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1.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 191-200, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768739

RESUMO

In South America the biogeographic history has produced different biomes with different vegetation types and distinct floras. As these vegetation types may diverge in evolutionary histories, we analysed how alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity vary across them and determine the main drivers of variation in phylogenetic diversity. To this end, we compiled a list of 205 sites and 1222 tree species spread over four biomes and eight vegetation types in central South America. For each site we evaluated six measures of evolutionary alpha diversity (species richness, phylogenetic diversity sensu stricto and the standardized effect size of phylogenetic diversity, mean phylogenetic distance and mean nearest taxon distance) and beta diversity (phylogenetic Sorensen's similarity). We checked the influence of spatial and environmental variables using generalized least squares models. The greatest phylogenetic differentiation was found between west and east of central South America, mainly between the Chaco communities and the other vegetation types, suggesting that species found in this biome come from different lineages, comparing with the others vegetation types. Our results also showed a clustered phylogenetic structure for the Dry Chaco woodlands, which may be associated with harsh environmental conditions. In addition to historical process, climatic conditions are the main drivers shaping phylogenetic patterns among the distinct vegetation types. Understanding patterns of phylogenetic diversity and distribution can greatly improve conservation planning and management since it allows the conservation of unique biome characteristics.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Filogenia , América do Sul
2.
Lancet ; 395(10217): 53-64, 2020 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ixekizumab, a high-affinity interleukin-17A (IL-17A) monoclonal antibody, has previously shown efficacy in radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (also known as ankylosing spondylitis). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ixekizumab, an IL-17 inhibitor, in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis. Here, we report the primary results of COAST-X. METHODS: COAST-X was a 52-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study done at 107 sites in 15 countries in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America. Eligible participants were adults (aged ≥18 years) with active axial spondyloarthritis without definite radiographic sacroiliitis (non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis), objective signs of inflammation (via MRI or C-reactive protein), and an inadequate response or intolerance to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive subcutaneous 80 mg ixekizumab every 4 weeks (Q4W) or every 2 weeks (Q2W), or placebo. Changing background medications or switching to open-label ixekizumab Q2W, or both, was allowed after week 16 at investigator discretion. Primary endpoints were Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society-40 (ASAS40) response (defined as an improvement of 40% or more and an absolute improvement from baseline of 2 units or more [range 0-10] in at least three of the four domains [patient global, spinal pain, function, and inflammation] without any worsening in the remaining one domain) at weeks 16 and 52. Patients who switched to open-label ixekizumab were imputed as non-responders in logistic regression analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02757352. FINDINGS: Between Aug 2, 2016, and Jan 29, 2018, 303 patients were enrolled (105 to placebo, 96 to ixekizumab Q4W, and 102 to ixekizumab Q2W). Both primary endpoints were met: ASAS40 at week 16 (ixekizumab Q4W: 34 [35%] of 96, p=0·0094 vs placebo; ixekizumab Q2W: 41 [40%] of 102, p=0·0016; placebo: 20 [19%] of 105) and ASAS40 at week 52 (ixekizumab Q4W: 29 [30%] of 96, p=0·0045; ixekizumab Q2W: 32 [31%] of 102, p=0·0037; placebo: 14 [13%] of 105). 60 (57%) of 104 patients in the placebo group, 63 (66%) of 96 in the ixekizumab Q4W group, and 79 (77%) of 102 in the ixekizumab Q2W group had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events in the ixekizumab groups were nasopharyngitis and injection site reaction. Of the treatment-emergent adverse events of special interest, there was one case of serious infection in the ixekizumab Q4W group. The frequency of serious adverse events was low (four [1%] of 302) and similar across the three groups. There were no malignancies or deaths. No new safety signals were identified. INTERPRETATION: Ixekizumab was superior to placebo for improving signs and symptoms in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis at weeks 16 and 52. Reports of adverse events were similar to those of previous ixekizumab studies. Ixekizumab offers a potential therapeutic option for patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who had an inadequate response or were intolerant to NSAID therapy. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Ásia , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , América do Sul , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 60-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647693

RESUMO

Rapid detection is key to managing emerging diseases because it allows their spread around the world to be monitored and limited. The first major wheat blast epidemics were reported in 1985 in the Brazilian state of Paraná. Following this outbreak, the disease quickly spread to neighboring regions and countries and, in 2016, the first report of wheat blast disease outside South America was released. This Asian outbreak was due to the trade of infected South American seed, demonstrating the importance of detection tests in order to avoid importing contaminated biological material into regions free from the pathogen. Genomic analysis has revealed that one particular lineage within the fungal species Pyricularia oryzae is associated with this disease: the Triticum lineage. A comparison of 81 Pyricularia genomes highlighted polymorphisms specific to the Triticum lineage, and this study developed a real-time PCR test targeting one of these polymorphisms. The test's performance was then evaluated in order to measure its analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and robustness. The C17 quantitative PCR test detected isolates belonging to the Triticum lineage with high sensitivity, down to 13 plasmid copies or 1 pg of genomic DNA per reaction tube. The blast-based approach developed here to study P. oryzae can be transposed to other emerging diseases.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Genoma Fúngico , Magnaporthe , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Triticum , Agricultura/métodos , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Genômica , Magnaporthe/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , América do Sul , Triticum/microbiologia
4.
Lancet ; 395(10218): 132-141, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard-of-care treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma includes combination therapies for patients who are not eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. At the primary analysis for progression-free survival of the phase 3 ALCYONE trial, progression-free survival was significantly longer with daratumumab in combination with bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (D-VMP) versus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) alone in patients with transplant-ineligible, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Here we report updated efficacy and safety results from a prespecified, interim, overall survival analysis of ALCYONE with more than 36 months of follow-up. METHODS: ALCYONE was a multicentre, randomised, open-label, active-controlled, phase 3 trial that enrolled patients between Feb 9, 2015, and July 14, 2016, at 162 sites in 25 countries across North America, South America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and were ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation, because of their age (≥65 years) or because of substantial comorbidities. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio and by permuted block randomisation to receive D-VMP or VMP. An interactive web-based randomisation system was used. Randomisation was stratified by International Staging System disease stage, geographical region, and age. There was no masking to treatment assignments. All patients received up to nine 6-week cycles of subcutaneous bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 of body surface area on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 22, 25, 29, and 32 of cycle one and on days 1, 8, 22, and 29 of cycles two through nine), oral melphalan (9 mg/m2 once daily on days 1 through 4 of each cycle), and oral prednisone (60 mg/m2 once daily on days 1 through 4 of each cycle). Patients in the D-VMP group also received intravenous daratumumab (16 mg/kg of bodyweight, once weekly during cycle one, once every 3 weeks in cycles two through nine, and once every 4 weeks thereafter as maintenance therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which has been reported previously. Results presented are from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival. The primary analysis population (including for overall survival) was the intention-to-treat population of all patients who were randomly assigned to treatment. The safety population included patients who received any dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02195479. FINDINGS: 706 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (350 to the D-VMP group, 356 to the VMP group). At a median follow-up of 40·1 months (IQR 37·4-43·1), a significant benefit in overall survival was observed for the D-VMP group. The hazard ratio (HR) for death in the D-VMP group compared with the VMP group was 0·60 (95% CI 0·46-0·80; p=0·0003). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 36-month rate of overall survival was 78·0% (95% CI 73·2-82·0) in the D-VMP group and 67·9% (62·6-72·6) in the VMP group. Progression-free survival, the primary endpoint, remained significantly improved for the D-VMP group (HR 0·42 [0·34-0·51]; p<0·0001). The most frequent adverse events during maintenance daratumumab monotherapy in patients in the D-VMP group were respiratory infections (54 [19%] of 278 patients had upper respiratory tract infections; 42 [15%] had bronchitis, 34 [12%] had viral upper respiratory tract infections), cough (34 [12%]), and diarrhoea (28 [10%]). INTERPRETATION: D-VMP prolonged overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for stem-cell transplantation. With more than 3 years of follow-up, the D-VMP group continued to show significant improvement in progression-free survival, with no new safety concerns. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Ásia , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , América do Norte , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , América do Sul , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109815, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677565

RESUMO

The 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is an environmental persistent pollutant widely used as flame retardant, antimicrobial and insecticide agent in wood preservation and plastic production. Currently, TBP is found in environmental compartments such as soil, freshwater, groundwater, sewage sludge and domestic dust, but the effects to biota and the risk of exposure to aquatic vertebrates are still scarce. In the present study, Rhamdia quelen fish embryos (8 h post-fertilization - hpf) were exposed to 0.3 and 3.0 µg L-1 of TBP until 96 hpf. Biochemical biomarkers, hatching, survival and larvae/embryo malformations were evaluated after exposure. Additionally, a mathematical model was proposed to evaluate the effects along further generations. The results showed that TBP decreased the survival level but did not cause significant difference in the hatching rates. After 72 and 96 hpf, individuals from the highest tested concentration group showed more severe malformations than individuals from control and the lower concentrations groups. The deformities were concentrated on the embryos facial region where the sensorial structures related to fish behavior are present. The biochemical biomarkers revealed both oxidative stress and neurotoxicity signs after exposure to the contaminant, while the application of the mathematical model showed a decrease of population in both tested TBP concentrations. In conclusion, the current results demonstrated that TBP is toxic to R. quelen embryos and represents a risk to population after early life stage exposure.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes-Gato/anormalidades , Embrião não Mamífero/anormalidades , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , América do Sul , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105225, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654646

RESUMO

The Triatoma genus is paraphyletic, and its species are grouped into complexes and subcomplexes. Given the fact that species that make up a given subcomplex generally share chromosomal traits, we analyzed the distribution of AT- and CG-rich DNA of the T. brasiliensis species subcomplex, in order to establish affinities among members of the T. brasiliensis subcomplex based on chromatin and chromosome traits and develop an identification key for the four monophyletic Triatoma subcomplexes from South America. All species exhibited a CG-rich X sex chromosome and autosomes, as well as an AT-rich Y sex chromosome. This feature can be used as a diagnostic characteristic to determine whether a given species is a member of the T. brasiliensis subcomplex, because it enables the differentiation of these species from all Triatoma of South America. Thus, we confirmed the chromosomal relationship of the T. brasiliensis species subcomplex and developed a dichotomous key based on the chromocenter to differentiate the species from this subcomplex from the other monophyletic Triatoma subcomplexes from South America.


Assuntos
Classificação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/genética , Triatoma/classificação , Triatoma/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Masculino , América do Sul
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 465-482, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452209

RESUMO

In contrast with the general trend of producing wine from the most famous grapevine varieties, associated with the French paradigm, such as Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Sauvignon Blanc, and Chardonnay, there is a tendency to revalorize and preserve minority or autochthonous grapevine varieties worldwide. The South American wine region, where most of the varieties derived from varieties brought after European colonization, is not exempt from this. This has allowed new wines to be provided with distinctive identities that are markedly different from the current homogeneous wine production. Moreover, varietal homogenization increases vineyard genetic vulnerability in relation to the emergence of grapevine diseases, to which the commonly cultivated varieties are not resistant. This review summarizes the oenological potential of minority or autochthonous grapevine varieties cultivated within the South American wine region, focusing on Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , América do Sul , Vitis/classificação , Vitis/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vinho/classificação
8.
Food Chem ; 302: 125340, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419775

RESUMO

In this study, 83 wines representating four commercial categories: "Argentinean Malbec", "Brazilian Merlot", "Uruguayan Tannat" and "Chilean Carménère" were analyzed according to their phenolic and volatile compounds. The objective was to identify the chemical compounds that would typify each category. From approximately about 600 peaks obtained by chromatographic techniques, 169 were identified and 53 of them were selected for multivariate statistical analysis. Chilean Carménère was the best discriminated group by the methods applied in our study, followed by Argentinean Malbec. Brazilian Merlot mixed mainly with some Carménère, whileTannat mixed with all wines categories, especially Malbec. In general, Chilean Carménère wines can be characterized by a bluish color, higher amounts of sulphur dioxide, higher content of octanoic acid, isobutanol, ethyl isoamyl succinate and catechin and a smaller amount of quercetin. These data can contribute for further process of authenticity or typification of South American red wines.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Butanóis/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Catequina/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Quercetina/análise , América do Sul , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Vinho/classificação
9.
Ambio ; 49(1): 156-164, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771206

RESUMO

The political economy of dam development in South America is changing as a result of a resurgence in water infrastructure investments. The arrival of Chinese-funded projects in the region has altered a context traditionally dominated by multilateral development banks. Tensions are escalating around new dam projects and the environmental impact assessment process is increasingly the site of politicization around water in the region. In this perspective, we examine the most recent surge in dam development in South America, the resulting environmental and social impacts, and the mobilization of civil society and environmental groups that have developed in response to these projects. In the absence of regionally shared standards for environmental assessment and regional mechanisms to mitigate the emerging conflicts-primarily occurring between companies, states, and civil society-we argue there is a risk of a race to the bottom to finance infrastructure projects with laxer environmental and social standards.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Água , Mudança Social , América do Sul , Água
10.
J Dairy Res ; 86(4): 477-482, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823833

RESUMO

The work described in this Research Communication concerns the production of Dulce de leche (DL), that is a traditional product from South America obtained by concentration. Maillard reaction (MR) products are mainly responsible for the formation of color and flavor in this product. Lactose-hydrolyzed products have been developed to supply consumer demand, but this hydrolysis may affect the flavor, color, taste, texture and even some nutritional aspects of the product. We studied the influence of different levels of lactose-hydrolysis, sucrose addition and initial pH on the development of MR, appraised by the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A process simulator with multi-monitoring system was used to produce 15 DL. Box-Behnken 33 experimental design was applied for the three factors: pH, lactose-hydrolysis level and sucrose concentration. Lipids, protein, ashes, carbohydrates, water activity, dissolved solids, colorimetric analysis and HMF (free and total) are among the physicochemical attributes and MR indicators analyzed in this work. The products showed significant differences in composition but all the values were in agreement with the literature. Moreover, higher levels of lactose hydrolysis and higher pH presented a direct relation with the development of MR, observed by an increase in coloration (lower luminosity) and more formation of HMF, both free and total. The present study expands the knowledge about DL spread made of lactose-hydrolyzed milk, allowing the food industries to produce a lactose free DL with nutritional and sensory characteristics closer to the traditional product.


Assuntos
Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Lactose/química , Leite/química , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Furaldeído/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Reação de Maillard , América do Sul , Sacarose/análise , Sacarose/química , Paladar
11.
J Helminthol ; 94: e102, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679532

RESUMO

The production of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum has been undergoing financial losses due to parasitic infection by the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae, raising an alert for aquaculture in South America. The lack of adequate treatment and use of unlicensed chemicals encourages research for alternative solutions with minimal side effects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro antiparasitic potential of commercial nutraceutical products (Natumix® and BioFish®) against N. buttnerae and to assess the respective in vivo toxic effects on the host tambaqui. For in vitro assays, parasitized fish were necropsied for acanthocephalans sampling. The parasites were exposed to three concentrations (0.078, 0.313 and 1.25 mg/ml) of each product, as well as controls (one without product and another with a solubilizer). For the in vivo acute toxicity test, juvenile fish (<0.1 g) were exposed to five increasing concentrations of each product. Mortality of tambaqui was recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The estimated lethal concentration (LC) for 10, 50, 90 and 99% of fish was determined to classify the toxicity of the products on the target species. After in vitro efficacy tests, the highest concentrations (1.25 mg/ml) caused 100% mortality of the parasites in both products, but only Natumix® caused 100% mortality using the intermediate concentration (0.313 mg/ml) after 24 h. According to the acute toxicity result, the LC50 classified the nutraceutical products as slightly toxic for tambaqui. The tested products had a parasiticidal effect on N. buttnerae, and the toxicity test showed that both products have therapeutic potential when added to the diet.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Aquicultura , Caraciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Dose Letal Mediana , América do Sul
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1419, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood stunting is the most common manifestation of chronic malnutrition. A growing body of literature indicates that stunting can have negative repercussions on physical and cognitive development. There are increasing concerns that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are particularly susceptible to adverse consequences of stunting on economic development. The aim of this review is to synthesize current evidence on interventions and policies that have had success in reducing stunting and explore the impact of successes on economic indicators. METHODS: This review adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Articles were searched through MEDLINE via PubMed and Ovid, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and ProQuest. Only articles that addressed the effects of nutrition and cash-based interventions and/or policies on stunting and reported effects on childhood mortality and/or human capital indicators were included. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and assessed quality. RESULTS: Seventeen studies from Africa (47%), South America (41%), and South Asia (12%) met the eligibility criteria: 8 cohort studies, 4 case studies, 4 Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) and 1 quasi-trial. Three types of interventions/policies were evaluated: multisectoral policies, nutritional supplementations and cash-based interventions (CCT). Overall, 76% of the included studies were successful in reducing stunting and 65% of interventions/policies reported successes on stunting reductions and economic successes. Five of the 11 successful studies reported on nutritional supplementation, 4 reported on multisectoral policies, and 2 reported on CCT interventions. Average Annual Rate of Reduction (AARR) was calculated to assess the impact of multisectoral policies on childhood mortality. AARR for under 5 mortality ranged from 5.2 to 6.2% and all countries aligned with the global target of 4.4% AARR. Quality assessment yielded positive results, with the biggest concerns being attrition bias for cohort studies, blinding for trials and generalizability of results for case studies. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that investment in fighting chronic malnutrition through multisectoral policies, multi-year nutritional supplementation (protein or multiple micronutrient supplementation) and possibly CCTs can have a long-term impact on economic development of LMICs. More evidence is needed to inform practices in non-represented regions while prioritizing standardization of economic indicators in the literature.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Políticas , África , Ásia , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos do Crescimento/economia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/economia , Pobreza , América do Sul
13.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(12): 2931-2941, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696195

RESUMO

Recent studies show that the ozone layer will recover by the middle part of this century. This is a significant result arising from the Montreal Protocol, and highlights the success of this environmental protection agreement. Climate change projections show that Total Ozone Content (TOC) levels will increase significantly by the end of this century, mainly at higher latitudes. This increase may result in a reduction of the adverse effects of UV radiation overexposure. By contrast, reduced UV radiation levels at the surface of the Earth can result in reduced levels of vitamin D synthesis among the inhabitants of these regions. In this study we provide estimates for the UVI, erythemal, and vitamin-D weighted daily doses for ten different locations in South America and Antarctica. Our calculations were based on ozone projections provided by climate models set forth in the last IPCC report. Results show that the increase of TOC levels in middle and high latitude regions may result in decreased UVI and UV doses throughout the century. In high latitudes, erythemal doses and vitamin D synthesis doses may be reduced by up to 22 and 39%, respectively, if anthropogenic emissions continue to rise throughout the century. Furthermore, there may be reductions of up to 9 and 12%, respectively, in mid-latitudes (20°S to 35°S). Significant variations at Equatorial sites were not observed. In most of South America, the attenuation in UVR caused by increases in TOC during the 21st century is neither enough to promote protective effects from this radiation, nor for the lack of UVR for vitamin D synthesis. The incidence of UVR in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the continent will continue to be a public health risk for the entire 21st century during all seasons, regardless of the climatic scenarios. Our results can be used as an important tool for health studies focusing on the excess and/or lack of sun exposure.


Assuntos
Eritema/etiologia , Ozônio/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/biossíntese , Regiões Antárticas , Humanos , Estações do Ano , América do Sul , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
14.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.4, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717066

RESUMO

Among the currently recognized 71 extant genera of Glandulariini, Afroeudesis Franz shows an unusual distribution, with strikingly similar species known from South America, west and east Africa, and the sub-Himalayan region of Asia. Morphological studies revealed that several species placed in other genera share with Afroeudesis several unique characters, among others a symmetrical pattern of numerous setae on the frons and vertex, not known in any other Glandulariini. This 'Afroeudesis group' is here recognized to be composed of the Neotropical genera Meridaphes Jaloszynski, Stenichnoconnus Franz and Pseudoraphes Franz, the broadly distributed Afroeudesis, and the Neotropical Bicarinulodes gen. n. The last is proposed for a species previously misplaced in Microscydmus Saulcy Croissandeau, resulting in Bicarinulodes meridensis (Franz) comb. n. Bicarinulodes is most similar to Afroeudesis, but (among other differences) it lacks the apomorphy that is unique for the latter genus, the raised subtriangular 'platform' on the frons and vertex. Stenichnoconnus minor (Franz), comb. n is proposed for Euconnus minor (Franz), originally published as Venezolanoconnus minor Franz. Stenichnoconnus and Pseudoraphes are redefined and redescribed.


Assuntos
Besouros , África Oriental , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ásia , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão , América do Sul
15.
Zootaxa ; 4608(1): zootaxa.4608.1.11, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717168

RESUMO

The Neotropical genus Allobates Zimmerman Zimmerman (1988) is a large monophyletic clade composed of 54 described species distributed between Central America and South America (Frost, 2019; Grant et al., 2017). Twelve species have been recorded in Colombia, mostly distributed in the eastern flank of the Eastern Cordillera and Amazonian Region, although some species reach the Magdalena Valley and the Central and Western Cordillera (Acosta-Galvis, 2017).


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , América Central , Colômbia , América do Sul
16.
Zootaxa ; 4695(6): zootaxa.4695.6.10, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719331

RESUMO

The diagnosis of Ozineus Bates, 1863 is emended and a key is provided for the species of the genus in South America. A new synonymy is proposed for Sternacutus Gilmour, 1961 (junior synonym of Ozineus Bates, 1863), which includes a new combination for Sternacutus zikani (Melzer, 1935). Tropidozineus albidus Monné, 2009 is transferred to Ozineus.


Assuntos
Besouros , Aranhas , Animais , América do Sul
17.
Zootaxa ; 4691(1): zootaxa.4691.1.1, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719411

RESUMO

We describe seven new Neotropical species of Tischeriidae: Astrotischeria dondavisi Stonis Diskus, sp. nov., A. bacchariphaga Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., A. guatemalica Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., A. sanjosei Stonis Diskus, sp. nov., A. truncata Diskus Stonis, sp. nov., Coptotriche parvisacculata Diskus Stonis, sp. nov. and C. carmencita Stonis Diskus, sp. nov. We report the discovery of Coptotriche Walsingham in South America and provide the following new host-plant records for the Neotropical Tischeriidae: Terminalia australis Cambess. (Combretaceae), Baccharis latifolia (Ruiz Pav.) Pers., and B. emarginata (Ruiz Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). We update the biology of Astrotischeria ochrimaculosa Diskus, Stonis Vargas with the discovery that Wissadula (Malvaceae) is a new, verified host plant. The new species are illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and, if available, female genitalia, and the leaf mines. We expect broader distributions of tisheriid species in South America inferred from known host-plant distributions.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Lepidópteros , Malvaceae , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Folhas de Planta , América do Sul
18.
Zootaxa ; 4688(1): zootaxa.4688.1.7, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719462

RESUMO

The genus Euschistus Dallas includes 67 species restricted to the New World, and several species are registered on cultivated plants in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. In South America, most Euschistus species are completely overlooked due to the lack of information to allow accurate identification. Here, we redescribed Euschistus taurulus Berg, including for the first time, characterization of the internal and external genitalia of both sexes. We also report original information on bionomics, review and update information on geographical distribution and host plants records. Additionally, we provide DNA barcoding sequences for E. taurulus and three other morphologically similar key-agriculture pest species in South America: Euschistus heros (Fabricius), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), and Dichelops furcatus (Fabricius). We discuss means for correct identification of E. taurulus and its phylogenetic position within Euschistus and other similar stink bugs; the potential economic importance of the E. taurulus is also addressed.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Agricultura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , América do Sul
19.
Zootaxa ; 4688(1): zootaxa.4688.1.10, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719465

RESUMO

Conocephalus doryphorus (Karny, 1907), a member of the lesser meadow katydids, with around 150 recognized species in this genus with worldwide distribution, and around 25 of them living in South America, has been described from a unique immature female from an unknown locality in Uruguay.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Pradaria , América do Sul , Uruguai
20.
Zootaxa ; 4641(1): zootaxa.4641.1.1, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712453

RESUMO

The goblin spider genus Cinetomorpha Simon is removed from the synonymy of Gamasomorpha Karsch and treated as the senior synonym of Yumates Chamberlin and Lucetia Dumitresco Georgesco. All 41 species occur only in the New World, and the genus is divided into four species groups: the simplex group, the puberula group, the patquiana group and the itabaiana group. The following species are transferred to Cinetomorpha: C. floridana (Banks), comb. nov., and C. sedata (Gertsch Mulaik), comb. nov., from Opopaea; C. angela (Chamberlin), comb. nov., and C. nesophila (Chamberlin), comb. nov., from Yumates; and C. patquiana (Birabén) and C. platensis (Birabén), comb. nov., from Gamasomorpha. Gamasomorpha wasmanniae Mello-Leitão and Lucetia distincta Dumitresco Georgesco are newly synonymized with C. simplex Simon. Two species currently in Gamasomorpha are transferred to Hexapopha Platnick Berniker: H. brasiliana (Bristowe), comb. nov. and H. m-scripta (Birabén), comb. nov. The following 31 species are newly described: C. adaga Ott Bonaldo (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru); C. atlantica Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. baja Ott Ubick (Mexico); C. bandolera Ott Harvey (Mexico USA); C. boraceia Ott Brescovit (Argentina and Brazil); C. campana Ott Harvey (Chile); C. central Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. chicote Ott Bonaldo (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru); C. concepcion Ott Harvey (Chile); C. iguazu Ott Brescovit (Argentina and Brazil); C. itabaiana Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. laguna Ott Ubick (Mexico); C. lavras Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. longisetosa Ott Harvey (Costa Rica and Brazil); C. lorenzo Ott Harvey (Guatemala); C. loreto Ott Bonaldo (Peru); C. nayarit Ott Harvey (Mexico); C. orellana Ott Bonaldo (Ecuador); C. pauferro Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. peluda Ott Harvey (Chile); C. pinheiral Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. pocone Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. punctata Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. quillota Ott Harvey (Chile); C. rinconada Ott Harvey (Chile); C. santamaria Ott Brescovit (Argentina); C. similis Ott Brescovit (Brazil); C. sternalis Ott Bonaldo (Brazil); C. sur Ott Ubick (Mexico); C. waorani Ott Bonaldo (Ecuador); and C. zero Ott Harvey (Mexico to Venezuela).


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , América do Sul
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