Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22.393
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127555, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711268

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of ruminant milk reported in published research papers (n = 65) from January 1995 to March 2020 around the world were analyzed to estimate the overall mean CLA value. The CLA content of ruminant milk samples was grouped according to geographical regions (Europe, South America, North America, Oceania, Asia, and Africa). The total CLA content of milk samples from cows, sheep, goats, yaks, and llama retrieved from the collected data ranged between 0.06 and 2.96% of total fatty acids. There is a wide variation of pooled estimated mean content of CLA in milk among the study regions and were highest in Oceania with 1.33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16 - 1.49%) of total fatty acids. Though several factors have been reported to influence the CLA content of milk, the effect of the "geographical origin" was only considered in the present manuscript as one of the main factors in this respect.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Leite/química , África , Animais , Ásia , Bovinos , Europa (Continente) , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cabras , América do Norte , Oceania , Ruminantes , Ovinos , América do Sul
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141845, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892044

RESUMO

Introductions of dreissenid mussels in North America have been a significant concern over the last few decades. This study assessed the distribution of synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) in the food web of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA and how this distribution was influenced by the introduction of invasive quagga mussels. A clear spatial gradient of SOC concentrations in water was observed between lake basins downstream of populated areas and more rural areas. Within the food web, trophic magnification factors (TMF) indicated statistically significant biomagnification for nine, and biodilution for two, of 22 SOCs examined. The highest value recorded was for PCB 118 (TMF, 5.14), and biomagnification of methyl triclosan (TMF, 3.85) was also apparent. Biodilution was observed for Tonalide® (0.06) and Galaxolide® (0.38). Total SOC concentration in quagga mussels was higher than in three pelagic fishes. Also, 19 of 20 SOC examined in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) had substantially lower concentrations in 2013, when quagga mussels had become well established, than in 2007/08, soon after quagga mussels were introduced. Estimates of SOC concentrations in the water column and quagga mussels suggest that a considerable portion (~10.5%) of the SOC mass in the lake has shifted from the pelagic to the benthic environments due to quagga mussel growth. These observations suggest that benthic species, such as the endangered Razorback Sucker, may be experiencing increased risk of SOC exposure. In addition, stable isotope analysis (carbon and nitrogen) indicated a decrease in the nutritional value of zooplankton to consumers (e.g., Razorback Sucker larvae) since quagga mussels became established. These changes could affect Razorback Sucker larval survival and recruitment. Results from this study strongly suggest that the introduction of quagga mussels has greatly altered the dynamics of SOCs and other processes in the food web of Lake Mead.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Dreissena , Animais , Arizona , Cadeia Alimentar , Lagos , Nevada , América do Norte
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111677, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181950

RESUMO

Microplastics' (MPs) abundance, small size, and global distribution render them bioavailable to a variety of organisms directly or by trophic transfer, yet examinations in marine apex predators are currently limited. The present study investigated the occurrence of MPs sized 125 µm-5 mm in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded in South Carolina, USA from 2017 to 2018. MPs, mostly fibers, were detected in all GITs (n = 7) of stranded bottlenose dolphins. Total suspected MPs ranged between 123 and 422 particles/individual, a high range among international studies. Comparison to other studies likely reflects differences in both methods and location. This is the first study from North America to quantify MPs in a small coastal cetacean outside Arctic waters and the first specifically in bottlenose dolphins (southeastern United States). Findings and methodology from this investigation can aid future studies examining MP in marine apex predators.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Microplásticos , América do Norte , Plásticos , South Carolina , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153071

RESUMO

Public compliance with social distancing is key to containing COVID-19, yet there is a lack of knowledge on which communication 'messages' drive compliance. Respondents (224 Canadians and Americans) rated combinations of messages about compliance, systematically varied by an experimental design. Independent variables were perceived risk; the agent communicating the policy; specific social distancing practices; and methods to enforce compliance. Response patterns to each message suggest three mindset segments in each country reflecting how a person thinks. Two mindsets, the same in Canada and the US, were 'tell me exactly what to do,' and 'pandemic onlookers.' The third was 'bow to authority' in Canada, and 'tell me how' in the US. Each mindset showed different messages strongly driving compliance. To effectively use messaging about compliance, policy makers may assign any person or group in the population to the appropriate mindset segment by using a Personal Viewpoint Identifier that we developed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Canadá , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Estados Unidos
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e042573, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the incidence, risk factors and impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, CNKI and MedRxiv of Systematic Reviews from 1 January 2020 to 15 May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Studies examining the following demographics and outcomes were included: patients' age; sex; incidence of and risk factors for AKI and their impact on prognosis; COVID-19 disease type and incidence of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) administration during COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: A total of 79 research articles, including 49 692 patients with COVID-19, met the systemic evaluation criteria. The mortality rate and incidence of AKI in patients with COVID-19 in China were significantly lower than those in patients with COVID-19 outside China. A significantly higher proportion of patients with COVID-19 from North America were aged ≥65 years and also developed AKI. European patients with COVID-19 had significantly higher mortality and a higher CRRT rate than patients from other regions. Further analysis of the risk factors for COVID-19 combined with AKI showed that age ≥60 years and severe COVID-19 were independent risk factors for AKI, with an OR of 3.53, 95% CI (2.92-4.25) and an OR of 6.07, 95% CI (2.53-14.58), respectively. The CRRT rate in patients with severe COVID-19 was significantly higher than in patients with non-severe COVID-19, with an OR of 6.60, 95% CI (2.83-15.39). The risk of death in patients with COVID-19 and AKI was significantly increased, with an OR of 11.05, 95% CI (9.13-13.36). CONCLUSION: AKI was a common and serious complication of COVID-19. Older age and having severe COVID-19 were independent risk factors for AKI. The risk of in-hospital death was significantly increased in patients with COVID-19 complicated by AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Oecologia ; 194(4): 659-672, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141324

RESUMO

The impacts of invasive species on biodiversity may be mitigated or exacerbated by abiotic environmental changes. Invasive plants can restructure soil fungal communities with important implications for native biodiversity and nutrient cycling, yet fungal responses to invasion may depend on numerous anthropogenic stressors. In this study, we experimentally invaded a long-term soil warming and simulated nitrogen deposition experiment with the widespread invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and tested the responses of soil fungal communities to invasion, abiotic factors, and their interaction. We focused on the phytotoxic garlic mustard because it suppresses native mycorrhizae across forests of North America. We found that invasion in combination with warming, but not under ambient conditions or elevated nitrogen, significantly reduced soil fungal biomass and ectomycorrhizal relative abundances and increased relative abundances of general soil saprotrophs and fungal genes encoding for hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that warming potentially exacerbates fungal responses to plant invasion. Soils collected from uninvaded and invaded plots across eight forests spanning a 4 °C temperature gradient further demonstrated that the magnitude of fungal responses to invasion was positively correlated with mean annual temperature. Our study is one of the first empirical tests to show that the impacts of invasion on fungal communities depends on additional anthropogenic pressures and were greater in concert with warming than under elevated nitrogen or ambient conditions.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Micorrizas , Nitrogênio/análise , América do Norte , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Zootaxa ; 4773(1): zootaxa.4773.1.1, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055595

RESUMO

Identification keys for females, and for males where known, to the 39 genera and 11 subgenera of Mymaridae in America north of Mexico are given. The genera are illustrated with over 1010 photographs and/or scanning electron micrographs. The 202 currently named and valid species reported from America north of Mexico are catalogued. Reliable host records are reported for 16 genera and almost 90 species from rearings in the region. The five genera represented by more than one subgenus in the region are: Anagrus Haliday, Anaphes Haliday, Erythmelus Enock, Kalopolynema Ogloblin, and Polynema Haliday. Five other genera are represented only by unnamed and possibly undescribed species. About 1000 literature references, mainly the North American ones, are listed. Three new species are described: Callodicopus floridanus Huber, sp. n., Neostethynium americanum Huber, sp. n., and Stephanocampta xanthogaster Huber, sp. n. Cosmocomoidea marilandica (Girault), stat. rev., is placed in synonymy under C. dolichocerus (Ashmead). Platypatasson Ogloblin is given subgeneric status as Platystethynium (Platypatasson Ogloblin), stat. rev. Corrections and additions to the mymarid fauna of Mexico by Guzmán-Larralde et al. (2017) are also given.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México , América do Norte
8.
Zootaxa ; 4804(1): zootaxa.4804.1.1, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055999

RESUMO

The Cambrian (Marjuman-Steptoean; Guzhangian-Paibian) kingstoniid trilobite Blountia Walcott, 1916 is distributed widely in shelf strata of Laurentian North America. Species known from Marjuman formations were lost at the mass extinction at the end of that stage. New species entered the succession during and after the extinction interval, only to disappear within the Aphelaspis Zone of the lower part of the Steptoean Stage. Steptoean species and several uppermost Marjuman (Crepicephalus Zone) species are treated in this monograph. New collections and revision of type and other archival material increase the number of species in Steptoean strata from two to six. Phylogenetic analysis supports monophyly of Blountia and Maryvillia Walcott, 1916; Blountina Lochman, in Lochman Duncan, 1944 is retained as a monotypic taxon. Steptoean species do not form a single subclade within the cladogram, so there is no evidence for a simple monophyletic radiation following the end-Marjuman extinction. New species are Blountia angelae, B. morgancreekensis, B. nevadensis, B. newfoundlandensis, and B. tennesseensis.


Assuntos
Extinção Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Humanos , Invertebrados , América do Norte , Filogenia , Sobreviventes
9.
Zootaxa ; 4779(1): zootaxa.4779.1.2, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055797

RESUMO

The subfamily Nesomesochorinae is recorded for the first time from America north of Mexico. Two new species of Nonnus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Nesomesochorinae) are described, both from Arizona, USA and Mexico. Diagnostic characters and figures are provided to distinguish these two new species from congeners in North and Central America.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , México , América do Norte
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105228, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This report aims to describe changes that centres providing transient ischaemic attack (TIA) pathway services have made to stay operational in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: An international cross-sectional description of the adaptions of TIA pathways between 30th March and 6th May 2020. Experience was reported from 18 centres with rapid TIA pathways in seven countries (Australia, France, UK, Canada, USA, New Zealand, Italy, Canada) from three continents. RESULTS: All pathways remained active (n = 18). Sixteen (89%) had TIA clinics. Six of these clinics (38%) continued to provide in-person assessment while the majority (63%) used telehealth exclusively. Of these, three reported PPE use and three did not. Five centres with clinics (31%) had adopted a different vascular imaging strategy. CONCLUSION: The COVID pandemic has led TIA clinics around the world to adapt and move to the use of telemedicine for outpatient clinic review and modified investigation pathways. Despite the pandemic, all have remained operational.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Procedimentos Clínicos/tendências , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais/tendências , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Telemedicina/tendências , Austrália , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Nova Zelândia , América do Norte , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5184, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056977

RESUMO

The global monsoon is characterised by transitions between pronounced dry and wet seasons, affecting food security for two-thirds of the world's population. Rising atmospheric CO2 influences the terrestrial hydrological cycle through climate-radiative and vegetation-physiological forcings. How these two forcings affect the seasonal intensity and characteristics of monsoonal precipitation and runoff is poorly understood. Here we use four Earth System Models to show that in a CO2-enriched climate, radiative forcing changes drive annual precipitation increases for most monsoon regions. Further, vegetation feedbacks substantially affect annual precipitation in North and South America and Australia monsoon regions. In the dry season, runoff increases over most monsoon regions, due to stomatal closure-driven evapotranspiration reductions and associated atmospheric circulation change. Our results imply that flood risks may amplify in the wet season. However, the lengthening of the monsoon rainfall season and reduced evapotranspiration will shorten the water resources scarcity period for most monsoon regions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Chuva , Recursos Hídricos , Vento , Atmosfera/química , Austrália , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Planeta Terra , Inundações , América do Norte , Estações do Ano , América do Sul , Temperatura , Ciclo Hidrológico
12.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 455-478, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064233

RESUMO

Successful aging is a concept that has gained popularity and relevance internationally among gerontologists in recent decades. Examining lay older adults' perspectives on successful aging can enhance our understanding of what successful aging means. We conducted a systematic review of peer reviewed studies from multiple countries published in 2010-2020 that contained qualitative responses of lay older adults to open-ended questions such as "What does successful aging mean to you?" We identified 23 studies conducted in 13 countries across North America, Western Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Oceania. We identified no studies meeting our criteria in Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, North Asia, or Pacific Islands. Across all regions represented in our review, older adults most commonly referred to themes of social engagement and positive attitude in their own lay definitions of successful aging. Older adults also commonly identified themes of independence and physical health. Least mentioned were themes of cognitive health and spirituality. Lay definitions of successful aging varied by country and culture. Our findings suggest that gerontology professionals in fields including healthcare, health psychology, and public health may best serve older adults by providing services that align with older adults' priority of maintaining strong social engagement as they age. Lay perspectives on successful aging acknowledge the importance of positive attitude, independence, and spirituality, in addition to physical and cognitive functioning.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Envelhecimento Saudável/etnologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia , Cognição , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Geriatria , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , América do Norte , Oceania , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Espiritualidade
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0227161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052936

RESUMO

Dispersal of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), a keystone species of many high-elevation ecosystems in western North America, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana Wilson), a seed-caching bird with an affinity for whitebark seeds. To the extent that this dependence is mutual, declines in whitebark seed production could cause declines in nutcracker abundance. Whitebark pine is in decline across much of its range due to interacting stressors, including the non-native pathogen white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch.). We used avian point-count data and tree surveys from four national park units to investigate whether trends in whitebark pine can explain trends in Clark's nutcracker. Spatial trends were modeled using recent data from two parks, while temporal trends were modeled using longer time-series of nutcracker and whitebark data from two additional parks. To assess the potential dependence of nutcrackers on whitebark, we linked a model of nutcracker density (accounting for detection probability) with a model of whitebark trends, using a Bayesian framework to translate uncertainty in whitebark metrics to uncertainty in nutcracker density. In Mount Rainier National Park, temporal models showed dramatic declines in nutcracker density concurrent with significant increases in whitebark crown mortality and trees infected with white pine blister rust. However, nutcrackers did not trend with whitebark metrics in North Cascades National Park Service Complex. In spatial models of data from Yosemite National Park and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park, nutcracker density varied not only with local cover of whitebark but also with elevation and, in Sequoia-Kings Canyon, with cover of another species of white pine. Our results add support for the hypothesis that the mutualism between whitebark pine and Clark's nutcracker is vulnerable to disruption by blister rust, and our approach integrates data across monitoring programs to explore trends in species interactions.


Assuntos
Passeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , América do Norte , Parques Recreativos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Simbiose
14.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7668-7673, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in development since the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence was published in January 2020. The uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine among children will be instrumental in limiting the spread of the disease as herd immunity may require vaccine coverage of up to 80% of the population. Prior history of pandemic vaccine coverage was as low as 40% among children in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. PURPOSE: To investigate predictors associated with global caregivers' intent to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, when the vaccine becomes available. METHOD: An international cross sectional survey of 1541 caregivers arriving with their children to 16 pediatric Emergency Departments (ED) across six countries from March 26 to May 31, 2020. RESULTS: 65% (n = 1005) of caregivers reported that they intend to vaccinate their child against COVID-19, once a vaccine is available. A univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis found that increased intended uptake was associated with children that were older, children with no chronic illness, when fathers completed the survey, children up-to-date on their vaccination schedule, recent history of vaccination against influenza, and caregivers concerned their child had COVID-19 at the time of survey completion in the ED. The most common reason reported by caregivers intending to vaccinate was to protect their child (62%), and the most common reason reported by caregivers refusing vaccination was the vaccine's novelty (52%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of caregivers intend to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, though uptake will likely be associated with specific factors such as child and caregiver demographics and vaccination history. Public health strategies need to address barriers to uptake by providing evidence about an upcoming COVID-19 vaccine's safety and efficacy, highlighting the risks and consequences of infection in children, and educating caregivers on the role of vaccination.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinas Virais/economia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Cooperação Internacional , Israel/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 6099-6102, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019362

RESUMO

Children with severe neurological disabilities may be unable to communicate or interact with their environments, depriving them of their right to play. Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) offer a means for such children to control external devices using only their brain signals, thereby introducing new opportunities for interaction. We organized the first North American BCI Game Jam to incite the development of BCI-compatible games for children. Nine games were submitted by 30 participants across North America. Games were judged by researchers and disabled children currently using BCI. Preliminary results demonstrate variety in game criteria preferences amongst the children who judged the games. The BCI Game Jam demonstrated promising potential for the creation of enjoyable games to suit the individual needs and preferences of children with severe neurological disabilities.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Encéfalo , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , América do Norte , Interface Usuário-Computador
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social distancing measures (e.g., avoiding travel, limiting physical contact with people outside of one's household, and maintaining a 1 or 2-metre distance between self and others when in public, depending on the country) are the primary strategies used to prevent transmission of the SARS-Cov-2 virus that causes COVID-19. Given that there is no effective treatment or vaccine for COVID-19, it is important to identify barriers and facilitators to adherence to social distancing to inform ongoing and future public health campaigns. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted online with a convenience sample of English-speaking adults. The survey was administered over the course of three weeks (March 30 -April 16, 2020) when social distancing measures were well-enforced in North America and Europe. Participants were asked to complete measures assessing socio-demographic characteristics, psychological constructs, including motivations to engage in social distancing, prosocial attitudes, distress, and social distancing behaviors. Descriptive (mean, standard deviation, percentage) and inferential statistics (logistic regression) were used to describes endorsement rates for various motivations, rates of adherence to social distancing recommendations, and predictors of adherence. RESULTS: Data were collected from 2013 adults living primarily in North America and Europe. Most frequently endorsed motivations to engage in social distancing (or facilitators) included "I want to protect others" (86%), "I want to protect myself" (84%), and I feel a sense of responsibility to protect our community" (84%). Most frequently endorsed motivations against social distancing (or barriers) included "There are many people walking on the streets in my area" (31%), "I have friends or family who need me to run errands for them" (25%), "I don't trust the messages my government provides about the pandemic" (13%), and "I feel stressed when I am alone or in isolation" (13%). Adherence to social distancing recommendations ranged from 45% for "working from home or remotely" to 90% for "avoiding crowded places/non-essential travel", with men and younger individuals (18-24 years) showing lower adherence compared to women and older individuals. CONCLUSION: This study found that adherence to social distancing recommendations vary depending on the behaviour, with none of the surveyed behaviours showing perfect adherence. Strongest facilitators included wanting to protect the self, feeling a responsibility to protect the community, and being able to work/study remotely; strongest barriers included having friends or family who needed help with running errands and socializing in order to avoid feeling lonely. Future interventions to improve adherence to social distancing measures should couple individual-level strategies targeting key barriers to social distancing identified herein, with effective institutional measures and public health interventions. Public health campaigns should continue to highlight compassionate attitudes towards social distancing.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/métodos , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 661-671, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032697

RESUMO

Poisonous plant intoxication is one of the first considerations for various livestock diseases and unexplained animal deaths. Although toxic plants commonly poison livestock, obtaining a definitive diagnosis is difficult and challenging. This article provides a framework to help livestock producers, veterinarians, and diagnosticians reach the most accurate and definitive diagnosis. For this discussion poisoning caused by plants containing dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids is used to provide examples and suggestions for investigating and sampling. It is also used to show how to recruit expert collaborators, diagnostic resources, and information sources to amass required expertise, information, and laboratory results to produce the best diagnosis.


Assuntos
Gado , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Animais , América do Norte , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico
18.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 701-713, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032700

RESUMO

Whether exposed by grazing toxic range or pasture plants or by eating contaminated feed, there are plant toxins that produce urinary tract disease, gastroenteritis, and other miscellaneous or multisystemic diseases. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires incorporation of field studies, clinical signs, gross and microscopic pathology, and chemical identification of plants, toxins, and metabolites in animal samples. The objectives of this review are to introduce poisonous plants that commonly poison livestock in North America; describe clinical and pathologic lesions they produce in livestock; and present current technology available to identify poisoning, treat affected animals, and minimize or avoid poisoning additional animals.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Gado , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Doenças Urológicas/veterinária , Animais , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , América do Norte , Oxalatos/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Doenças Urológicas/etiologia
19.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 715-723, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032701

RESUMO

The liver is one of the most commonly affected organs by ingested toxicants. This article familiarizes veterinarians with clinical signs, serum biochemistry changes, necropsy findings, and field information found in livestock poisonings with hepatotoxic plants. The focus is on the most common plant-derived hepatotoxins important to livestock in North America. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are covered in greater detail than the other toxins, because they are likely the most important plant-derived toxins worldwide in livestock, wildlife, and even human exposure. Additionally, many of the principles discussed regarding clinical diagnosis of pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication can be applied to the other poisonous plants listed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Plantas Tóxicas/envenenamento , Animais , Bovinos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Gado , América do Norte , Intoxicação por Plantas/etiologia , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/envenenamento
20.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 745-774, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032704

RESUMO

This review focuses on factors associated with mold production in feedstuffs and major mycotoxins affecting ruminants in North America. Ruminants are often considered less sensitive to mycotoxins owing to rumen microflora metabolism to less toxic compounds. However, ruminants occupy wide agricultural niches that expose animals to diverse toxins under widely different environmental and nutritional conditions. Often the moldy and potentially highly contaminated feeds end up at feedlots. Less than optimal feedstuffs creating suboptimal rumen microbial flora could result in decreased ruminal capacity to detoxify certain mycotoxins and adverse effects. Numerous mycotoxins and clinical effects in ruminants are discussed.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Micotoxicose/veterinária , Micotoxinas/envenenamento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ruminantes , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Micotoxicose/metabolismo , América do Norte
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA