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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(683): 412-416, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129019

RESUMO

Over the last decades, an increasing number of cases of chronic and end-stage kidney disease has been observed in Central America and Asia. This kidney disease mainly affects young farmers without classic renal risk factors. The clinical presentation includes a progressive decrease of the glomerular filtration rate, minimal proteinuria and the presence of tubulo-interstitial nephritis at renal biopsy. A close link with global warming is suspected for this disease, called (according to its location) meso-american nephropathy, Sri Lanka nephropathy or chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology. Others have suggested that intake of water contaminated with pesticides may be responsible. This article provides an overview of this new kidney disease. Measures to prevent acute kidney injury during heat waves in Switzerland are also discussed.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , América Central/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51826

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. The death toll of the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional origin (CKDnt) in Mesoamerica runs into the tens of thousands, affecting mostly young men. There is no consensus on the etiology. Anecdotal evidence from the 1990s pointed to work in sugarcane; pesticides and heat stress were suspected. Subsequent population-based surveys supported an occupational origin with overall high male-female ratios in high-risk lowlands, but small sex differences within occupational categories, and low prevalence in non-workers. CKDnt was reported in sugarcane and other high-intensity agriculture, and in non-agricultural occupations with heavy manual labor in hot environments, but not among subsistence farmers. Recent studies with stronger designs have shown cross-shift changes in kidney function and hydration biomarkers and cross-harvest kidney function declines related to heat and workload. The implementation of a water-rest-shade intervention midharvest in El Salvador appeared to halt declining kidney function among cane cutters. In Nicaragua a water-rest-shade program appeared sufficient to prevent kidney damage among cane workers with low-moderate workload but not among cutters with heaviest workload. Studies on pesticides and infectious risk factors have been largely negative. Non-occupational risk factors do not explain the observed epidemiologic patterns. In conclusion, work is the main driver of the CKDnt epidemic in Mesoamerica, with occupational heat stress being the single uniting factor shown to lead to kidney dysfunction in affected populations. Sugarcane cutters with extreme heat stress could be viewed as a sentinel occupational population. Occupational heat stress prevention is critical, even more so in view of climate change.


[RESUMEN]. La mortalidad por la epidemia de enfermedad renal crónica de origen no tradicional (ERCnt) en Mesoamérica asciende a decenas de miles de personas, principalmente hombres jóvenes. No existe consenso sobre su etiología. En la década de 1990, informes anecdóticos apuntaban como factor de riesgo al trabajo en plantaciones de caña de azúcar; se consideró como posibles causantes a los plaguicidas y el estrés térmico. Estudios de prevalencia de base poblacional subsiguientes apoyaron un origen ocupacional, con una proporción elevada de hombres respecto de las mujeres en las tierras bajas donde el riesgo era elevado, pero con pequeñas diferencias de sexo dentro de las categorías ocupacionales y baja prevalencia en el ámbito no laboral. Se reportó ERCnt en los trabajadores de la caña de azúcar y otros cultivos con alta exigencia física y en ocupaciones no agrícolas que implican trabajo manual intenso en ambientes calurosos, pero no entre los agricultores de subsistencia. Estudios recientes con diseños más sólidos han demostrado cambios en la función renal y en los biomarcadores de hidratación en el curso de los turnos laborales, y disminución de la función renal relacionada con el calor y la carga de trabajo en el curso de la cosecha. La implementación de una intervención basada en la provisión de agua, descanso y sombra a mitad de la cosecha en El Salvador detuvo la disminución de la función renal en los cortadores de caña. En Nicaragua, un programa de provisión de agua, descanso y sombra evitó la lesión renal en los trabajadores de la caña con una carga de trabajo baja y moderada, pero no entre los cortadores, quienes tienen la mayor carga de trabajo. Los estudios sobre plaguicidas y factores de riesgo infecciosos han sido en gran medida negativos. Los factores de riesgo no ocupacionales no explican los patrones epidemiológicos observados. En conclusión, el trabajo es el principal desencadenante de la epidemia de ERCnt en Mesoamérica, y el estrés térmico ocupacional es el único factor que consistentemente conduce a la disfunción renal en las poblaciones afectadas. Los cortadores que trabajan en los ingenios azucareros y están expuestos a un estrés térmico extremo podrían ser considerados una población ocupacional centinela. La prevención del estrés térmico ocupacional es crítica, más aún si se consideran los efectos del cambio climático.


[RESUMO]. A mortalidade devida à epidemia de doença renal crônica de origem não tradicional (DRCnt) na Mesoamérica atinge dezenas de milhares de pessoas, principalmente homens jovens. Não há consenso sobre a sua etiologia. Na década de 1990, informações empíricas apontavam o trabalho em plantações de cana de açúcar como um fator de risco; pesticidas e estresse térmico também eram considerados causas possíveis. As pesquisas populacionais subsequentes sustentam uma origem ocupacional da doença, com uma elevada proporção de homens quando comparados à de mulheres, em areas de baixa altitude, onde o risco da doença é mais elevado, mas com pequenas diferenças de gênero quando se consideram as categorias ocupacionais e baixa prevalência no ambiente não-ocupacional. A DRCnt foi identificada em trabalhadores agrícolas da cana de açúcar e de outras culturas que exigem trabalho físico de alta intensidade e em ocupações não agrícolas envolvendo um trabalho manual intenso em ambientes quentes, mas não entre os agricultores de subsistência. Estudos recentes com desenhos mais robustos demonstraram mudanças na função renal e nos biomarcadores de hidratação ao longo dos turnos de trabalho, e diminuição da função renal relacionada à exposição ao calor e à carga de trabalho ao longo da colheita. A implementação de uma intervenção de água-descanso-sombra durante a colheita em El Salvador interrompeu o declínio da função renal em cortadores de cana. Na Nicarágua, intervenções água-descanso-sombra parecem ter sido suficientes para evitar lesões renais em trabalhadores canavieiros com cargas de trabalho baixa e moderada, mas não entre os cortadores de cana que têm carga de trabalho mais pesada. Estudos sobre exposição a pesticidas e a fatores de risco de origem infecciosa têm sido largamente negativos. Os fatores de risco não-ocupacionais não explicam os padrões epidemiológicos observados. Em conclusão, ocupação é o principal desencadeador da epidemia de DRCnt na Mesoamérica, e o estresse térmico ocupacional é o único fator comprovado que leva à disfunção renal nas populações afetadas. Os cortadores de cana que trabalham em engenhos de açúcar e expostos a um estresse térmico extremo podem ser considerados uma população ocupacional sentinela. A prevenção do estresse térmico ocupacional é crítica, especialmente considerando os efeitos das mudanças climáticas.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Saúde do Trabalhador , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Praguicidas , Metais , Infecção , América Central , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Saúde do Trabalhador , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Praguicidas , Metais , Infecção , América Central , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Saúde do Trabalhador , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Praguicidas , Metais , Infecção
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2019-12-31. (PAHO/FPL/19-002).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51835

RESUMO

An epidemic of fatal chronic kidney disease unrelated to diabetes, hypertension and other known causes of CKD, is ongoing in Mesoamerica since several decades. This epidemic of non- traditional origin (CKDnt) has caused the premature deaths of tens of thousands of young people, mostly male agricultural workers. A number of etiologies have been proposed, including recurrent heat stress and dehydration, pesticides, metals, infectious diseases, nephrotoxic medications, alcohol, tobacco, and genetic factors. An important question to answer is whether the disease is primarily driven by occupational or by non-occupational environmental, behavioral or genetic factors. To answer this question an extensive review was undertaken of peer reviewed studies, i.e. articles published in the scientific literature and academic theses on the subject. As the basis for examining the potential occupational nature of CKDnt, data were extracted from 25 investigations with epidemiologic results, regarding the setting, design and objectives, population and time of follow-up, exposures and outcomes, covariates and statistical analyses, main results, limitations and conclusions. The validity of the authors’ conclusions was scrutinized and evidence pro and against an occupational nature of each study was formulated. Numerous other articles without epidemiologic study results were also reviewed, which provided valuable background and complementary information, even if they were not directly considered for the evaluation of a potential occupational origin...


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica , Terapia de Substituição Renal , América Central , México
4.
Zootaxa ; 4577(3): zootaxa.4577.3.2, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715708

RESUMO

The species of the genus Amazunculus Rafael (Diptera: Pipunculidae) are large bodied flies, easily identified by their flattened hind tarsus and curved dm-m wing vein. The species of this Neotropical genus are revised, including six new species: Amazunculus acreanus sp. nov. (type-locality: Brazil, Acre, Rio Branco), A. bethoi sp. nov. (type-locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Carauari), A. francyae sp. nov. (type-locality: Ecuador, Napo), A. manauara sp. nov. (type-locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus), A. panamensis sp. nov. (type-locality: Panama, Canal Zone) and A. psilalarius sp. nov. (type-locality: Venezuela, Amazonas). All these new species are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. An identification key to the twelve species of Amazunculus is provided. The first record of Amazunculus in Central America (Panama) is documented.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , América Central , Equador , Masculino , Panamá , Venezuela
5.
Zootaxa ; 4568(2): zootaxa.4568.2.13, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715867

RESUMO

Hoplonannus McAtee Maloch, 1925 comprises three species described from Central America. Females of all these species are known only from brachypterous specimens. This paper describes the first South American species of the genus, Hoplonannus australis sp. nov. The new species differs from its congeners, in females, by the submacroptery, presence of ocelli and a basal bulge in the seventh sternite; in males, it differs by the presence of a process in the eighth tergite and the right paramere bifurcate apically, with branches subparallel. These traits entail a new diagnosis for the genus.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Animais , América Central , Feminino , Masculino , América do Sul
6.
Zootaxa ; 4675(1): zootaxa.4675.1.1, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715982

RESUMO

The Amazon rainforest is the world's most extensive tropical rainforest, holding a considerable ecological and taxonomic diversity. Speciation in this region arises from multiple factors, such as topography, climate fluctuations, oceanic transgression, vegetation and the delimitation of zones circumscribed by sub-basins within the greater Amazon basin. Different scenarios have been proposed to better understand the diversification of Amazonian taxa, whether by Pleistocene refugia or by areas of endemism.                The genus Scaria is distributed mostly in Amazonia, with a single species that ranges from the Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena ecoregion well into Central America all the way to southern Nicaragua. Eight species are currently recognized, with three additional described here as new: Scaria rafaeli sp. nov., S. jonasi sp. nov. and S. granti sp. nov., and the status of S. laeta stat. resurr. is revalidated. Two new combinations are established: S. verutum comb. nov. (formerly placed in Rehnidium Grant, 1956) and Batrachidea brevis comb. nov. (formerly placed in Scaria). New synonym is proposed: Batrachidea brevis (Hancock, 1909) = Batrachidea inermis Hebard, 1923 syn. nov. Lectotypes and paralectotypes were selected for S. laeta, S. maculata and S. lineata, as well as the neotypes for S. hamata and S. boliviana. An updated key to species of Scaria is also provided.                A cladistic analysis for 15 species was performed (12 in the inner group and 3 in the outer group) with 40 morphological characters, confirming the monophyly of Scaria. A biogeographical analysis of dispersion-vicariance indicates that the origin of the genus was probably in the Inambari endemism center as the only reconstruction of the resulting ancestral distribution, five dispersions and three vicariance events being postulated. These suggest that both types of events are equally important in the current configuration of the distribution in Scaria. Vicariance events arise mostly by isolation of the species because of the uplift of the Andes and the dispersion events comprise four waves originating from the ancestral range into central and east Amazonia.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , América Central , Nicarágua
7.
Zootaxa ; 4671(2): zootaxa.4671.2.4, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716055

RESUMO

The genus Gastrodynerus is here revised based on external morphology and male genitalia. Bohart (1984) proposed Gastrodynerus as a new genus with three species: G. vanduzeei (Bohart 1948), G. searsi Bohart, 1984, and G. stangei Bohart, 1984. Later, Rodriguez-Palafox (1996) added G. tacubayae (de Saussure, 1857). Herein, we describe four new species from Central America and South America: G. guatemalensis sp. nov.; G. barretti sp. nov.; G. aimara sp. nov. and G. yungaensis sp. nov. After this taxonomic revision, the Gastrodynerus includes eight species widely distributed in the New World. An identification key is provided for all of the species.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , América Central , Masculino , América do Sul
8.
Zootaxa ; 4619(2): zootaxa.4619.2.10, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716309

RESUMO

Bryopharsos Quate, 1996 is a Neotropical genus with four species, all from Central America. This paper describes three new species from Brazil, Bryopharsos uncinatum sp. nov., Bryopharsos paulistensis sp. nov. and Bryopharsos amazonensis sp. nov. A wider concept to the genus Bryopharsos is proposed here to include the species from Brazil. We also provide an identification key for males of the genus.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Psychodidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , América Central , Masculino
9.
Zootaxa ; 4560(3): zootaxa.4560.3.4, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716568

RESUMO

The Neotropical genus Noctiliostrebla Wenzel (Diptera: Streblidae) is revised after examination of the types of all nominal species, and 11 species are recognized. Seven new species are described, and a lectotype is designated for Lipoptena dubia Rudow. Resulting information on species distributions and host records can be summarized as follows: Noctiliostrebla dubia (Rudow) is restricted to the Amazon region and is a parasite of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus) (Chiroptera: Noctilionidae); Noctiliostrebla traubi Wenzel is restricted to Central America and northern South America, being the only species of the genus parasitizing N. leporinus in Central America; the distribution ranges of N. maai Wenzel and N. traubi are similar, but the host of N. maai is N. albiventris Desmarest; Noctiliostrebla aitkeni Wenzel is restricted to northern South America and has only been recorded as parasitizing N. leporinus; Noctiliostrebla ecuadorensis sp. n. occurs only in Ecuador, on N. albiventris; Noctiliostrebla guerreroi sp. n. has only been recorded from the Amazon region on N. albiventris; Noctiliostrebla falsispina sp. n. is restricted to south-central South America and is a parasite of N. leporinus; the distributions of N. lamasi sp. n. and N. falsispina sp. n. are similar, and the two species usually co-occur on N. leporinus; Noctiliostrebla morena sp. n. has a similar distribution to those of N. falsispina sp. n. and N. lamasi sp. n., but parasitizes N. albiventris; Noctiliostrebla pantaneira sp. n. has a similar distribution to N. morena sp. n. and usually co-occurs with it on N. albiventris; Noctiliostrebla caissara sp. n. is restricted to the southeastern coast of South America and is a parasite of N. leporinus. All species are included in a key and illustrated.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Dípteros , Parasitos , Animais , América Central , Equador , América do Norte , América do Sul
10.
Zootaxa ; 4658(1): zootaxa.4658.1.12, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716766

RESUMO

The Neotropical fish family Loricariidae is the most diverse family of catfishes (order Siluriformes) and the fifth largest fish family, with approximately 993 valid species. The species of the family are geographically distributed from Costa Rica in Central America to Argentina in South America and are grouped into 83 genera and the following six subfamilies: Hypoptopomatinae, Hypostominae, Loricariinae Delturinae, Lithogeninae and Rhinelepinae (Roberto et al., 2006, Birindelli et al., 2007, Corea et al., 2014, Eschmeyer Fong, 2019).


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Rios , Animais , Argentina , América Central , Colômbia , Costa Rica , Filogenia , América do Sul
11.
Zootaxa ; 4648(3): zootaxa.4648.3.7, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716939

RESUMO

The Syrphidae genus Domodon Reemer, 2013 so far included two species, D. zodiacus Reemer, 2013 and D. peperpotensis Reemer, 2014, both recorded only from Suriname. Additional specimens belonging to this genus have been collected in many other localities in South and Central America. In this paper, the genus is revised and three new species are described: D. caxiuana sp. nov. (northern South America), D. inaculeatus sp. nov. (northern South America), and D. sensibilis sp. nov. (Costa Rica). The distribution of D. peperpotensis is extended to include French Guiana. Photographs of the type material of the new species and illustrations of male genitalia of all species are provided, as well as a key to species.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , América Central , Costa Rica , Guiana Francesa , Masculino , América do Norte , América do Sul , Suriname
12.
Zootaxa ; 4609(2): zootaxa.4609.2.4, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717107

RESUMO

A new dink frog (Eleutherodactylidae: Diasporus) is described from the Tropical Wet Forest, in the northeastern foothills of Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica at an elevation of ca. 1000 m. Analysis of DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) mitochondrial genes revealed a distinct lineage within the genus Diasporus. Additional morphological, morphometric, and acoustic analyses support the differences of this lineage, which we recognize as a new species. This new taxon is distinguished from other members of the genus Diasporus inhabiting Isthmian Central America by its unique coloration: dorsum brown to brown-grayish and venter gray-bluish with pale blotches. The new species is distinguished from other members of the genus Diasporus by very significant genetic distances (higher than 5.6 % in 16S and 16.7 % in COI). The new taxon is most closely related to D. vocator from the south pacific of Costa Rica and to an unnamed taxon from western Panama.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Região do Caribe , América Central , Costa Rica , Panamá , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
13.
Zootaxa ; 4608(1): zootaxa.4608.1.11, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717168

RESUMO

The Neotropical genus Allobates Zimmerman Zimmerman (1988) is a large monophyletic clade composed of 54 described species distributed between Central America and South America (Frost, 2019; Grant et al., 2017). Twelve species have been recorded in Colombia, mostly distributed in the eastern flank of the Eastern Cordillera and Amazonian Region, although some species reach the Magdalena Valley and the Central and Western Cordillera (Acosta-Galvis, 2017).


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , América Central , Colômbia , América do Sul
14.
Zootaxa ; 4629(2): zootaxa.4629.2.12, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712529

RESUMO

The spider genus Macrophyes O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1893 includes five species from the Neotropical region (World Spider Catalog 2019). Two species were described from Central America, M. attenuata, the type species, by Pickard-Cambridge (1893), known until now only by the male, and M. elongata by Chickering (1937) know by both sexes. Three other species were described from South America, M. silvae Brescovit, 1992 and M. manati Brescovit, 1993 from Peru, and M. jundiai Brescovit, 1993 from Brazil (Brescovit 1992, 1993). Brescovit (1997) diagnosed this genus from other Anyphaeninae by the cylindrical abdomen, retrolateral margin of the chelicera with prominent distal tooth, close to the claw and by the tibia of the male palp almost twice longer than the cymbium. The females could be confused with Mesilla Simon by the long and cylindrical abdomen, but are distinguished by the epigynum with narrow, sinuous lateral borders and, internally, by the long copulatory ducts (see Brescovit, 1997: figs 146, 150-151).


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Brasil , América Central , Feminino , Florestas , Fungos , Masculino , Peru
15.
Zootaxa ; 4688(2): zootaxa.4688.2.8, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719453

RESUMO

Neocylloepus Brown, 1970 and Pilielmis Hinton, 1971 are Neotropical genera of riffle beetles, mainly distributed in Central America and the north of South America. These genera are here reported for the first time from Venezuela, and a new species, Pilielmis shepardi sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The type material is housed in Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (MZSP), Natural History Museum, London, UK (BMNH), Museo del Instituto de Zoología Agrícola, Maracay, Venezuela (MIZA), Michael A. Ivie Collection, Bozeman, Montana, USA (MAIC), and National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA (USNM).


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Brasil , América Central , Londres , Montana , Venezuela
18.
Gynecol Oncol ; 154(3): 608-615, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCT) are the primary ovarian malignancy affecting girls and young women. Globally, incidence rates and trends for OGCTs have not been compared in the literature and their etiology is not well described. Comparisons of incidence globally could inform etiologic hypotheses. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate geographic variation in OGCT incidence and to identify trends in incidence rates. METHODS: Data were extracted from Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents (CI5) from 1988 to 2012. Rates of OGCT in women and girls were calculated for ages 0-9, 10-19, and 20-39 years and standardized to the 2000-2025 average world population. Data were aggregated within subregions corresponding to the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) geoscheme. Incidence rates were compared in subregions and average annual percent change (AAPC) was estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overall, the highest incidence rates were observed in 10-19-year-olds. Incidence was generally the highest in Eastern Asia, Central America and North America. While incidence was variable by geographic region, less variation was observed in 0-9-year-olds as compared to adolescents and young adults. Significant increases in incidence were seen in some regions (Eastern Asia, Oceania, Western Europe, Southern Europe, and North America) and in countries with a high or very high human development index for one or more age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating 25 years of OGCT incidence data, the highest incidence rates and largest increases in incidence were seen in Eastern Asia. Future studies should focus on etiologic features that may account for geographic variation and increases in incidence of OGCT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , América Central/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Behav Med ; 26(4): 331-342, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of cardiovascular risk factors including elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, impaired fasting glucose, and abdominal obesity, which disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos. The present study examined associations between perceived discrimination and MetS in Hispanic/Latino adults from various background groups (i.e., Dominican, Central American, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American). METHODS: Data were obtained from 5174 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. MetS components and covariates were measured at a baseline examination, and perceived discrimination was assessed within 9 months of baseline. Path analysis modeled associations of perceived discrimination with MetS prevalence and each of the six components of MetS, controlling for age, sex, income, acculturation, physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol use. RESULTS: Among the full cohort, perceived discrimination was not associated with MetS prevalence in any of the models evaluated. Higher perceived discrimination at work/school was associated with larger waist circumference. When examining background groups separately, higher perceived ethnicity-associated threat was related to increased MetS prevalence only among individuals of Central American background. Differential patterns of association between perceived discrimination and MetS components were found for different background groups. CONCLUSIONS: Overall results suggested that perceived discrimination was not strongly or consistently associated with MetS among Hispanics/Latinos.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , América Central/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
20.
Workplace Health Saf ; 67(9): 481-490, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179873

RESUMO

For the past two decades, agricultural workers in regions of Central America have reported an epidemic of chronic kidney disease of undetermined etiology (CKDu) that is not associated with established risk factors of chronic kidney disease. Several hypotheses have emerged, but the etiology of CKDu remains elusive and controversial. The aim of this literature review was to describe the potential risk factors of CKDu in Mesoamerica and implications for the U.S. agricultural worker population. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for articles published between 2000 and 2018 that examined CKDu in Mesoamerica; 29 original studies were included in this review. CKDu is a multifactorial disease that is often asymptomatic with hallmark characteristics of elevated serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), low glomerular filtration rate, electrolyte abnormalities, and non-nephrotic proteinuria. Reducing the global prevalence of CKDu will require more robust studies on causal mechanisms and on interventions that can reduce morbidity and mortality in vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , América Central/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
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