, with emphasis on reducing the impact of neglected transmissible diseases. A crowdsourcing strategy was implemented to identify social innovations in health. These were evaluated by an external panel of experts and practitioners and civil society representing the health and social innovation sectors, based on the appropriateness, innovativeness, and affordability of the solution. The three top-scoring solutions were analyzed through case studies including site visits by a team of investigators. Two key findings emerged from the response to the call: 1) innovative solutions were based on the knowledge and experience of individuals and communities facing adverse situations; 2) this knowledge was shared through health promotion and education, leading to empowerment of the communities. The principal challenges addressed by the solutions were the limited access to quality health care services and failed traditional strategies for vector control. The solutions identified demonstrated how social innovation can strengthen health systems by delivering novel solutions to health needs and articulating communities to enable them to work hand-in-hand with the health system toward universal health.


[RESUMEN]. La cobertura universal de salud es una prioridad de salud pública en la Región de las Américas. La innovación social en materia de salud ofrece soluciones novedosas a las necesidades insatisfechas, al permitir que la prestación de servicios de salud sea más inclusiva, asequible y eficaz. En 2017, un consorcio de colaboración internacional lanzó una convocatoria abierta de soluciones con el fin de identificar innovaciones sociales en materia de salud en América Central y el Caribe. Esta se centró en la forma en que esas soluciones pueden fortalecer la prestación de atención sanitaria, con énfasis en la reducción de los efectos de las enfermedades transmisibles desatendidas. Para identificar las innovaciones sociales en materia de salud se aplicó una estrategia de colaboración masiva (crowdsourcing). Las propuestas fueron evaluadas por un grupo externo conformado por expertos, profesionales y la sociedad civil que representaban a los sectores de la salud y la innovación social, sobre la base de la idoneidad, la capacidad de innovación y la asequibilidad de la solución. Se analizaron las tres soluciones mejor calificadas mediante estudios de casos que incluyeron visitas al lugar por parte de un equipo de investigadores. De la respuesta a la convocatoria surgieron dos conclusiones clave: 1) las soluciones innovadoras se basaron en el conocimiento y la experiencia de las personas y las comunidades que se enfrentaban a situaciones adversas, y 2) este conocimiento se compartió a través de actividades de promoción de la salud y educación, lo que condujo al empoderamiento de las comunidades. Los principales problemas que abordaron las soluciones fueron el acceso limitado a servicios de atención sanitaria de calidad y el fracaso de las estrategias tradicionales de control de vectores. Las soluciones identificadas demostraron cómo la innovación social puede fortalecer los sistemas de salud proporcionando soluciones novedosas a las necesidades de salud y apoyando a las comunidades para que puedan colaborar estrechamente con el sistema de salud hacia la salud universal.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas , Assistência à Saúde , Participação Social , América Central , Região do Caribe , Doenças Negligenciadas , Assistência à Saúde , Participação Social , América Central , Região do Caribe
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141200, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771760

RESUMO

The continuous release of pharmaceuticals from WWTP effluents to freshwater is a matter of concern, due to their potential effects on non-target organisms. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in WWTPs and their associated hazard have been scarcely studied in Latin American countries. This study aimed at monitoring for the first time the occurrence of 70 pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) in WWTPs across Costa Rica; the application of the hazard quotient (HQ) approach coupled to ecotoxicological determinations permitted to identify the hazard posed by specific pharmaceuticals and toxicity of the effluents, respectively. Thirty-three PhACs were found, with 1,7-dimethylxanthine, caffeine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen and gemfibrozil being the most frequently detected (influents/effluents). HQ for specific pharmaceuticals revealed 24 compounds with high/medium hazard in influents, while the amount only decreased to 21 in effluents. The top HQ values were obtained for risperidone, lovastatin, diphenhydramine and fluoxetine (influent/effluent samples), plus caffeine (influent) and trimethoprim (effluent). Likewise, the estimation of overall hazard in WWTP samples (sum of individual HQ, ∑HQ) demonstrated that every influent and 96% of the effluents presented high hazard towards aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicological analysis (Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa and Microtox test) revealed that 16.7% of the effluents presented toxicity towards all benchmark organisms; the phytotoxicity was particularly frequent, as inhibition values ≥20% in the germination index for L. sativa were obtained for all the effluents. The ∑HQ approach estimated the highest hazard in urban wastewater, while the ecotoxicological results showed the highest toxicity in hospital and landfill wastewater. Likewise, ecotoxicological results and ∑HQ values showed a rather poor correlation; instead, better correlations were obtained between ecotoxicological parameters and HQ values for some individual pharmaceuticals such as cephalexin and diphenhydramine. Findings from this study provide novel information on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and the performance of WWTPs in the tropical region of Central America.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , América Central , Costa Rica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise
8.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108301, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623036

RESUMO

AIMS: The present observational study aims to describe political actions in place to combat COVID-19 in the South and Central America region (SACA) while protecting individuals with diabetes. METHODS: A survey with 12 questions was shared with all IDF-SACA member organizations, in 18 countries. A descriptive analysis was performed and a multivariate cluster analysis technique pam (partitioning around medoids) was applied. RESULTS: Two groups of countries were identified. The first group, mostly countries with stricter measures to contain the spread of the virus, reported more difficulties (limitations in accessing basic or health needs) and fears (concerns regarding the impact of the pandemic); whereas most of the second group consisted of countries with less restrictive measures, and reported fewer difficulties. Only 37% responded that a policy was put into place to protect individuals with diabetes, either delivering their medicines and supplies at home (16%) or providing them at once enough for 2-3 months (21%). All respondents reported that one of the main fear was to "be infected and not to receive adequate treatment" and/or "getting infected if going to the hospital or medical appointments". CONCLUSION: Most of the SACA countries failed to implement timely measures to protect individuals with diabetes, which may severely impact individuals, health systems and economies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , América Central/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52504

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Identificar las especialidades preferidas, la percepción salarial y los factores que influencian la elección de una carrera en atención primaria en los estudiantes de último año de medicina o en servicio social de América Central. Métodos. Estudio multicéntrico de corte transversal con aplicación de una encuesta que investigó la información demográfica, la especialidad preferida, la percepción salarial y otros factores que influyen en la elección de la especialidad. Resultados. Participaron 1 722 estudiantes de 31 universidades que identificaron como futuras especialidades: cirugía (11,7%), ginecología/obstetricia (10,3%), pediatría (9,9%) y medicina interna (6,6%). Medicina general alcanzó 3,8% y medicina familiar 1,1%. Al agruparlas el mayor interés fue para las especialidades médicas (49,7%), seguido de las quirúrgicas (31,7%). Atención primaria registró un interés del 17,1%. Las especialidades quirúrgicas fueron percibidas como de mayor ingreso (USD 36 000); atención primaria fue percibida como la de menor ingreso (USD 24 000). El ingreso (23,6%), el trabajo a futuro (19,7%) y “hacer una diferencia en las personas” (8,9%) fueron los principales factores involucrados en la elección. “Trabajar con personas con escaso acceso” se asoció de manera significativa con la preferencia por la atención primaria. La preferencia por otras especialidades fue influenciada por el “prestigio percibido” y “disfrutar la vida” (P < 0,05). La mayoría de los participantes que eligieron la atención primaria provenían de una universidad pública (P < 0,05), lo que pone de relieve el papel de las instituciones estatales de educación superior. Conclusiones. Existe una combinación de factores facilitadores y de barreras que inciden en el desinterés hacia las carreras de atención primaria. Se requiere de estrategias desde la academia y el sector gubernamental, así como la definición de políticas públicas, que favorezcan la elección de la atención primaria.


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To identify the preferred specialties, salary perception and other factors that influence the choice of a career in primary care among last-year medical students or social service students in Central America. Methods. A cross-sectional, multicenter study using a survey that investigated demographic information, preferred specialty, salary perception, and other factors that influence the choice of a specialty. Results. A total of 1 722 students from 31 universities participated and identified as future specialties: surgery (11.7%), gynecology/obstetrics (10.3%), pediatrics (9.9%) and internal medicine (6.6%). General medicine was preferred by 3.8% and family medicine by 1.1%. On grouping them, the greatest interest was observed for medical specialties (49.7%), followed by surgical specialties (31.7%). Primary care registered an interest of 17.1%. Surgical specialties were perceived as having the highest income (USD 36 000); primary care was perceived as having the lowest income (USD 24 000). Income (23.6%), future work (19.7%) and “making a difference in people” (8.9%) were the main factors involved in the choice. “Working with people with low access” was significantly associated with preference for primary care. Preference for other specialties was influenced by “perceived prestige” and “enjoying life” (P < 0.05). Most participants who chose primary care were studying at a public university (P < 0.05), highlighting the role of public institutions of higher education. Conclusions. There is a combination of facilitating factors and barriers that affect the low interest in primary care careers. There is a need for strategies from academia and the government sector, as well as the definition of public policies, that support the choice of primary care.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Especialização , Mão de Obra em Saúde , América Central , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Especialização , Mão de Obra em Saúde , América Central
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614920

RESUMO

The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a widely distributed species across coastal and brackish areas of the Neotropical region of the Americas and the Greater Antilles. Available information on patterns of genetic differentiation in C. acutus shows a complex structuring influenced by interspecific interactions (mainly hybridization) and anthropogenic actions (mostly historical hunting, recent poaching, habitat loss and fragmentation, and unintentional translocation of individuals). In this study, we used data on mitochondrial DNA control region and 11 nuclear polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the degree of population structure of C. acutus in South America, North America, Central America and the Greater Antilles. We used traditional genetic differentiation indices, Bayesian clustering and multivariate methods to create a more comprehensive picture of the genetic relationships within the species across its range. Analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite loci show evidence of a strong population genetic structure in the American crocodile, with unique populations in each sampling locality. Our results support previous findings showing large degrees of genetic differentiation between the continental and the Greater Antillean C. acutus. We report three new haplotypes unique to Venezuela, which are considerably less distant from the Central and North American haplotypes than to the Greater Antillean ones. Our findings reveal genetic population differentiation between Cuban and Jamaican C. acutus and offer the first evidence of strong genetic differentiation among the populations of Greater Antillean C. acutus.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/genética , Animais , Região do Caribe , América Central , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mitocôndrias/genética , América do Norte , América do Sul
12.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 69, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676298

RESUMO

Several characteristics of refugee and migrant populations make them susceptible to acquire COVID-19. To fully understand the impact of COVID-19 on refugees and migrants in the Americas, it is important to consider the broader geopolitical context and appreciate the differences among migratory groups. There are three migrant groups in the Americas that are particularly susceptible to COVID-19: Central American migrants at the northern Mexico border, Venezuelans within South America, and Haitians in the Dominican Republic. Refugees and displaced migrants are the world's collective responsibility, and thus, it would be imprudent to displace their care to resource constrained developing nations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Refugiados , Migrantes , Betacoronavirus , América Central/etnologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Haiti/etnologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Venezuela/etnologia , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706837

RESUMO

By conventional measures, it is often remarked that Central and South America is one of the fastest aging geographic regions in the world. In recent years, however, scholars have sought to problematize the orthodox measures and concepts employed in the aging literature. By not taking dynamic changes in life expectancy into account, measures which hold chronological age constant (e.g. defining a boundary to old age at 60 or 65) represent a very narrow view of population aging. Furthermore, such constant measures may misrepresent differences between territories when performing a comparative analysis. Prospective measures based on the number of years until death present an alternative approach which can adapt to dynamic changes in life expectancy and differences over time and space. The objective of this paper, then, is to apply the new 'prospective' measures of aging to the territories of Central and South America. We calculate prospective median age; an alternative old-age threshold based on the age at which remaining life expectancy is 15 years, and calculate prospective old-age dependency ratio for 1950-2100 using estimated and projected life tables from the latest iteration of the UN's World Population Prospects. These new measures present a very different view of aging in Central and South America. While there are significant differences across countries, the pace and scale of aging are considerably slower and diminished when compared to standard, orthodox measures based on fixed chronological ages. Applying these new measures can not only serve to present a more realistic view of aging which maps onto demographic reality but can also serve to reconceptualize and reframe the issue as something which is far more manageable (e.g. through institutional reform) than is often perceived to be.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Previsões Demográficas , Adulto , Idoso , América Central , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , América do Sul , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599800

RESUMO

Radon gas is a pulmonary carcinogen and the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. There are many countries that have not implemented measures to reduce the risk it poses to the general population. The aim of this study was to locate available evidence on exposure to residential radon and the regulations to monitor and control this across Central and South America, by conducting a review of the scientific literature and government documents in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. This review included 31 studies which had taken measurements of radon in these countries. While Brazil, Argentina, and Peru have undertaken most research, no country in Central and South America has a national map of exposure to residential radon. The prevalence of exposure to radon was uneven, both among the different countries and within individual countries. No country has regulations to prevent the entry of radon into homes, and nine countries have not set maximum permissible concentrations for residential radon. There is a limited number of studies in South and Central America, with a limited spatial coverage, and there is a need to improve knowledge on exposure to residential radon and its effects, and for governments to take the necessary actions to introduce preventive measures in their statutory regulations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Exposição Ambiental , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação , Radônio , Argentina , Brasil , América Central , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Peru , Radônio/análise , Radônio/toxicidade
15.
Nature ; 583(7817): 572-577, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641827

RESUMO

The possibility of voyaging contact between prehistoric Polynesian and Native American populations has long intrigued researchers. Proponents have pointed to the existence of New World crops, such as the sweet potato and bottle gourd, in the Polynesian archaeological record, but nowhere else outside the pre-Columbian Americas1-6, while critics have argued that these botanical dispersals need not have been human mediated7. The Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl controversially suggested that prehistoric South American populations had an important role in the settlement of east Polynesia and particularly of Easter Island (Rapa Nui)2. Several limited molecular genetic studies have reached opposing conclusions, and the possibility continues to be as hotly contested today as it was when first suggested8-12. Here we analyse genome-wide variation in individuals from islands across Polynesia for signs of Native American admixture, analysing 807 individuals from 17 island populations and 15 Pacific coast Native American groups. We find conclusive evidence for prehistoric contact of Polynesian individuals with Native American individuals (around AD 1200) contemporaneous with the settlement of remote Oceania13-15. Our analyses suggest strongly that a single contact event occurred in eastern Polynesia, before the settlement of Rapa Nui, between Polynesian individuals and a Native American group most closely related to the indigenous inhabitants of present-day Colombia.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Migração Humana/história , Índios Centro-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Ilhas , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/genética , América Central/etnologia , Colômbia/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Genética Populacional , História Medieval , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Polinésia , América do Sul/etnologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-06-30.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52419

RESUMO

La histoplasmosis es una enfermedad causada por el hongo Histoplasma capsulatum y es sumamente endémica en algunas zonas de América del Norte, América Central y América del Sur, y también se notifican casos en algunos países de Asia y África. La histoplasmosis con frecuencia afecta a las personas que presentan deterioro de la inmunidad como las personas con infección por el VIH, en quienes el cuadro clínico más frecuente es la histoplasmosis diseminada. Los síntomas de esta enfermedad son inespecíficos y pueden ser difíciles de distinguir frente a las manifestaciones de otras enfermedades infecciosas, en especial la tuberculosis diseminada, lo cual complica su diagnóstico y tratamiento. La histoplasmosis es una de las infecciones oportunistas más frecuentes causadas por patógenos fúngicos en personas con infección por el VIH en la Región de las Américas y es posible que sea responsable de 5% a 15% de las muertes relacionadas con el sida cada año en esta Región. La finalidad de las presentes directrices es formular recomendaciones para el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y el manejo de la histoplasmosis diseminada en las personas con infección por el VIH. Aunque la carga de la enfermedad se concentra en la Región de las Américas, estas recomendaciones son aplicables a escala mundial. Las directrices se elaboraron conforme al manual de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para la elaboración de directrices. El Grupo de Elaboración de Directrices formuló las recomendaciones finales a partir de la revisión sistemática de la bibliografía científica y el análisis crítico de la evidencia disponible, usando el método GRADE para la clasificación de la valoración, la formulación y la evaluación de las recomendaciones. Estas directrices se dirigen a los prestadores de atención de salud, los directores de programas contra el VIH, los responsables de formular políticas, las juntas consultivas nacionales sobre tratamiento y otros profesionales que participan en la atención de las personas con histoplasmosis diseminada o que corren el riesgo de contraerla.


Assuntos
Histoplasmose , HIV , Infecções por HIV , América do Norte , América do Sul , América Central
18.
Ann Sci ; 77(2): 139-154, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419635

RESUMO

While the emergence of a new scientific culture in 16th-century Europe is well known, the role of the actors of the Hispanic New World in this time of renewal of knowledge has long been judged marginal for two reasons: first, because the strong presence of the Inquisition in the Hispanic World has been considered by historians to have been an obstacle for research or scientific innovation; and second, because the discontinuity of the territories of the Hispanic Monarchy and the problem of distances between Spain and the New World have long been interpreted in ways that suggest the marginality and peripheral status of the American colonies. However, some works counterbalance this dismissal and shed new light on the scientific activity of the Hispanic New World. This is the case with the treatise Arte de los Metales, by the secular priest Alvaro Alonso Barba, which would achieve remarkable fame and circulation, and would become a seminal work in the fields of metallurgy and mining until the mid-1700s. The article demonstrates that this treatise also presents ideas that can be traced back to a set of Paracelsian ideas combining alchemy, pharmacopoeia, and medicine, and studies specific examples of these ideas - the description of three fundamental substances (salt, mercury and sulphur) as components of all matter, references to Epatica sulfuris, an oil capable of turning silver into gold and curing certain diseases; and the use of antimony - that together testify to the spread of the ideas of Basil Valentine and of Paracelsian influences. From this point of view, Arte de los Metales can be viewed as part of a tradition unexpectedly renewed by the author through many observations based on his own work in Peru and the discoveries he made thanks to alternative techniques. This demonstrates the richness and diversity of knowledge rooted in the New World, and links Alonso Barba's scholarly activity to some of the great schools of thought that spanned the Early Modern European world.


Assuntos
Alquimia , América Central , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , América do Sul
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