Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55.210
Filtrar
2.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 221-237, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191355

RESUMO

Los avances de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) permiten acceder en tiempo real a una cantidad ingente de datos, a través de los cuales es posible conocer el comportamiento de hechos sociales. En este escenario, la actual pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 ha permitido, bajo cuestionables criterios de inmediatez y urgencia, circular información que genera realidad e impacta en la toma de decisiones; y, además, ha favorecido la apropiación del dato, exponiendo a las personas a violaciones de sus derechos fundamentales. Ambos asuntos son sensibles para América Latina y el Caribe, región que hoy se presenta no sólo como el epicentro de la pandemia sino también de las desigualdades. La contribución que desde la reflexión y deliberación bioética puede realizarse en esta materia, adquiere especial relevancia con vistas a generar un nuevo pacto para el tratamiento de los datos


Advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) provide real-time access to a vast amount of data, through which it is possible to know the behavior of social facts. In this scenario, the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has allowed, under questionable criteria of immediacy and urgency, to circulate information that generates reality and impacts on decision-making; and has also favored the appropriation of the data, exposing people to violations of their fundamental rights. Both issues are sensitive to Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that today is presented itself not only as the epicenter of the pandemic but also of inequalities. The contribution that bioethical reflection and deliberation can make in this matter, acquires special relevance with a view to generating a new covenant for the treatment of data


Els avenços de les Tecnologies de la Informació I la Comunicació (TIC) permeten accedir en temps real a una quantitat ingent de dades, a través dels quals és possible conèixer el comportament de fets socials. En aquest escenari, l'actual pandèmia per SARS-CoV-2 ha permès, sota qüestionables criteris d'immediatesa I urgència, circular informació que genera realitat I impacta en la presa de decisions; i, a més, ha afavorit l'apropiació de la dada, exposant a les persones a violacions dels seus drets fonamentals. Tots dos assumptes són sensibles per a Amèrica Llatina I el Carib, regió que avui es presenta no només com l'epicentre de la pandèmia sinó també de les desigualtats. La contribució que des de la reflexió I deliberació bioètica pot realitzarse en aquesta matèria, adquireix especial rellevància amb vistes a generar un nou pacte per al tractament de les dades


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Acesso à Internet , Tecnologia da Informação , América Latina/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
3.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4272, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012887

RESUMO

In the past four months SARS-CoV-2 has reached most countries in the world. Public health strategies based on widespread testing and proper isolation of positive cases have shown to be helpful to reduce local transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Confirmatory tests, that identify viral RNA, and screening serological tests that identify viral antigens or host antibodies against viral proteins are part of the tools that nations can use to fight infectious disease epidemics. Understanding how each test works can provide insights about their test characteristics and how they can be used for different clinical and public health goals. Testing is a key strategy to reduce viral transmission, not only for this epidemic, but also for others to come.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
7.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(2): 159-168, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041315

RESUMO

The double burden of malnutrition is the coexistence of two different conditions, mainly reflected as excess or deficit in weight. Anemia is a specific nutritional deficit not always included in the double burden assessment. We reviewed overweight and/or obesity (OW/OB) and anemia studies from Latin-American Children over the last ten years up to 2019. Two authors evaluated the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and LILACS databases. A scale of ten questions was used to assess the risk of bias in prevalence studies. Fourteen studies were selected. The population studies' size ranged from 147 to 20,342 children with different socio-economic backgrounds, such as urban, peri-urban and rural settings, socio-economic status, schooling, population (ethnic minorities and indigenous), and environmental differences (sea level or high altitude). The prevalence of OW/OB ranged from 4.9% to 42%. The prevalence of anemia was from 3.4% to 67%. The double burden, including OW/OB and anemia, ranged from 0.7% to 67%. A higher prevalence of excess weight and anemia was found in rural and high altitude above sea level environments, extreme poverty, low education level, and indigenous communities. These heterogeneous data, before the 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic), reflect the vast inequities between countries and within each country. Food insecurity linked to poverty and the induced change in eating habits and lifestyles threaten optimal child nutrition in ongoing and future scenarios. The existence of OW/OB and anemia and their simultaneous coexistence in the community, home, and individual levels, indicates that interventions should be comprehensive to face the double burden of malnutrition.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , América Latina , Prevalência , Publicações
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 359-371, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046939

RESUMO

With human population growth, rapid urbanisation, increasing globalisation, and climate change, the interdependency of human health and animal health is mounting. Therefore, the importance of national emergency management plans (NEMPs) for the mitigation of, and preparedness for, all hazards, including disease epidemics, both zoonotic and zootic, is ever increasing. The authors decided to take a One Health approach by assessing the inclusion of Veterinary Services and animal health in NEMPs, based on geographical region, the date of the NEMP, national income status, and the proportion of the agricultural sector in national gross domestic product (GDP). To carry out the assessment, the authors analysed the publicly available NEMPs of 86 Members of the World Organisation for Animal Health. Of the 86 NEMPs reviewed, only a third expressly mentioned Veterinary Services, almost 60% mentioned zoonotic and/or zootic diseases, and about two-thirds mentioned animals to some extent. The highest correlating factor to the inclusion of animal health in NEMPs was the level of the agricultural sector's contributions to the national GDP. Fisheries and aquaculture were not a major consideration in any of the reviewed NEMPs, especially not in relation to diseases. Based on region, Latin America and the Caribbean exhibited the lowest inclusion rate of animal health in NEMPs. The results demonstrate that the omission of animal health is still a problem. A multi-disciplinary approach that includes veterinary medicine as well as human medicine is vital in the construction and/or revision of NEMPs. Future studies should consider whether or not there is a connection between countries' veterinary capacities and the inclusion of Veterinary Services in their NEMPs and whether or not they have the infrastructure and human resources to put into operation the roles of Veterinary Services as identified in their NEMPs.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Saúde Única , Animais , Região do Caribe , Humanos , Internacionalidade , América Latina
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3557-3562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876262

RESUMO

Thinking about the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic implies the study of general and unique dimensions for the historical evolution of Latin America and the Caribbean. From the individual to the collective, from biomedical sciences to social sciences and collective health, from risk groups to exclusive societies and the inequities constituting the colonial, patriarchal, modern capitalist heritage in the State and societies. The objective of this article is to review what are called the three intersections for Latin American critical health thinking. Seeking to analyze and reflect on the assumptions and logic present in the responses to the health emergency with reference to: 1. Critical health theory and its intersections with Latin American critical thinking; 2. The decolonial implications of problematizing the State and public health systems; and 3. The geopolitics of global health security as a roadmap for the global North. They outline approaches on the risks of capitalism's acceleration of the post-pandemic disaster and the alternative ways of addressing creative tensions in the reconstruction of emancipatory processes for regional health sovereignty and Health from the South.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Capitalismo , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pensamento
13.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 110979, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889312

RESUMO

Reducing inequality, eradicating poverty and achieving a carbon-neutral society are recognized as important components of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. In this study, we focus on carbon and energy inequality between and within ten Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Detailed carbon and energy footprint were estimated by combining the consumption profiles (2014) in ten LAC countries with environmental extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis. Our results show significant inequality of regional total and per capita carbon and energy footprint across the studied LAC countries in 2014. The top 10% income category was responsible for 29.1% and 26.3% of the regional total carbon and energy footprint, and their per capita carbon and energy footprint were 12.2 and 7.5 times of the bottom 10% earners in that region. The average carbon footprint of studied LAC countries varied between 0.53 and 2.21 t CO2e/cap (ton of CO2 equivalent, per capita), and the energy footprint ranged from 0.38 to 1.76 t SOE/cap (ton of Standard Oil Equivalent, per capita). The huge difference in total and per capita carbon emissions and energy consumption of different income groups suggests notable differences in climate change responsibility, and supports policies for achieving sustainable consumption in terms of carbon tax, renewable energy subsidy, and decarbonizing the consumption structure in different LAC countries.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Região do Caribe , América Latina , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given that most evidence-based recommendations for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are generated in high-income settings, significant challenges for their implementation exist in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC), where the rates of T2DM and related mortality are increasing. The aim of this study is to identify the facilitators and barriers to successful management of T2DM in LAC, from the perspectives of patients, their families or caregivers, healthcare professionals, and/or other stakeholders. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in MEDLINE, Web of Science, SciELO, and LILACS. We included studies of disease management, prevention of complications and risk factor management. We qualitatively synthesized the verbatim text referring to barriers and/or facilitators of diabetes management according to the Theoretical Domain Framework and described their relative frequencies. FINDINGS: We included 60 studies from 1,595 records identified. 54 studies (90%) identified factors related to the environmental context and resources, highlighting the importance of questions related to health care access or lack of resources in the health system, and the environmental context and living conditions of the patients. Issues related to "social influences" (40 studies) and "social/professional role and identity" (37 studies) were also frequently addressed, indicating the negative impact of lack of support from family and friends and clinicians' paternalistic attitude. 25 studies identified patients beliefs as important barriers, identifying issues such as a lack of patients' trust in the effectiveness of the medication and/or the doctor's advice, or preferences for alternative therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Successful diabetes management in LAC is highly dependent on factors that are beyond the control of the individual patients. Successful disease control will require emphasis on public policies to reinforce health care access and resources, the promotion of a patient-centred care approach, and health promoting infrastructures at environmental level.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Fatores de Risco
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1282-e1294, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, smoking tobacco causes 7 million deaths annually, and this toll is expected to increase, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. In Latin America, smoking is a leading risk factor for death and disability, contributes to poverty, and imposes an economic burden on health systems. Despite being one of the most effective measures to reduce smoking, tobacco taxation is underused and cigarettes are more affordable in Latin America than in other regions. Our aim was to estimate the tobacco-attributable burden on mortality, disease incidence, quality of life lost, and medical costs in 12 Latin American countries, and the expected health and economic effects of increasing tobacco taxes. METHODS: In this modelling study, we developed a Markov probabilistic microsimulation economic model of the natural history, medical costs, and quality-of-life losses associated with the most common tobacco-related diseases in 12 countries in Latin America. Data inputs were obtained through a literature review, vital statistics, and hospital databases from each country: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. The main outcomes of the model are life-years, quality-adjusted life-years, disease events, hospitalisations, disease incidence, disease cost, and healthy years of life lost. We estimated direct medical costs for each tobacco-related disease included in the model using a common costing methodology for each country. The disease burden was estimated as the difference in disease events, deaths, and associated costs between the results predicted by the model for current smoking prevalence and a hypothetical cohort of people in each country who had never smoked. The model estimates the health and financial effects of a price increase of cigarettes through taxes, in terms of disease and health-care costs averted, and increased tax revenues. FINDINGS: In the 12 Latin American countries analysed, we estimated that smoking is responsible for approximately 345 000 (12%) of the total 2 860 921 adult deaths, 2·21 million disease events, 8·77 million healthy years of life lost, and $26·9 billion in direct medical costs annually. Health-care costs attributable to smoking were estimated to represent 6·9% of the health budgets of these countries, equivalent to 0·6% of their gross domestic product. Tax revenues from cigarette sales cover 36·0% of the estimated health expenditures caused by smoking. We estimated that a 50% increase in cigarette price through taxation would avert more than 300 000 deaths, 1·3 million disease events, gain 9 million healthy life-years, and save $26·7 billion in health-care costs in the next 10 years, with a total economic benefit of $43·7 billion. INTERPRETATION: Smoking represents a substantial health and economic burden in these 12 countries of Latin America. Tobacco tax increases could successfully avert deaths and disability, reduce health-care spending, and increase tax revenues, resulting in large net economic benefits. FUNDING: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Econômicos , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 108(2): 374-378, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890516

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Latin American radiation therapy services has not yet been widely assessed. In comparison to centers in Europe or the United States, the scarcity of data on these terms might impair design of adequate measures to ameliorate the pandemic's potential damage. The first survey-based analysis revealing regional information is herein presented. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From May 6 to May 30, 2020, the American Society for Radiation Oncology's COVID-19 Survey was distributed across Latin America with support of the local national radiation therapy societies. Twenty-six items, including facility demographic and financial characteristics, personnel and patient features, current and expected impact of the pandemic, and research perspectives, were included in the questionnaire. RESULTS: Complete responses were obtained from 115 (50%) of 229 practices across 15 countries. Only 2.6% of centers closed during the pandemic. A median of 4 radiation oncologists (1-27) and 9 (1-100) radiation therapists were reported per center. The median number of new patients treated in 2019 was 600 (24-6200). A median 8% (1%-90%) decrease in patient volume was reported, with a median of 53 patients (1-490) remaining under treatment. Estimated revenue reduction was 20% or more in 53% of cases. Shortage of personal protective equipment was reported in 51.3% of centers, and 27% reported personnel shortage due to COVID-19. Reported delays in treatment for low-risk entities included early stage breast cancer (42.6%), low-risk status prostate cancer (67%), and nonmalignant conditions (42.6%). Treatment of COVID-19 patients at designated treatment times and differentiated bunkers were reported in 22.6% and 10.4% of centers, respectively. Telehealth initiatives have been started in 64.3% of facilities to date for on-treatment (29.6%) and posttreatment (34.8%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Regional information regarding COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America may help elucidate suitable intervention strategies for personnel and patients. Follow-up surveys will be performed to provide dynamic monitoring the pandemic's impact on radiation therapy services and adoption of ameliorating measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Humanos , América Latina
18.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8025, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956342

RESUMO

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 has been reported in the pediatric population; however, there is limited information in Latin American and the Caribbean countries. Objectives: To describe the frequency of cases, deaths, incidence, and case fatality rate attributed to COVID-19 in children and adolescents from Latin American and the Caribbean countries. Methods: An observational study was carried-out using COVID-19 case registries in children and adolescents published by the Ministries of Health of 19 countries in Latin American and the Caribbean countries until May 20, 2020. Cases and deaths were classified by sex and age group. Also, incidence and case fatality rates were calculated for each country. Results: A total of 20,757 (4.2% of all patients) cases of COVID-19 were reported in children from 0 to 19 years of age. 52.4% was in the group aged 10 to 19 years. 50.6% were male. 139 (0.26%) deaths were reported in children from 0 to 19 years. The accumulated incidence was higher in Chile, Panama, and Peru. The cumulative incidence per 100,000 inhabitants ranged from 1.26 to 77.55 in the population from 0 to 9 years old, 1.57 to 98.84 from 10 to 19 years old, and 0.91 to 88.34 from 0 to 19 years old. The case fatality rate in children from 0 to 19 years old ranged from 0 to 9.09%. Conclusion: In 19 Latin American and the Caribbean countries, the frequency of cases, cumulative incidence, case fatality rate in children and adolescents was heterogeneous. These results contribute to understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease in children and adolescents of the countries included in the study.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965331

RESUMO

The human-adapted strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) comprise seven phylogenetic lineages originally associated with their geographical distribution. Here, we report the genomes of three drug-resistant clinical isolates of the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family collected in Kazakhstan. We utilised whole-genome sequencing to study the distribution and drug resistance of these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the genomes described in this study with the sequences from Russia, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan belonging to the LAM family. One isolate has acquired extensive drug resistance to seven antituberculosis drugs. Our results suggest at least two multi-drug resistant (MDR)/extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-associated genotypes of the LAM family circulate in Kazakhstan.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Cazaquistão , América Latina , Filogenia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética
20.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 43-47, 2020 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988185

RESUMO

We want here to examine the challenge of cultural pluralism that the new discipline of Bioethics is rising to a Church that wants to leave the sacristy. Being herself in the contemporary world, the Church should be involved in those issues and should be concerned by the common anguish shared by secularized society, which does not share necessarily a religious vision of the world. We should question why theology should be interested in bioethics and its problems and the way we tackle them. We should also search what may be the perspectives for dialogue faced with those challenges such as the health as a right and duty; dilemmas that arise at the beginning and end of life, the role of the theologian and religious persons in the new research ethics committees.


Assuntos
Bioética , Diversidade Cultural , Religião , Humanos , América Latina , Teologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA