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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 221-237, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191355

RESUMO

Los avances de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) permiten acceder en tiempo real a una cantidad ingente de datos, a través de los cuales es posible conocer el comportamiento de hechos sociales. En este escenario, la actual pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 ha permitido, bajo cuestionables criterios de inmediatez y urgencia, circular información que genera realidad e impacta en la toma de decisiones; y, además, ha favorecido la apropiación del dato, exponiendo a las personas a violaciones de sus derechos fundamentales. Ambos asuntos son sensibles para América Latina y el Caribe, región que hoy se presenta no sólo como el epicentro de la pandemia sino también de las desigualdades. La contribución que desde la reflexión y deliberación bioética puede realizarse en esta materia, adquiere especial relevancia con vistas a generar un nuevo pacto para el tratamiento de los datos


Advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) provide real-time access to a vast amount of data, through which it is possible to know the behavior of social facts. In this scenario, the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has allowed, under questionable criteria of immediacy and urgency, to circulate information that generates reality and impacts on decision-making; and has also favored the appropriation of the data, exposing people to violations of their fundamental rights. Both issues are sensitive to Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that today is presented itself not only as the epicenter of the pandemic but also of inequalities. The contribution that bioethical reflection and deliberation can make in this matter, acquires special relevance with a view to generating a new covenant for the treatment of data


Els avenços de les Tecnologies de la Informació I la Comunicació (TIC) permeten accedir en temps real a una quantitat ingent de dades, a través dels quals és possible conèixer el comportament de fets socials. En aquest escenari, l'actual pandèmia per SARS-CoV-2 ha permès, sota qüestionables criteris d'immediatesa I urgència, circular informació que genera realitat I impacta en la presa de decisions; i, a més, ha afavorit l'apropiació de la dada, exposant a les persones a violacions dels seus drets fonamentals. Tots dos assumptes són sensibles per a Amèrica Llatina I el Carib, regió que avui es presenta no només com l'epicentre de la pandèmia sinó també de les desigualtats. La contribució que des de la reflexió I deliberació bioètica pot realitzarse en aquesta matèria, adquireix especial rellevància amb vistes a generar un nou pacte per al tractament de les dades


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Acesso à Internet , Tecnologia da Informação , América Latina/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
2.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4272, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012887

RESUMO

In the past four months SARS-CoV-2 has reached most countries in the world. Public health strategies based on widespread testing and proper isolation of positive cases have shown to be helpful to reduce local transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Confirmatory tests, that identify viral RNA, and screening serological tests that identify viral antigens or host antibodies against viral proteins are part of the tools that nations can use to fight infectious disease epidemics. Understanding how each test works can provide insights about their test characteristics and how they can be used for different clinical and public health goals. Testing is a key strategy to reduce viral transmission, not only for this epidemic, but also for others to come.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3557-3562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876262

RESUMO

Thinking about the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic implies the study of general and unique dimensions for the historical evolution of Latin America and the Caribbean. From the individual to the collective, from biomedical sciences to social sciences and collective health, from risk groups to exclusive societies and the inequities constituting the colonial, patriarchal, modern capitalist heritage in the State and societies. The objective of this article is to review what are called the three intersections for Latin American critical health thinking. Seeking to analyze and reflect on the assumptions and logic present in the responses to the health emergency with reference to: 1. Critical health theory and its intersections with Latin American critical thinking; 2. The decolonial implications of problematizing the State and public health systems; and 3. The geopolitics of global health security as a roadmap for the global North. They outline approaches on the risks of capitalism's acceleration of the post-pandemic disaster and the alternative ways of addressing creative tensions in the reconstruction of emancipatory processes for regional health sovereignty and Health from the South.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Capitalismo , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pensamento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given that most evidence-based recommendations for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are generated in high-income settings, significant challenges for their implementation exist in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC), where the rates of T2DM and related mortality are increasing. The aim of this study is to identify the facilitators and barriers to successful management of T2DM in LAC, from the perspectives of patients, their families or caregivers, healthcare professionals, and/or other stakeholders. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in MEDLINE, Web of Science, SciELO, and LILACS. We included studies of disease management, prevention of complications and risk factor management. We qualitatively synthesized the verbatim text referring to barriers and/or facilitators of diabetes management according to the Theoretical Domain Framework and described their relative frequencies. FINDINGS: We included 60 studies from 1,595 records identified. 54 studies (90%) identified factors related to the environmental context and resources, highlighting the importance of questions related to health care access or lack of resources in the health system, and the environmental context and living conditions of the patients. Issues related to "social influences" (40 studies) and "social/professional role and identity" (37 studies) were also frequently addressed, indicating the negative impact of lack of support from family and friends and clinicians' paternalistic attitude. 25 studies identified patients beliefs as important barriers, identifying issues such as a lack of patients' trust in the effectiveness of the medication and/or the doctor's advice, or preferences for alternative therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Successful diabetes management in LAC is highly dependent on factors that are beyond the control of the individual patients. Successful disease control will require emphasis on public policies to reinforce health care access and resources, the promotion of a patient-centred care approach, and health promoting infrastructures at environmental level.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941485

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has forced most of the global population to lock-down and has put in check the health services all over the world. Current predictive models are complex, region-dependent, and might not be generalized to other countries. However, a 150-year old epidemics law promulgated by William Farr might be useful as a simple arithmetical model (percent increase [R1] and acceleration [R2] of new cases and deaths) to provide a first sight of the epidemic behavior and to detect regions with high predicted dynamics. Thus, this study tested Farr's Law assumptions by modeling COVID-19 data of new cases and deaths. COVID-19 data until April 10, 2020, was extracted from available countries, including income, urban index, and population characteristics. Farr's law first (R1) and second ratio (R2) were calculated. We constructed epidemic curves and predictive models for the available countries and performed ecological correlation analysis between R1 and R2 with demographic data. We extracted data from 210 countries, and it was possible to estimate the ratios of 170 of them. Around 42·94% of the countries were in an initial acceleration phase, while 23·5% already crossed the peak. We predicted a reduction close to zero with wide confidence intervals for 56 countries until June 10 (high-income countries from Asia and Oceania, with strict political actions). There was a significant association between high R1 of deaths and high urban index. Farr's law seems to be a useful model to give an overview of COVID-19 pandemic dynamics. The countries with high dynamics are from Africa and Latin America. Thus, this is a call to urgently prioritize actions in those countries to intensify surveillance, to re-allocate resources, and to build healthcare capacities based on multi-nation collaboration to limit onward transmission and to reduce the future impact on these regions in an eventual second wave.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Previsões , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Saúde da População Urbana
9.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1282-e1294, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, smoking tobacco causes 7 million deaths annually, and this toll is expected to increase, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. In Latin America, smoking is a leading risk factor for death and disability, contributes to poverty, and imposes an economic burden on health systems. Despite being one of the most effective measures to reduce smoking, tobacco taxation is underused and cigarettes are more affordable in Latin America than in other regions. Our aim was to estimate the tobacco-attributable burden on mortality, disease incidence, quality of life lost, and medical costs in 12 Latin American countries, and the expected health and economic effects of increasing tobacco taxes. METHODS: In this modelling study, we developed a Markov probabilistic microsimulation economic model of the natural history, medical costs, and quality-of-life losses associated with the most common tobacco-related diseases in 12 countries in Latin America. Data inputs were obtained through a literature review, vital statistics, and hospital databases from each country: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. The main outcomes of the model are life-years, quality-adjusted life-years, disease events, hospitalisations, disease incidence, disease cost, and healthy years of life lost. We estimated direct medical costs for each tobacco-related disease included in the model using a common costing methodology for each country. The disease burden was estimated as the difference in disease events, deaths, and associated costs between the results predicted by the model for current smoking prevalence and a hypothetical cohort of people in each country who had never smoked. The model estimates the health and financial effects of a price increase of cigarettes through taxes, in terms of disease and health-care costs averted, and increased tax revenues. FINDINGS: In the 12 Latin American countries analysed, we estimated that smoking is responsible for approximately 345 000 (12%) of the total 2 860 921 adult deaths, 2·21 million disease events, 8·77 million healthy years of life lost, and $26·9 billion in direct medical costs annually. Health-care costs attributable to smoking were estimated to represent 6·9% of the health budgets of these countries, equivalent to 0·6% of their gross domestic product. Tax revenues from cigarette sales cover 36·0% of the estimated health expenditures caused by smoking. We estimated that a 50% increase in cigarette price through taxation would avert more than 300 000 deaths, 1·3 million disease events, gain 9 million healthy life-years, and save $26·7 billion in health-care costs in the next 10 years, with a total economic benefit of $43·7 billion. INTERPRETATION: Smoking represents a substantial health and economic burden in these 12 countries of Latin America. Tobacco tax increases could successfully avert deaths and disability, reduce health-care spending, and increase tax revenues, resulting in large net economic benefits. FUNDING: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Econômicos , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8025, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956342

RESUMO

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 has been reported in the pediatric population; however, there is limited information in Latin American and the Caribbean countries. Objectives: To describe the frequency of cases, deaths, incidence, and case fatality rate attributed to COVID-19 in children and adolescents from Latin American and the Caribbean countries. Methods: An observational study was carried-out using COVID-19 case registries in children and adolescents published by the Ministries of Health of 19 countries in Latin American and the Caribbean countries until May 20, 2020. Cases and deaths were classified by sex and age group. Also, incidence and case fatality rates were calculated for each country. Results: A total of 20,757 (4.2% of all patients) cases of COVID-19 were reported in children from 0 to 19 years of age. 52.4% was in the group aged 10 to 19 years. 50.6% were male. 139 (0.26%) deaths were reported in children from 0 to 19 years. The accumulated incidence was higher in Chile, Panama, and Peru. The cumulative incidence per 100,000 inhabitants ranged from 1.26 to 77.55 in the population from 0 to 9 years old, 1.57 to 98.84 from 10 to 19 years old, and 0.91 to 88.34 from 0 to 19 years old. The case fatality rate in children from 0 to 19 years old ranged from 0 to 9.09%. Conclusion: In 19 Latin American and the Caribbean countries, the frequency of cases, cumulative incidence, case fatality rate in children and adolescents was heterogeneous. These results contribute to understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease in children and adolescents of the countries included in the study.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago. 13, 2020. 4 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117252

RESUMO

Enfrentamos un reto sin precedentes, que requiere sistemas de salud sólidos y bien financiados que nos guíen en la crisis y nos ayuden a recuperarnos. No hay ninguna duda de que los países y las ciudades necesitan intervenciones significativas y sostenidas en todos los sectores para suprimir la COVID-19, proteger los avances en la salud y hacer frente a la pobreza y las desigualdades crecientes. La salud de las comunidades y de la economía depende de ello.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Equidade em Saúde/organização & administração , Populações Vulneráveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , África/epidemiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008411, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776929

RESUMO

Approximately 150 triatomine species are suspected to be infected with the Chagas parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, but they differ in the risk they pose to human populations. The largest risk comes from species that have a domestic life cycle and these species have been targeted by indoor residual spraying campaigns, which have been successful in many locations. It is now important to consider residual transmission that may be linked to persistent populations of dominant vectors, or to secondary or minor vectors. The aim of this project was to define the geographical distributions of the community of triatomine species across the Chagas endemic region. Presence-only data with over 12, 000 observations of triatomine vectors were extracted from a public database and target-group background data were generated to account for sampling bias in the presence data. Geostatistical regression was then applied to estimate species distributions and fine-scale distribution maps were generated for thirty triatomine vector species including those found within one or two countries and species that are more widely distributed from northern Argentina to Guatemala, Bolivia to southern Mexico, and Mexico to the southern United States of America. The results for Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma gerstaeckeri, and Triatoma infestans are presented in detail, including model predictions and uncertainty in these predictions, and the model validation results for each of the 30 species are presented in full. The predictive maps for all species are made publicly available so that they can be used to assess the communities of vectors present within different regions of the endemic zone. The maps are presented alongside key indicators for the capacity of each species to transmit T. cruzi to humans. These indicators include infection prevalence, evidence for human blood meals, and colonisation or invasion of homes. A summary of the published evidence for these indicators shows that the majority of the 30 species mapped by this study have the potential to transmit T. cruzi to humans.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Triatominae/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Habitação , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 589, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimating prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) worldwide is necessary in designing control programs and allocating health resources. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the prevalence of CT in the general population. METHODS: The Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for eligible population-based studies from its inception through June 5, 2019. Q test and I2 statistic were used to calculate the heterogeneity between studies. Random effects models were used to pool the prevalence of CT. Meta regression was performed to explore the possible sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot and "trim and fill" method. RESULTS: Twenty nine studies that reported prevalence of CT infection from 24 countries were identified, including a total population of 89,886 persons. The pooled prevalence of CT among the general population was 2.9% (95% CI, 2.4-3.5%), and females had a higher CT prevalence (3.1, 95% CI, 2.5-3.8%) than males (2.6, 95% CI, 2.0-3.2%) (χ2 = 10.38, P <  0.01). Prevalence of CT was highest in region of America (4.5, 95% CI, 3.1-5.9%), especially in Latin America (6.7, 95% CI, 5.0-8.4%), followed by females in region of Africa (3.8, 95% CI, 0.7-6.9%), while South-East Asia had a lowest CT prevalence 0.8% (95% CI, 0.3-1.3%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided the updated prevalence of CT among general population worldwide. General population from Latin America, especially females, and women in Africa should be given priority by WHO when design and delivery CT control programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jul. 30, 2020. 3 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116083

RESUMO

En los últimos tres meses, nuestra Región ha notificado el mayor número de casos nuevos de COVID-19 a nivel mundial, y varios países de América Latina están actualmente en el epicentro de esta pandemia.


Assuntos
Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Economia da Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , América Latina/epidemiologia
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