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1.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 41(2): 84-89; quiz 90, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017586

RESUMO

Silver has a long history of use in medicine and dentistry, as its powerful antimicrobial properties have benefited mankind immensely. Silver formulations can be traced back to Hippocrates, and silver nitrate has centuries of use in medicine, including being utilized intraorally since at least the early 1800s. In the past roughly 40 years, silver diammine fluoride (SDF) has been used in many parts of the world to treat tooth sensitivity and for chemical attenuation of dental caries lesions. SDF was more recently introduced in North America for treatment of dental sensitivity with widespread off-label use as a dental caries infection inhibitor. Accordingly, SDF has been the subject of much dental research and many published articles in dentistry. In addition to providing significant chemical interference of progression of caries infections, SDF has the ability to prevent initiation of the caries process. This article gives a brief history of silver use in medicine and dentistry and documents a simplified procedure to saturate contacting proximal surfaces of teeth with 38% SDF solution, followed by fluoride varnish coverage, to prevent caries lesions and intercept progression of existing caries infections.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Amônia , Cariostáticos , Odontologia , Fluoretos , Fluoretos Tópicos , Humanos , América do Norte , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Compostos de Prata
2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 778-789, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926507

RESUMO

Data on canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination were collected on 812 large felids (351 tigers, Panthera tigris; 220 lions, Panthera leo; 143 snow leopards, Panthera uncia; 50 leopards, Panthera pardus; and 48 jaguars, Panthera onca) from 48 institutions to assess vaccine use and safety. The documented individual vaccination events with multiple products numbered 2,846. Canarypox-vectored CDV vaccines were the most commonly used vaccines (96.3% of all vaccinations) and the Purevax® Ferret Distemper (PFD) vaccine was the most commonly used canarypox-vectored vaccine (91.0% of all vaccinations). Modified live virus (MLV) CDV vaccines were used for 3.7% of all vaccinations, and only in tigers, lions, and snow leopards. Adverse effects were reported after 0.5% (13 of 2,740) of the canarypox-vectored vaccinations and after 2.9% (3 of 104) of the MLV CDV vaccinations. This low complication rate suggests large felids may not be as sensitive to adverse effects of MLV CDV vaccines as other exotic carnivores. Serological data were available from 159 individuals (69 tigers, 31 lions, 31 snow leopards, 22 jaguars, and 6 Amur leopards, Panthera pardus orientalis) vaccinated with the PFD vaccine, and 66.0% of vaccinates seroconverted (defined as acquiring a titer ≥1: 24) at some point postvaccination: 24.3% after one vaccination, 55.8% after two vaccinations, 54.3% after three vaccinations, and 79.2% after four or more vaccinations. Among animals exhibiting seroconversion after the initial PFD vaccinations, 88.9% still had titers ≥12 mo and ≥24 mo after the last vaccination, and 87.5% had titers ≥1: 24 at ≥36 mo after the last vaccination. The study was unable to assess fully the safety of vaccination with either canarypox-vectored or MLV CDV vaccines during gestation because of the small number of animals vaccinated while pregnant (n = 6, all vaccinated with PFD).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose/prevenção & controle , Panthera/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Soroconversão , Vacinas Atenuadas
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 837-844, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926513

RESUMO

This study surveyed six North American zoologic institutions to collect retrospective information on the incidence of ocular disease in the giant panda. Reported information included sex and age at presentation, as well as diagnosis, treatment, duration, and clinical outcome for each episode of ocular disease. Among the 42 animals included in the survey, 10 (23.8%) had clinical ocular abnormalities reported. Multiple disease episodes were reported in four animals, with 20 clinical episodes, and one additional animal who presented with corneal scarring from historic keratitis. Age at presentation varied from 0.4 to 26 yr (mean, 11.8 yr; median, 10.4 yr). Corneal abnormalities (including corneal opacity or haze, keratitis, corneal ulcers, and bullous keratopathy) were the most common pathologies reported, followed by conjunctivitis and/or ocular discharge. Additional reported abnormalities included limbal squamous cell carcinoma and lipid degeneration. Six cases resolved without intervention. Treatment protocols included topical and/or systemic medication with or without surgical intervention, which commonly resulted in resolution with or without persistent corneal scar. The prevalence of ocular disease identified in the giant panda in this study is higher than previous publications surveying ocular disease in the family Ursidae, indicating that this is an important source of morbidity in this species.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Ursidae , Animais , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 917-926, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926524

RESUMO

Abnormal molting, including partial or incomplete molt, arrested molt cycle, or inappropriate frequency of molt, is a primary concern for the managed African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) population and is documented across institutions. To identify factors associated with increased odds of abnormal molts and characterize intervention opportunities, a comprehensive survey evaluating numerous husbandry and medical parameters was created. Survey results represent 45 North American African penguin holding facilities and 736 unique animals. Of these individuals, 135 (18.3%) demonstrated an abnormal molt over the 5-yr study period (2012-2017). Increased odds ratios for abnormal molt included biologic (age, sex, etc.), geographic (elevation, latitude), and husbandry (exhibit design, diet, etc.) variables. The mean age of affected animals was 15.2 yr (1-45 yr, n = 135) compared with 9.92 yr (4 mo-38 yr, n = 601) for unaffected animals. In addition, although statistically insignificant, males were overrepresented in the affected cohort compared with a near even distribution among unaffected animals. Identified factors with increased odds for abnormal molting included advanced age and facilities using freshwater pools. Normally molting penguins were more commonly found with saltwater pool access and natural lighting exposure. Anecdotal medical intervention attempts are discussed, although further research is needed to define their use. Of attempted interventions, subcutaneous 5.4-mg melatonin implants placed in anticipation of environmental molting cues showed the most promise at inducing catastrophic molt, with 14 of 17 (82.3%) of affected individuals molting normally following this treatment. Survey analysis indicated that abnormal molt is a complex, multifactorial process, and modifiable factors that may predispose animals to abnormally molt exist. Addressing these factors in future exhibit design may mitigate the prevalence of this condition. Despite these efforts, it is likely that medical interventions will be required to aid in the treatment of abnormal molting in this species.


Assuntos
Plumas , Muda/fisiologia , Spheniscidae , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , América do Norte
5.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 261-272, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760481

RESUMO

Climate change can negatively impact plant-pollinator interactions, and reduce outcross pollination. For reproductive assurance, an increased capacity for autonomous selfing should benefit the persistence of plants under new temperature conditions. Plastic responses of the autonomous selfing capacity to climate change may occur indirectly due to changes in floral traits associated with this capacity. We tested whether the mixed mating plant Mimulus guttatus is capable of plastic changes in floral traits favoring autonomous selfing in response to temperature changes. In seven growth chambers, we grew M. guttatus originating from a large range of latitudes (from 37.89° N to 49.95° N) and thus home temperatures in North America, and experimentally assessed the (autonomous) selfing and outcrossing capacities of the plants. With an increase in the difference between the overall mean daytime and nighttime experimental test temperature and home temperature, flower length and width decreased. The plastic response in flower size suggests that plants may be more successful at autonomous selfing. However, we did not find direct evidence that M. guttatus responded to increased temperature by an increased autonomous selfing capacity. With an increase in temperature difference, the odds of seed production, number of seeds, and individual seed mass decreased. Our results indicate that global warming and the associated increase in extreme temperature events may be detrimental to the reproduction and thus persistence of some plants.


Assuntos
Mimulus , Flores , América do Norte , Polinização , Reprodução , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
Lancet ; 395(10217): 53-64, 2020 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ixekizumab, a high-affinity interleukin-17A (IL-17A) monoclonal antibody, has previously shown efficacy in radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (also known as ankylosing spondylitis). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ixekizumab, an IL-17 inhibitor, in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. Here, we report the primary results of COAST-X. METHODS: COAST-X was a 52-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study done at 107 sites in 15 countries in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America. Eligible participants were adults (aged ≥18 years) with active axial spondyloarthritis without definite radiographic sacroiliitis (non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis), objective signs of inflammation (via MRI or C-reactive protein), and an inadequate response or intolerance to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive subcutaneous 80 mg ixekizumab every 4 weeks (Q4W) or every 2 weeks (Q2W), or placebo. Changing background medications or switching to open-label ixekizumab Q2W, or both, was allowed after week 16 at investigator discretion. Primary endpoints were Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society-40 (ASAS40) response (defined as an improvement of 40% or more and an absolute improvement from baseline of 2 units or more [range 0-10] in at least three of the four domains [patient global, spinal pain, function, and inflammation] without any worsening in the remaining one domain) at weeks 16 and 52. Patients who switched to open-label ixekizumab were imputed as non-responders in logistic regression analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02757352. FINDINGS: Between Aug 2, 2016, and Jan 29, 2018, 303 patients were enrolled (105 to placebo, 96 to ixekizumab Q4W, and 102 to ixekizumab Q2W). Both primary endpoints were met: ASAS40 at week 16 (ixekizumab Q4W: 34 [35%] of 96, p=0·0094 vs placebo; ixekizumab Q2W: 41 [40%] of 102, p=0·0016; placebo: 20 [19%] of 105) and ASAS40 at week 52 (ixekizumab Q4W: 29 [30%] of 96, p=0·0045; ixekizumab Q2W: 32 [31%] of 102, p=0·0037; placebo: 14 [13%] of 105). 60 (57%) of 104 patients in the placebo group, 63 (66%) of 96 in the ixekizumab Q4W group, and 79 (77%) of 102 in the ixekizumab Q2W group had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events in the ixekizumab groups were nasopharyngitis and injection site reaction. Of the treatment-emergent adverse events of special interest, there was one case of serious infection in the ixekizumab Q4W group. The frequency of serious adverse events was low (four [1%] of 302) and similar across the three groups. There were no malignancies or deaths. No new safety signals were identified. INTERPRETATION: Ixekizumab was superior to placebo for improving signs and symptoms in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis at weeks 16 and 52. Reports of adverse events were similar to those of previous ixekizumab studies. Ixekizumab offers a potential therapeutic option for patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who had an inadequate response or were intolerant to NSAID therapy. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Ásia , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , América do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Lancet ; 395(10218): 132-141, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard-of-care treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma includes combination therapies for patients who are not eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. At the primary analysis for progression-free survival of the phase 3 ALCYONE trial, progression-free survival was significantly longer with daratumumab in combination with bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (D-VMP) versus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) alone in patients with transplant-ineligible, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Here we report updated efficacy and safety results from a prespecified, interim, overall survival analysis of ALCYONE with more than 36 months of follow-up. METHODS: ALCYONE was a multicentre, randomised, open-label, active-controlled, phase 3 trial that enrolled patients between Feb 9, 2015, and July 14, 2016, at 162 sites in 25 countries across North America, South America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and were ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation, because of their age (≥65 years) or because of substantial comorbidities. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio and by permuted block randomisation to receive D-VMP or VMP. An interactive web-based randomisation system was used. Randomisation was stratified by International Staging System disease stage, geographical region, and age. There was no masking to treatment assignments. All patients received up to nine 6-week cycles of subcutaneous bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 of body surface area on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 22, 25, 29, and 32 of cycle one and on days 1, 8, 22, and 29 of cycles two through nine), oral melphalan (9 mg/m2 once daily on days 1 through 4 of each cycle), and oral prednisone (60 mg/m2 once daily on days 1 through 4 of each cycle). Patients in the D-VMP group also received intravenous daratumumab (16 mg/kg of bodyweight, once weekly during cycle one, once every 3 weeks in cycles two through nine, and once every 4 weeks thereafter as maintenance therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which has been reported previously. Results presented are from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival. The primary analysis population (including for overall survival) was the intention-to-treat population of all patients who were randomly assigned to treatment. The safety population included patients who received any dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02195479. FINDINGS: 706 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (350 to the D-VMP group, 356 to the VMP group). At a median follow-up of 40·1 months (IQR 37·4-43·1), a significant benefit in overall survival was observed for the D-VMP group. The hazard ratio (HR) for death in the D-VMP group compared with the VMP group was 0·60 (95% CI 0·46-0·80; p=0·0003). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 36-month rate of overall survival was 78·0% (95% CI 73·2-82·0) in the D-VMP group and 67·9% (62·6-72·6) in the VMP group. Progression-free survival, the primary endpoint, remained significantly improved for the D-VMP group (HR 0·42 [0·34-0·51]; p<0·0001). The most frequent adverse events during maintenance daratumumab monotherapy in patients in the D-VMP group were respiratory infections (54 [19%] of 278 patients had upper respiratory tract infections; 42 [15%] had bronchitis, 34 [12%] had viral upper respiratory tract infections), cough (34 [12%]), and diarrhoea (28 [10%]). INTERPRETATION: D-VMP prolonged overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for stem-cell transplantation. With more than 3 years of follow-up, the D-VMP group continued to show significant improvement in progression-free survival, with no new safety concerns. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Ásia , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , América do Norte , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , América do Sul , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(2): 280-282, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247090

RESUMO

Focal infection theory posits that periodontal pathobionts play a causal role in initiating or exacerbating diseases. Periodontal disease is a common inflammatory, multifactorial disease of the periodontal tissues. The main factor for inflammation is mature dental plaque with the presence of pathogens in the microbial biofilm. Disturbances of the systemic and/or mucosal immune system, antibiotic treatments, immunosuppressants, and biologic therapies all increase the chance of infections and inflammatory processes (ie, apical periodontitis). The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the 2 main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is still unclear, but both autoimmune and immune-mediated phenomena are involved. It is a global disease with a prevalence of 0.3% and an incidence of 280-320 per 100,000 people in North America. According to the literature, there is a negative association between poor oral health and risk of IBD, and this protective effect increases with the severity of poor dental hygiene. On the other hand, existing IBD seems to be associated with an increased risk of periodontal disease and worse oral health compared with other diseases. The nature of these associations is unclear, but it is unquestionable that all have an effect on the others. Additional studies are needed to confirm if there is a causal relationship between dental status and IBD. Apical periodontitis in patients affected by Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis needs to be considered carefully, and it is important to treat the disease.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Periodontite Periapical , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , América do Norte , Prevalência
9.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 601-609, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215037

RESUMO

We compared invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence rates in Europe, South Africa, Latin and North America among women living with HIV who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1996 and 2014. We analyzed cohort data from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE) in EuroCoord. We used flexible parametric survival models to determine regional ICC rates and risk factors for incident ICC. We included 64,231 women from 45 countries. During 320,141 person-years (pys), 356 incident ICC cases were diagnosed (Europe 164, South Africa 156, North America 19 and Latin America 17). Raw ICC incidence rates per 100,000 pys were 447 in South Africa (95% confidence interval [CI]: 382-523), 136 in Latin America (95% CI: 85-219), 76 in North America (95% CI: 48-119) and 66 in Europe (95% CI: 57-77). Compared to European women ICC rates at 5 years after ART initiation were more than double in Latin America (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.27-4.68) and 11 times higher in South Africa (aHR: 10.66, 95% CI: 6.73-16.88), but similar in North America (aHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.37-1.71). Overall, ICC rates increased with age (>50 years vs. 16-30 years, aHR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03-2.40) and lower CD4 cell counts at ART initiation (per 100 cell/µl decrease, aHR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.36). Improving access to early ART initiation and effective cervical cancer screening in women living with HIV should be key parts of global efforts to reduce cancer-related health inequities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Comparação Transcultural , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
10.
Oecologia ; 192(2): 501-514, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872269

RESUMO

Vertical niche partitioning might be one of the main driving forces explaining the high diversity of forest ecosystems. However, the forest's vertical dimension has received limited investigation, especially in temperate forests. Thus, our knowledge about how communities are vertically structured remains limited for temperate forest ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the vertical structuring of an arboreal caterpillar community in a temperate deciduous forest of eastern North America. Within a 0.2-ha forest stand, all deciduous trees ≥ 5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) were felled and systematically searched for caterpillars. Sampled caterpillars were assigned to a specific stratum (i.e. understory, midstory, or canopy) depending on their vertical position and classified into feeding guild as either exposed feeders or shelter builders (i.e. leaf rollers, leaf tiers, webbers). In total, 3892 caterpillars representing 215 species of butterflies and moths were collected and identified. While stratum had no effect on caterpillar density, feeding guild composition changed significantly with shelter-building caterpillars becoming the dominant guild in the canopy. Species richness and diversity were found to be highest in the understory and midstory and declined strongly in the canopy. Family and species composition changed significantly among the strata; understory and canopy showed the lowest similarity. Food web analyses further revealed an increasing network specialization towards the canopy, caused by an increase in specialization of the caterpillar community. In summary, our study revealed a pronounced stratification of a temperate forest caterpillar community, unveiling a distinctly different assemblage of caterpillars dwelling in the canopy stratum.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Florestas , América do Norte , Árvores
11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 671-681, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919464

RESUMO

Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is a strong risk factor for incidence and premature mortality from several cancers. Our study aimed at quantifying the association between SEP and gastric cancer (GC) risk through an individual participant data meta-analysis within the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project". Educational level and household income were used as proxies for the SEP. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across levels of education and household income by pooling study-specific ORs through random-effects meta-analytic models. The relative index of inequality (RII) was also computed. A total of 9,773 GC cases and 24,373 controls from 25 studies from Europe, Asia and America were included. The pooled OR for the highest compared to the lowest level of education was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44-0.84), while the pooled RII was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.29-0.69). A strong inverse association was observed both for noncardia (OR 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.70) and cardia GC (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.22-0.99). The relation was stronger among H. pylori negative subjects (RII 0.14, 95% CI, 0.04-0.48) as compared to H. pylori positive ones (RII 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), in the absence of a significant interaction (p = 0.28). The highest household income category showed a pooled OR of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89), while the corresponding RII was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.72). Our collaborative pooled-analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between SEP indicators and GC risk. Our data call for public health interventions to reduce GC risk among the more vulnerable groups of the population.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 53, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleistocene glaciations have had an important impact on the species distribution and community composition of the North American biota. Species survived these glacial cycles south of the ice sheets and/or in other refugia, such as Beringia. In this study, we assessed, using mitochondrial DNA from three Diptera species, whether flies currently found in Beringian grasslands (1) survived glaciation as disjunct populations in Beringia and in the southern refugium; (2) dispersed northward postglacially from the southern refugium; or (3) arose by a combination of the two. Samples were collected in grasslands in western Canada: Prairies in Alberta and Manitoba; the Peace River region (Alberta); and the southern Yukon Territory. We sequenced two gene regions (658 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 510 bp of cytochrome b) from three species of higher Diptera: one with a continuous distribution across grassland regions, and two with disjunct populations between the regions. We used a Bayesian approach to determine population groupings without a priori assumptions and performed analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and exact tests of population differentiation (ETPD) to examine their validity. Molecular dating was used to establish divergence times. RESULTS: Two geographically structured populations were found for all species: a southern Prairie and Peace River population, and a Yukon population. Although AMOVA did not show significant differentiation between populations, ETPD did. Divergence time between Yukon and southern populations predated the Holocene for two species; the species with an ambiguous divergence time had high haplotype diversity, which could suggest survival in a Beringian refugium. CONCLUSIONS: Populations of Diptera in Yukon grasslands could have persisted in steppe habitats in Beringia through Pleistocene glaciations. Current populations in the region appear to be a mix of Beringian relict populations and, to a lesser extent, postglacial dispersal northward from southern prairie grasslands.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Alberta , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Manitoba , América do Norte , Filogenia , Filogeografia
13.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 202, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the origin of genetic variation is the key to predict how species will respond to future climate change. The genus Quercus is a species-rich and ecologically diverse woody genus that dominates a wide range of forests and woodland communities of the Northern Hemisphere. Quercus thus offers a unique opportunity to investigate how adaptation to environmental changes has shaped the spatial genetic structure of closely related lineages. Furthermore, Quercus provides a deep insight into how tree species will respond to future climate change. This study investigated whether closely related Quercus lineages have similar spatial genetic structures and moreover, what roles have their geographic distribution, ecological tolerance, and historical environmental changes played in the similar or distinct genetic structures. RESULTS: Despite their close relationships, the three main oak lineages (Quercus sections Cyclobalanopsis, Ilex, and Quercus) have different spatial genetic patterns and occupy different climatic niches. The lowest level and most homogeneous pattern of genetic diversity was found in section Cyclobalanopsis, which is restricted to warm and humid climates. The highest genetic diversity and strongest geographic genetic structure were found in section Ilex, which is due to their long-term isolation and strong local adaptation. The widespread section Quercus is distributed across the most heterogeneous range of environments; however, it exhibited moderate haplotype diversity. This is likely due to regional extinction during Quaternary climatic fluctuation in Europe and North America. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations of sections Ilex and Quercus were significantly predicted by geographic and climate variations, while those of section Cyclobalanopsis were poorly predictable by geographic or climatic diversity. Apart from the different historical environmental changes experienced by different sections, variation of their ecological or climatic tolerances and physiological traits induced varying responses to similar environment changes, resulting in distinct spatial genetic patterns.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Ilex/genética , Quercus/genética , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Europa (Continente) , Florestas , Estruturas Genéticas , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Ilex/citologia , Ilex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , América do Norte , Filogenia , Quercus/citologia , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil ; 69(4): 136-140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697193

RESUMO

The use of inverse occlusion and pleoptics came into favor in Europe and then in North America in the late 1940's, and fell out of favor less than 25 years later. Introduced as a method of promoting foveal fixation, and improving binocularity and vision in cases of eccentric fixation, it did not outperform conventional occlusion prescribed at an earlier age.In this issue, Godts and Mathysen provide a case series of 11 contemporary patients treated with inverse occlusion after patching failure. In response, this article reviews the procedures and goals of inverse occlusion and pleoptics using the historic information available, in attempt to ascertain whether there is an indication for renewing their use.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Europa (Continente) , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , América do Norte , Ortóptica
15.
Zootaxa ; 4603(1): zootaxa.4603.1.7, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717243

RESUMO

Morphological structures of several glandulariine genera known to occur only in North America have never been properly described and illustrated. In consequence, status and diagnoses of some potentially key taxa to understand the evolution of the Northern Hemisphere Scydmaeninae remain unclear. Comparative morphological study of Catalinus and Parascydmus is intended to reduce this gap. Examination of type species revealed that both genera belong to glandulariine taxa characterized by the submentum demarcated laterally by sutures. The status as separate genus for Catalinus and Parascydmus is maintained. The most interesting discovery is that the Nearctic Parascydmus resembles most the endemic Japanese Rutaraphes; among other characters, these taxa share a uniquely modified frons and the aedeagus lacking parameres.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , América do Norte , Tamanho do Órgão
16.
Lancet ; 394(10214): 2096-2107, 2019 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isatuximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds a specific epitope on the human CD38 receptor and has antitumour activity via multiple mechanisms of action. In a previous phase 1b study, around 65% of patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma achieved an overall response with a combination of isatuximab with pomalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone. The aim of this study was to determine the progression-free survival benefit of isatuximab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone compared with pomalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. METHODS: We did a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 study at 102 hospitals in 24 countries in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific regions. Eligible participants were adult patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma who had received at least two previous lines of treatment, including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor. Patients were excluded if they were refractory to previous treatment with an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to either isatuximab 10 mg/kg plus pomalidomide 4 mg plus dexamethasone 40 mg (20 mg for patients aged ≥75 years), or pomalidomide 4 mg plus dexamethasone 40 mg. Randomisation was done using interactive response technology and stratified according to the number of previous lines of treatment (2-3 vs >3) and age (<75 years vs ≥75 years). Treatments were assigned based on a permuted blocked randomisation scheme with a block size of four. The isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone group received isatuximab intravenously on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 in the first 28-day cycle, then on days 1 and 15 in subsequent cycles. Both groups received oral pomalidomide on days 1 to 21 in each cycle, and oral or intravenous dexamethasone on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each cycle. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. Dose reductions for adverse reactions were permitted for pomalidomide and dexamethasone, but not for isatuximab. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, determined by an independent response committee and assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02990338. FINDINGS: Between Jan 10, 2017, and Feb 2, 2018, we randomly assigned 307 patients to treatment: 154 to isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone, and 153 to pomalidomide-dexamethasone. At a median follow-up of 11·6 months (IQR 10·1-13·9), median progression-free survival was 11·5 months (95% CI 8·9-13·9) in the isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone group versus 6·5 months (4·5-8·3) in the pomalidomide-dexamethasone group; hazard ratio 0·596, 95% CI 0·44-0·81; p=0·001 by stratified log-rank test. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (any grade; isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone vs pomalidomide-dexamethasone) were infusion reactions (56 [38%] vs 0), upper respiratory tract infections (43 [28%] vs 26 [17%]), and diarrhoea (39 [26%] vs 29 [20%]). Adverse events with a fatal outcome were reported in 12 patients (8%) in the isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone group and 14 (9%) in the pomalidomide-dexamethasone group. Deaths due to treatment-related adverse events were reported for one patient (<1%) in the isatuximab-pomalidomide-dexamethasone group (sepsis) and two (1%) in the pomalidomide-dexamethasone group (pneumonia and urinary tract infection). INTERPRETATION: The addition of isatuximab to pomalidomide-dexamethasone significantly improves progression-free survival in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Isatuximab is an important new treatment option for the management of relapsed and refractory myeloma, particularly for patients who become refractory to lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor. FUNDING: Sanofi. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Ásia , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Zootaxa ; 4629(4): zootaxa.4629.4.1, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712498

RESUMO

The North American species of Limnocoris are revised and total 13 species after the present study. Four new species are described and illustrated: L. chaetocarinatus n. sp. from Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia; L. major n. sp. and L. nanus n. sp. from Costa Rica and Panama; and L. zacki n. sp. from Mexico and Guatemala. Further, supplemental descriptions are provided for the previously described species. The following synonymies are proposed, with junior synonyms in brackets: L. insularis Champion [L. alcorni La Rivers n. syn.], L. pygmaeus La Rivers [L. solenoides La Rivers n. syn.], and L. signoreti Montandon [L. brailovskyi La Rivers n. syn., L. laucki La Rivers n. syn., L. stangei La Rivers n. syn.]. A lectotype is designated for L. signoreti. Limnocoris profundus (Say) is considered a nomen dubium because no type specimens have been found and the original description is insufficient to establish its identity. An illustrated taxonomic key, distribution maps, and a discussion of the characters (putative synapomorphies) not previously mentioned in the literature also are presented.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , América do Norte
18.
Zootaxa ; 4571(3): zootaxa.4571.3.1, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715801

RESUMO

We present novel rearing records of Agromyzidae (Diptera) from three years of collecting in North Carolina, USA. These include the first reported host for Calycomyza novascotiensis Spencer (new to the USA) and new host records for Ophiomyia beckeri (Hendel) (new to North America), Liriomyza helianthi Spencer, L. schmidti (Aldrich), and Phytomyza plantaginis Robineau-Desvoidy, all of which are reported from North Carolina for the first time. We review host and distribution data for each of these species and describe their leaf mines. We describe the following nine new species: Agromyza arundinariae, A. indistincta, Calycomyza chrysopsidis, Cerodontha (Butomomyza) enigma, Cer. (Poemyza) arundinariella, Cer. (P.) saintandrewsensis, Liriomyza carphephori, L. polygalivora, and L. triodanidis. Seven host plant genera are new for world Agromyzidae: Carphephorus Cass., Chrysogonum L., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliott, Krigia Schreb., Pyrrhopappus DC. (Asteraceae), Triodanis Raf. ex Greene (Campanulaceae), and Arundinaria Michx. s.s. (Poaceae). Host plants of the new species also include Bidens L., Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae), Dichanthelium (Hitchc. Chase) Gould (Poaceae), and Polygala L. (Polygalaceae).


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Dípteros , Animais , América do Norte , North Carolina , Folhas de Planta
19.
Zootaxa ; 4568(1): zootaxa.4568.1.1, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715868

RESUMO

Seven species of the feather mite genus Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899 (Astigmata: Trouessartiidae) have been recorded on swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae) in Manitoba (Canada). Of them, five are described as new species: Trouessartia ampulicaudata sp. n. and T. petrochelidon sp. n. from the American cliff swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot), T. bochkovi sp. n. from the tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot), and T. cryptocaudata sp. n. and T. progne sp. n. from the purple martin Progne subis (Linnaeus). A new species group stelgidopteryx, incorporating Trouessartia species living on hirundinids of the genera Progne, Tachycineta and Stelgidopteryx, is established. Renewed diagnoses of four Trouessartia species groups (appendiculata, crucifera, minutipes, and stelgidopteryx) restricted to hirundinids and a key to species recorded so far and potentially expected on swallows of North America are proposed. Host associations of Trouessartia species with swallows in North America are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Andorinhas , Animais , Canadá , Manitoba , América do Norte
20.
Zootaxa ; 4567(3): zootaxa.4567.3.12, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715892

RESUMO

Pompiliodon gen. nov. and its type species Pompiliodon katina sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The relationships to related genera (Priochilus Banks, 1944 and Balboana Banks, 1925) are discussed.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , América do Norte , América do Sul
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