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1.
Chaos ; 30(4): 041102, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357675

RESUMO

In this work, we analyze the growth of the cumulative number of confirmed infected cases by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) until March 27, 2020, from countries of Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Our results show that (i) power-law growth is observed in all countries; (ii) by using the distance correlation, the power-law curves between countries are statistically highly correlated, suggesting the universality of such curves around the world; and (iii) soft quarantine strategies are inefficient to flatten the growth curves. Furthermore, we present a model and strategies that allow the government to reach the flattening of the power-law curves. We found that besides the social distancing of individuals, of well known relevance, the strategy of identifying and isolating infected individuals in a large daily rate can help to flatten the power-laws. These are the essential strategies followed in the Republic of Korea. The high correlation between the power-law curves of different countries strongly indicates that the government containment measures can be applied with success around the whole world. These measures are scathing and to be applied as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena/métodos , Ásia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Geografia Médica , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , América do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e41, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100667

RESUMO

Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV [SARS-COV-2]) was detected in humans during the last week of December 2019 at Wuhan city in China, and caused 24 554 cases in 27 countries and territories as of 5 February 2020. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of transmission of 2019-nCoV through human passenger air flight from four major cities of China (Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) to the passengers' destination countries. We extracted the weekly simulated passengers' end destination data for the period of 1-31 January 2020 from FLIRT, an online air travel dataset that uses information from 800 airlines to show the direct flight and passengers' end destination. We estimated a risk index of 2019-nCoV transmission based on the number of travellers to destination countries, weighted by the number of confirmed cases of the departed city reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). We ranked each country based on the risk index in four quantiles (4th quantile being the highest risk and 1st quantile being the lowest risk). During the period, 388 287 passengers were destined for 1297 airports in 168 countries or territories across the world. The risk index of 2019-nCoV among the countries had a very high correlation with the WHO-reported confirmed cases (0.97). According to our risk score classification, of the countries that reported at least one Coronavirus-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) case as of 5 February 2020, 24 countries were in the 4th quantile of the risk index, two in the 3rd quantile, one in the 2nd quantile and none in the 1st quantile. Outside China, countries with a higher risk of 2019-nCoV transmission are Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Canada and the USA, all of which reported at least one case. In pan-Europe, UK, France, Russia, Germany and Italy; in North America, USA and Canada; in Oceania, Australia had high risk, all of them reported at least one case. In Africa and South America, the risk of transmission is very low with Ethiopia, South Africa, Egypt, Mauritius and Brazil showing a similar risk of transmission compared to the risk of any of the countries where at least one case is detected. The risk of transmission on 31 January 2020 was very high in neighbouring Asian countries, followed by Europe (UK, France, Russia and Germany), Oceania (Australia) and North America (USA and Canada). Increased public health response including early case recognition, isolation of identified case, contract tracing and targeted airport screening, public awareness and vigilance of health workers will help mitigate the force of further spread to naïve countries.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Medição de Risco , África/epidemiologia , Aeroportos , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Medicina de Viagem
5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226622, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841570

RESUMO

Prior studies have suggest that religiosity mitigates symptoms of depression. However, population-based data in South America are limited. This study determines the prevalence of religiosity and explores its association with depression in four cities of the Southern cone of Latin-America. In the CESCAS I study 7524 participants aged between 35 and 74 years old were recruited between 2011 and 2012 from randomly selected samples in 4 cities (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay). Religiosity was assessed with a questionnaire from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Two dimensions were used: 1) recognition as belonging to a religion; and 2) frequency of participation in religious activities. Depression was measured using the PHQ-9. Prevalence of religiosity was described by sociodemographic characteristics. Association between religiosity and depression was examined through logistic regression models controlling for sex, age and other potential confounders. Weekly religious activities were reported by 32.3% (95% CI: 30.1, 33.6) of participants. Prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) was 14.6% (95% CI: 13.6, 15.6). After controlling for confounders, older women (≥65 years) who reported religious affiliation had 70% lower likelihood of having MDE (OR: 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8). Moreover, in this group, women participating in religious activities more than once per week compared with "never" had 50% lower likelihood of having a MDE (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.9). No association between religious activities and depression was found in men. Religiosity is highly prevalent among adults in four cities of South America. Our study found an inverse association between religiosity and depression only in women, stronger in olders. Although longitudinal studies are necessary to determine the true nature of these relationships, religiosity may be a relevant factor that health care providers could take into account when exploring depression in their patients.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Religião , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uruguai/epidemiologia
6.
Acta trop ; 198: [105093], Oct. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1024019

RESUMO

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a pathogen endemic to South America and some Caribbean islands, with reports of occasional outbreaks. However, its current distribution and high-risk areas are little known. We conducted a modelling study to determine the areas with highest prevalence of MAYV occurrence in South America, based on confirmed cases and serological detection over the last 20 years and socio-environmental variables. We performed our analysis using Maxent software, a machine learning algorithm used for species distribution modeling. Our results showed that the occurrence of MAYV is mainly associated with the biome type, population density, annual rainfall, annual vapor rate, and elevation. Among biome types, the one most related to the occurrence of MAYV is Cerrado, probably related to the lifecycle of the Haemagogus vector and human population concentrations. According to our modelling, there is high yet undetectable MAYV concentration in the central region of Brazil and west-coastal region of the continent. A change in virus dispersion patterns was observed. The virus was previously predominantly in forests but now occupied rural areas and was becoming increasingly urbanized, which is increases the risk of outbreaks. Our results will serve to identify priority areas in the development of preventive actions and structuring of epidemiological surveillance


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e090, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531553

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on gingival inflammation in a representative sample of 1,650 adults from Santiago (Chile), Porto Alegre (Brazil), and Tucumán (Argentina). A questionnaire was administered to participants to gather demographic and behavioral characteristics, including smoking habits. The participants were clinically examined to obtain gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI), and calculus presence values. Gingival inflammation was defined as a mean GI > 0.5. Heavy smokers presented significantly lower levels of gingival inflammation, as reflected by both GI and GBI, than both light and moderate smokers, despite their having increased amounts of plaque and calculus. Being 50 years old or older [odds ratio (OR), 1.93], a VPI ≥ 30% (OR, 28.1), and self-reported diabetes (OR, 2.79) were positively associated with detection of gingival inflammation. In conclusion, the occurrence of clinically detectable gingival inflammation was lower in heavy smokers than light and moderate smokers. Older age, diabetes, and visible plaque emerged as risk indicators of gingivitis. Plaque and gingival indices are significantly associated regardless of the smoking status.


Assuntos
Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gengival/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int. microbiol ; 22(3): 337-342, sept. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184840

RESUMO

Malaria is one of the most important human diseases throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Global distribution and ample host range have contributed to the genetic diversity of the etiological agent, Plasmodium. Phylogeographical analyses demonstrated that Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax follow an Out of Africa (OOA) expansion, having a higher genetic diversity in African populations and a low genetic diversity in South American populations. Modeling the evolutionary rate of conserved genes for both P. falciparum and P. vivax determined the approximate arrival of human malaria in South America. Bayesian computational methods suggest that P. falciparum originated in Africa and arrived in South America through multiple independent introductions by the transatlantic African slave trade; however, in South America, P. vivax could have been introduced through an alternate migratory route. Alignments of P. vivax mitogenomes have revealed low genetic variation between the South American and Southeast Asian populations suggesting introduction through either pre-Columbian human migration or post-colonization events. To confirm the findings of these phylogeographical analyses, molecular methods were used to diagnose malaria infection in archeological remains of pre-Columbian ethnic groups. Immunohistochemistry tests were used and identified P. vivax but not P. falciparum in histologically prepared tissues from pre-Columbian Peruvian mummies, whereas shotgun metagenomics sequencing of DNA isolated from pre-Columbian Caribbean coprolites revealed Plasmodium-homologous reads; current evidence suggests that only P. vivax might have been present in pre-Columbian South America


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogeografia , Plasmodium vivax/classificação , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007655, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404077

RESUMO

Several viruses from the genus Orthohantavirus are known to cause lethal disease in humans. Sigmodontinae rodents are the main hosts responsible for hantavirus transmission in the tropical forests, savannas, and wetlands of South America. These rodents can shed different hantaviruses, such as the lethal and emerging Araraquara orthohantavirus. Factors that drive variation in host populations may influence hantavirus transmission dynamics within and between populations. Landscape structure, and particularly areas with a predominance of agricultural land and forest remnants, is expected to influence the proportion of hantavirus rodent hosts in the Atlantic Forest rodent community. Here, we tested this using 283 Atlantic Forest rodent capture records and geographically weighted models that allow us to test if predictors vary spatially. We also assessed the correspondence between proportions of hantavirus hosts in rodent communities and a human vulnerability to hantavirus infection index across the entire Atlantic Forest biome. We found that hantavirus host proportions were more positively influenced by landscape diversity than by a particular habitat or agricultural matrix type. Local small mammal diversity also positively influenced known pathogenic hantavirus host proportions, indicating that a plasticity to habitat quality may be more important for these hosts than competition with native forest dwelling species. We found a consistent positive effect of sugarcane and tree plantation on the proportion of rodent hosts, whereas defaunation intensity did not correlate with the proportion of hosts of potentially pathogenic hantavirus genotypes in the community, indicating that non-defaunated areas can also be hotspots for hantavirus disease outbreaks. The spatial match between host hotspots and human disease vulnerability was 17%, while coldspots matched 20%. Overall, we discovered strong spatial and land use change influences on hantavirus hosts at the landscape level across the Atlantic Forest. Our findings suggest disease surveillance must be reinforced in the southern and southeastern regions of the biome where the highest predicted hantavirus host proportion and levels of vulnerability spatially match. Importantly, our analyses suggest there may be more complex rodent community dynamics and interactions with human disease than currently hypothesized.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/virologia , Hantavirus/isolamento & purificação , Roedores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Roedores/virologia , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Ecossistema , Hantavirus/classificação , Infecções por Hantavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Roedores/classificação , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 68, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior are major concerns for public health. Although global initiatives have been successful in monitoring physical activity (PA) worldwide, there is no systematic action for the monitoring of correlates of these behaviors, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Here we describe the prevalence and distribution of PA domains and sitting time in population sub-groups of six south American countries. METHODS: Data from the South American Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Network (SAPASEN) were used, which includes representative data from Argentina (n = 26,932), Brazil (n = 52,490), Chile (n = 3719), Ecuador (n = 19,851), Peru (n = 8820), and Suriname (n = 5170). Self-reported leisure time (≥150 min/week), (≥150 min/week), transport (≥10 min/week), and occupational PA total (≥10 min/week), as well as sitting time (≥4 h/day) were captured in each national survey. Sex, age, income, and educational status were exposures. Descriptive statistics and harmonized random effect meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of PA during leisure (Argentina: 29.2% to Peru: 8.6%), transport (Peru: 69.7% to Ecuador: 8.8%), and occupation (Chile: 60.4 to Brazil 18.3%), and ≥4 h/day of sitting time (Peru: 78.8% to Brazil: 14.8%) differed widely between countries. Moreover, total PA ranged between 60.4% (Brazil) and 82.9% (Chile) among men, and between 49.4% (Ecuador) and 74.9% (Chile) among women. Women (low leisure and occupational PA) and those with a higher educational level (low transportation and occupational PA as well as high sitting time) were less active. Concerning total PA, men, young and middle-aged adults of high educational status (college or more) were, respectively, 47% [OR = 0.53 (95% CI = 0.36-0.78), I2 = 76.6%], 25% [OR = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.61-0.93), I2 = 30.4%] and 32% [OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.47-1.00), I2 = 80.3%] less likely to be active. CONCLUSIONS: PA and sitting time present great ranges and tend to vary across sex and educational status in South American countries. Country-specific exploration of trends and population-specific interventions may be warranted.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007629, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412022

RESUMO

A major challenge of eco-epidemiology is to determine which factors promote the transmission of infectious diseases and to establish risk maps that can be used by public health authorities. The geographic predictions resulting from ecological niche modelling have been widely used for modelling the future dispersion of vectors based on the occurrence records and the potential prevalence of the disease. The establishment of risk maps for disease systems with complex cycles such as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) can be very challenging due to the many inference networks between large sets of host and vector species, with considerable heterogeneity in disease patterns in space and time. One novelty in the present study is the use of human CL cases to predict the risk of leishmaniasis occurrence in response to anthropogenic, climatic and environmental factors at two different scales, in the Neotropical moist forest biome (Amazonian basin and surrounding forest ecosystems) and in the surrounding region of French Guiana. With a consistent data set never used before and a conceptual and methodological framework for interpreting data cases, we obtained risk maps with high statistical support. The predominantly identified human CL risk areas are those where the human impact on the environment is significant, associated with less contributory climatic and ecological factors. For both models this study highlights the importance of considering the anthropogenic drivers for disease risk assessment in human, although CL is mainly linked to the sylvatic and peri-urban cycle in Meso and South America.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Florestas , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Guiana Francesa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , América do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 279-319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297766

RESUMO

This chapter analyses the taxonomic position of Dicrocoeliidae family and several of its genus and species. The biology of the major species causing veterinary diseases such Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Dicrocoelium hospes, Dicrocoelium chinensis, Eurytrema pancreaticum and Platynosomum fastosum, has been reviewed. All these species have an indirect life cycle, involving two intermediate hosts (molluscs as first and ants, grasshoppers and lizards as second). Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a very widespread hepatic trematode in the ruminants of many countries in Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America, even affecting humans. Dicrocoelium hospes is widely distributed in the savanna areas of Africa south of the Sahara, whilst D. chinensis has mainly been found in ruminants in East Asia and some European countries (probably imported from Asia). Eurytrema pancreaticum is a common parasite whose adults live in ruminant bile ducts, gall bladder, pancreatic ducts and intestines in Europe, Madagascar, Asia and South America. Adult P. fastosum live in the liver, gall bladder and pancreas of birds and mammals in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. Information about the epidemiology, pathology, clinical aspect, diagnosis, treatment, control, prevention and economic impact mainly of Dicrocoeliosis produced by D. dendriticum, as well as of Eurytrematodosis and Platynosomiosis, has been included.


Assuntos
Dicrocoeliidae , Infecções por Trematódeos , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Dicrocoeliidae/classificação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/prevenção & controle
14.
Acta Trop ; 198: 105093, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325416

RESUMO

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a pathogen endemic to South America and some Caribbean islands, with reports of occasional outbreaks. However, its current distribution and high-risk areas are little known. We conducted a modelling study to determine the areas with highest prevalence of MAYV occurrence in South America, based on confirmed cases and serological detection over the last 20 years and socio-environmental variables. We performed our analysis using Maxent software, a machine learning algorithm used for species distribution modeling. Our results showed that the occurrence of MAYV is mainly associated with the biome type, population density, annual rainfall, annual vapor rate, and elevation. Among biome types, the one most related to the occurrence of MAYV is Cerrado, probably related to the lifecycle of the Haemagogus vector and human population concentrations. According to our modelling, there is high yet undetectable MAYV concentration in the central region of Brazil and west-coastal region of the continent. A change in virus dispersion patterns was observed. The virus was previously predominantly in forests but now occupied rural areas and was becoming increasingly urbanized, which is increases the risk of outbreaks. Our results will serve to identify priority areas in the development of preventive actions and structuring of epidemiological surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/epidemiologia , Alphavirus/classificação , Culicidae/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Humanos , Prevalência , América do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
Mycoses ; 62(9): 730-738, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192488

RESUMO

Mucormycosis is a rare but important invasive fungal disease that most often affects immunocompromised hosts. The incidence of mucormycosis appears to be increasing worldwide, as risk factors such as the use of immunosuppressive therapies become more common. We report the results of a literature review of 143 mucormycosis cases reported in South America between 1960 and 2018. The number of reported cases has increased by decade, from 6 in the 1960s to 51 in the 2010s. The most common underlying conditions associated with mucormycosis in South America were diabetes mellitus (42.0%) and penetrating trauma/burns (20.0%). Underlying conditions involving immunosuppression, including treatment of haematologic malignancy, solid organ transplant, and corticosteroid use, also accounted for a large proportion of cases (45.5%). Between 1960 and 2018, cases of mucormycosis associated with conditions involving immunosuppression accounted for the highest mortality rate (58.5%), followed by diabetes mellitus (45.0%), and penetrating trauma/burns (37.9%). Overall mortality decreased from 100% to 39.4% during this period, mainly driven by the increasing availability and use of antifungal therapies and surgical intervention. However, these treatments are not yet universally utilised across the region in the treatment of mucormycosis; efforts to improve availability of effective treatments would be likely to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Mucormicose/sangue , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Complicações do Diabetes , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Mucormicose/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , América do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(7): 1801-1805, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197725

RESUMO

The occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife places at risk livestock, public health, and ecosystems that house endangered species. However, data on wild species that may act as possible reservoirs in the Americas are scarce. This systematic review analyses the available data on wildlife in the Americas regarding the infection by M. bovis. We searched articles published in indexed journals using the keywords: "Mycobacterium bovis," "wild," and "animals". After applying the keywords using online databases, during March and August of 2018, we found 12 articles which encompassed 15 species of wild animals, of which three consisted of wild ruminants. The evidence showed that M. bovis is present among the wild animals in the Americas. The methodological limitations for diagnosing M. bovis in wild animals are many, demanding the development of new and more precise tools. Furthermore, new researches are needed to elucidate the role of the wild animals in the epidemiology of M. bovis and its possible impact on production animals and public health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Artiodáctilos , Carnívoros , Didelphis , Mycobacterium bovis/fisiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , América , Animais , Bovinos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237902

RESUMO

Canine circovirus (CanineCV) was detected, together with canine parvovirus (CPV), in samples from an outbreak of fatal gastroenteritis in dogs in Argentina. We obtained the full-length genome of this recently discovered virus by overlapping PCR, designated strain UBA-Baires. Sequence analysis revealed a highly conserved genome but also showed several unique mutations in amino acids from the capsid protein that have not been previously reported. Phylogenetic analysis shows that this strain is more closely related to European strains than to viruses detected in North America or Asia. Although the pathogenic role of CanineCV in dogs is still unclear, this study highlights the importance of CanineCV as a coinfecting virus in disease development. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the involvement of CanineCV in severe clinical disease in dogs in South America. Our results expand our information on the geographical extent of this virus and contribute to the understanding of its role in disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/classificação , Circovirus/patogenicidade , DNA Viral/genética , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Filogenia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007406, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has recently reemphasized the importance of providing preventive chemotherapy to women of reproductive age in countries endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis as they are at heightened risk of associated morbidity. The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries. Our study aims to estimate the number of pregnant women at risk of soil-transmitted helminthiasis that self-reported deworming by antenatal services in endemic countries that conducted Demographic and Health Surveys. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The number of pregnant women living in endemic countries was extrapolated from the United Nations World Population Prospects 2015. National deworming coverage among pregnant women were extracted from Demographic and Health Surveys and applied to total numbers of pregnant women in the country. Sub-national DHS with data on self-reported deworming were available from 49 of the 102 endemic countries. In some regions more than 73% of STH endemic countries had a DHS. The DHS report an average deworming coverage of 23% (CI 19-28), ranging from 2% (CI 1-3) to 35% (CI 29-40) in the different regions, meaning more than 16 million pregnant women were dewormed in countries surveyed by DHS. The deworming rates amongst the 43 million pregnant women in STH endemic countries not surveyed by DHS remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These estimates will serve to establish baseline numbers of deworming coverage among pregnant women, monitor progress, and urge endemic countries to continue working toward reducing the burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. The DHS program should be extended to STH-endemic countries currently not covering the topic of deworming during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Solo/parasitologia , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 269: 42-52, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079827

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is an important disease with worldwide distribution. Infection can occur from ingesting raw or undercooked infected meat, and among food animal species, pork is known to be one of the main sources of meat-borne infection. Here, we present results of the first systematic review and meta-analysis on the global T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs. PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched for relevant studies published between January 1, 1990 and October 25, 2018. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled seroprevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analyzed data from five continents. We also conducted subgroup and meta-regression analyses to evaluate the effects of geographical and climate variables on pooled seroprevalence rates. Among 1542 publications identified, 148 studies containing 150 datasets were included in the meta-analysis, and comprised 148,092 pigs from 47 countries. The pooled global T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs was estimated to be 19% (95%CI, 17-22%; 23,696/148,092), with the lowest seroprevalence in Europe (13%; 10-15%) and highest seroprevalence in Africa (25%; 17-34%) and North America (25%; 19-33%). The seropositivity rates in Asia and South America regions were (21%, 16-26%) and (23%; 17-30%), respectively. A significantly higher T. gondii seroprevalence was associated with higher mean annual temperature and lower geographical latitude. The presence of cats on farms was identified as a potential risk factor for T. gondii seropositivity (OR, 1.41; 95%CI, 1.00-2.02). Our findings highlight the importance of pigs as a possible source of human T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Temperatura , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Zoonoses
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