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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127772, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799140

RESUMO

This study utilized the freshwater amphipod (Hyalella azteca) for the indication of contamination risk levels of sediment-associated contaminants in the Erren (ER1∼ER10) and Sanye Rivers (SY1∼SY5) which were contaminated by metal scrap and smelting industries for decades. Toxicity identification evaluations involving the manipulation of pore water and whole-sediment samples were conducted to identify causative pollutants. Impacts on the aquatic environment were then evaluated in order to explore how industrial development led to contaminant accumulation in sediments and resulted in biological effects. A whole-sediment TIE indicated that the major toxicant at sampling sites ER8 and SY5 was ammonia and that its toxicity was significantly reduced by the addition of zeolite. Toxicity at sampling sites ER4 and ER9 was induced by ammonia and heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cr, As), whereas Cr was at toxic levels at ER6. ∑PAHs was another major class of contaminants at site ER2. Metals (Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As) were identified as major toxic contaminants at three sites (ER3, SY1, and SY3). The application of TIEs confirmed that a causative toxicant can be identified and that its measured toxicity correlated with its concentration. In conclusion, a TIE approach was successful in demarcating most effective contaminant groups (ammonia, heavy metals, and non-polar organic compounds) in whole-sediment cores, their porewaters and potential toxicities from a highly polluted river after remediation in southern Taiwan to an invertebrate animal model H. azteca.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Amônia/análise , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Água Doce/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Taiwan , Clima Tropical , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zeolitas/química
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 5176-5184, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124262

RESUMO

Ammonia volatilization is one of the major paths of nitrogen (N) loss and may exert a substantial impact on air quality. This study aims to explore the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer types, fertilization rate, and application timing and gas collection method on NH3 volatilization during the maize season in Northern China. This study collected the publications on the NH3 volatilization from maize farming which were conducted in Northern China from 1980 to 2018, and undertook a systematic analysis. The study found that with the increase of N rate, the total and net NH3 volatilization at the basal and topdressing fertilization stages increased at exponential and power function, respectively. When the ratio of basal/topdressing N rate was 1/1, the total and net NH3 volatilization during the topdressing stage (58.4% of the whole season emission) was significantly higher than that in the basal fertilization stage (41.6%) (P<0.05). The priming effect first showed a negative effect and then gradually turned into a positive effect with the increase of N rate. Due to the positive priming effect, the net NH3 volatilization, without considering the priming effect, was overestimated under the conventional N application (>297 kg·hm-2). There is a significant difference between the NH3 volatilization measured by the venting method and the sponge absorption method, and the data from the venting method are more stable (P<0.01). Compared with conventional urea, slow-release urea may reduce NH3 volatilization by 20% to 50%. Control fertilizer N rate at the topdressing stage is more efficient in reducing the NH3 volatilization from maize production in Northern China, and the venting method is more suitable for the quantification of NH3 volatilization than the sponge absorption method under a high rate of fertilizer N.


Assuntos
Amônia , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , Amônia/análise , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Solo , Volatilização , Zea mays
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 3976-3984, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124277

RESUMO

The ammonia emissions inventory of Zhejiang Province was established in 2017 using the activity data of various ammonia emission sources, emission factors, and an estimation method. Ammonia emissions for each source and city in Zhejiang Province were analyzed. The spatial distribution and intensity of ammonia emissions in 2017 were mapped using ArcGIS software. The total anthropogenic ammonia emissions in Zhejiang Province in 2017 were 122.00 kt. The farmland ecosystem was the major source of total ammonia emissions (36.06 kt), and nitrogen fertilizer applications was the largest contributor in this category (87.12%), followed by the livestock and poultry source (29.44%). The waste and human-activity sources were the two major non-agricultural sources, accounting for 44.07% and 28.49%, respectively. Hangzhou City had the highest ammonia emissions in 2017, accounting for 17.83% of the total ammonia emissions in Zhejiang Province. However, the ammonia emission intensity in Jiaxing City was the highest, reaching 3.82 t ·km-2. The spatial distribution map revealed that ammonia emissions in the northern and southeastern Zhejiang were relatively higher, while ammonia emission intensity was higher in the northern and northeastern region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Amônia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Amônia/análise , Animais , Cidades , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(10): 4711-4718, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124404

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and microbial mechanism of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biofertilizer on reducing ammonia volatilization in farmland soil. Pot experiments were carried out to explore the effects of B. amyloliquefaciens biofertilizer (BB) and chemical fertilizer on soil ammonia volatilization, crop yield and quality, and soil microbial community. Four fertilization strategies were tested, namely no fertilizer (CK), 100% chemical fertilizer (C), 50% BB and 50% chemical fertilizer (B1), and 100% BB (B2). The dynamic flow-through chamber method was used to determine the soil ammonia volatilization flux after fertilization. The soil bacterial community during the peak period of ammonia volatilization was analyzed using 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the amount of ammonia volatilization in B1 and B2 decreased by 79.5% and 84.8%, respectively, as compared with treatment C. B2 had the lowest nitrate content and the highest yield; the yield of B2 increased by 50.5% and 12.3% as compared to that of CK and C, respectively. B1 had the highest content of vitamin C, which was 67.6 mg ·kg-1. The application of BB improved the diversity and richness of soil bacterial community, especially the relative abundance of Bacillus and Nitrospira. This shows that BB plays an important role in preventing air pollution and improving nitrogen utilization.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Solo , Amônia/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Volatilização
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111317, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950807

RESUMO

Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) is a solid waste remained in filters after using sulfuric acid to leaching manganese carbonate ore. EMR contains high concentration of soluble manganese (Mn2+) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), which seriously pollutes the environment. In this study, a low cost of phosphate based binder for Mn2+ and NH4+-N stabilization in EMR by low grade-MgO (LG-MgO) and superphosphate was studied. The effects of different types of stabilizing agent on the concentrations of NH4+-N and Mn2+, the pH of the EMR leaching solution, stabilizing mechanisms of NH4+-N and Mn2+, leaching test and economic analysis were investigated. The results shown that the pH of the EMR leaching solution was 8.07, and the concentration of Mn2+ was 1.58 mg/L, both of which met the integrated wastewater discharge standard (GB8978-1996), as well as the concentration of NH4+-N decreased from 523.46 mg/L to 32 mg/L, when 4.5 wt.% LG-MgO and 8 wt.% superphosphate dosage were simultaneously used for the stabilization of EMR for 50 d Mn2+ and NH4+-N were mainly stabilized by Mn3(PO4)2·2H2O, MnOOH, Mn3O4, Mn(H2PO4)2·2H2O and NH4MgPO4·6H2O. Economic evaluation revealed that the treatment cost of EMR was $ 11.89/t. This study provides a low-cost materials for NH4+-N and Mn2+ stabilization in EMR.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Manganês/química , Amônia/análise , Carbonatos , Eletrólise , Eletrólitos/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Manganês/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Fosfatos/química , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Águas Residuárias/química
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960903

RESUMO

To prevent and control non-point source pollution, many policies have been carried out by government in China. However, the effectiveness of these policies has rarely been evaluated. In this study, the potential and spatial distribution of agricultural non-point source pollution in the Baiyangdian Basin are reported. This investigation considers multiple parameters under various policies with county as a basic unit. The results for the potential pollution from chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) are 60.89×104, 3.93×104, 87.05×104 and 15.10×104 Mg, with corresponding intensities of 190, 12, 272 and 47 kg ha-1 for the Baiyangdian Basin in 2016. The highest pollution from COD is attributed to livestock and poultry breeding, whereas TN and TP are dominantly produced by rural domestic sources, and NH3-N is mostly derived from planting. Spatially, distribution of the counties producing larger non-point source pollution presented a northeast to southwest direction, consistent with the Taihang mountain alignment in the basin. The counties with high pollution intensities are mostly in the south and east of the basin. Agricultural non-point source pollution control and prevention policies contributed in pollution reduction. Compared with 2016, the total potential pollution of COD, NH3-N, TN and TP in 2020 decrease by 45.1%, 14.7%, 37.9% and 37.4%, respectively, whereas for an assumed future time (F2), the decreases are 59%, 51.4%, 56.2% and 55.7%, respectively. Prevention measures should focus on reducing pollution from livestock and poultry breeding as well as planting.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Difusa/análise , Poluição Difusa/economia , Agricultura , Amônia/análise , Animais , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio/métodos , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Política Ambiental/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Gado , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Aves Domésticas , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0229880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966333

RESUMO

Aerobic composting is a sustainable method for chicken manure recycling, while its unsuitable porosity and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) may result in high nitrogen loss and incomplete composting. With the aim to investigate the effects of carbon-based additives and two ventilation rates on chicken manure composting and microbial community, two series of treatments were set up for chicken manure composting, in order to investigate their effects on the biodegradation process, ammonia (NH3) emission, nitrogen loss, physiochemical properties and microbial community. The results showed that additives and ventilation rates set in the current study influenced the carbon dioxide (CO2) production from the 2nd week and also the physiochemical parameters during the entire process, while no inhibitory effect on the maturity were observed. With woody peat as additive, the NH3 emission amount and nitrogen loss rate were shown as 15.86 mg and 4.02%, less than those in other treatments, 31.08-80.13 mg and 24.26-34.24%, respectively. The high aeration rate increased the NH3 emission and nitrogen loss, which were varied when the additives were different. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results showed that the additives and the ventilation rates changed the microbial community, while the prominent microbial clones belonged to the class of Bacilli and Clostridia (in the phylum of Firmicutes), and Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria (in the phylum of Proteobacteria). Bacillus spp. was observed to be the most dominant bacteria in all the composting stages and treatments. It was concluded that woody peat could improve chicken manure composting more than other additives, especially on reducing nitrogen loss, meanwhile 0.18 L‧min-1‧kg-1 DM was suitable for various additives. Therefore, suitable additive and aeration rate could be used in practical application, which could significantly reduce nitrogen loss without influence on the compos maturity process.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Compostagem/métodos , Esterco/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Amônia/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Galinhas , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Porosidade , Ventilação/métodos
8.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115062, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806405

RESUMO

Measuring ammonia (NH3) is important for understanding the role of NH3 in secondary aerosol formation and the atmospheric deposition of reactive N. In this study, NH3 was measured in an urban area, a background region, and a tunnel in Beijing. The average NH3 concentrations between September 2017 and August 2018 were 24.8 ± 14.8 ppb and 11.6 ± 10.3 ppb in the urban area and background region, respectively. Higher NH3 concentrations at both the urban and background sites, relative to some earlier measurements indicated a likely increase in the NH3 concentrations in these regions. The urban NH3 level in Beijing was much higher than that typically observed at urban and industrial sites in other domestic and foreign cities, suggesting that the Beijing urban area was affected by greater NH3 emissions than other regions. Based on the relationship among NH3, wind direction, and wind speed, the urban area was affected by both local emissions and air transported from North China Plain (NCP). Potential source contribution function analyses suggested that regional transport from the NCP could greatly affect local concentrations of NH3 in both urban and background areas in spring and autumn; however, in addition to the NCP, urban emissions could also affect NH3 levels in the background region in summer and winter. The average NH3 concentration at the Fenshuiling Tunnel was 8.5 ± 7.7 ppb from December 2017 to February 2018. The NH3:CO emission ratio measured in the tunnel test was 0.022 ± 0.038 ppb/ppb, which was lower than values in the USA and South Korea. The contribution of traffic to NH3 in Beijing did not agree well with the available emission inventories, suggesting that vehicular emissions were underestimated and further evaluation is necessary.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Amônia/análise , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , República da Coreia
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 317: 124012, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822891

RESUMO

Research shows that anaerobic digestion could acclimate to ammonia stress; however, the acclimation remained unaddressed. In this study, evolution of microbial community, functional gene, and pathway was linked with apparent kinetic and performance in unacclimated inoculum under ammonia stress, to deepen understanding of the acclimation. The second peak in production rate demonstrated crucial kinetic changes under ammonia stress. The methane loss was mainly protein in residual COD. Metagenomic showed initial inhibition in all methane metabolism pathways under ammonia stress, and recovery in acetate uptake was the key to ammonia acclimation. The acclimation was found in alternative pathway of Acetyl-CoA (CH3CO-S-CoA) synthesis from acetate, accompanying by syntrophic methanogenesis. Ammonia inhibited acetoclastic methanogenesis by competing CH3-CO-Pi with pta and formed speculative sediment CH3-CO-PO4[NH4]2. Biomarker of methanogenesis kinetic was suggested as mcr, hdr, and mch. The biomarker could indicate acclimation stages to ammonia, empowering anaerobic digestion by early warning of methane loss.


Assuntos
Amônia , Esterco , Amônia/análise , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biomarcadores , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Suínos
10.
Environ Res ; 191: 110048, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818500

RESUMO

Nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx) and ammonia (NH3) are among the main contributors to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM2.5), which represent a severe risk to human health. Even if important improvements have been achieved worldwide, traffic, industrial activities, and the energy sector are mostly responsible for NOx and SOx release; instead, the agricultural sector is mainly responsible for NH3 emissions. Due to the emergency of coronavirus disease, in Italy schools and universities have been locked down from late February 2020, followed in March by almost all production and industrial activities as well as road transport, except for the agricultural ones. This study aims to analyze NH3, PM2.5 and NOx emissions in principal livestock provinces in the Lombardy region (Brescia, Cremona, Lodi, and Mantua) to evaluate if and how air emissions have changed during this quarantine period respect to 2016-2019. For each province, meteorological and air quality data were collected from the database of the Regional Agency for the Protection of the Environment, considering both data stations located in the city and the countryside. In the 2020 selected period, PM2.5 reduction was higher compared to the previous years, especially in February and March. Respect to February, PM2.5 released in March in the city stations reduced by 19%-32% in 2016-2019 and by 21%-41% in 2020. Similarly, NOx data of 2020 were lower than in the 2016-2019 period (reduction in March respect to February of 22-42% for 2016-2019 and of 43-62% for 2020); in particular, this can be observed in city stations, because of the current reduction in anthropogenic emissions related to traffic and industrial activities. A different trend with no reductions was observed for NH3 emissions, as agricultural activities have not stopped during the lockdown. Air quality is affected by many variables, for which making conclusions requires a holistic perspective. Therefore, all sectors must play a role to contribute to the reduction of harmful pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Amônia/análise , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Gado , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Quarentena
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785247

RESUMO

In this study the near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra signals (750-2,500 nm) of soil samples was compared with the NIR signals of the biogenic aggregates produced in the lab by three earthworm species, i.e., Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny 1826), Lumbricus friendi Cognetti, 1904 and Prosellodrilus pyrenaicus (Cognetti, 1904) from subalpine meadows in the Central Pyrenees. NIR spectral signatures of biogenic aggregates, root-aggregates, and non-aggregated soil were obtained together with soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] determinations. The concentrations of C, N and C:N ratio in the three types of soil aggregates identified were not statistically significant (ANOVA, p>0.05) although non-macroaggregated soil had slightly higher C concentrations (66.3 g kg-1 dry soil) than biogenic aggregates (earthworm- and root-aggregates, 64.9 and 63.5 g kg-1 dry soil, respectively), while concentrations of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were highest in the root-attached aggregates (3.3 and 0.31 mg kg dry soil-1). Total earthworm density and biomass in the sampled area was 137.6 ind. m-2, and 55.2 g fresh weight m-2, respectively. The biomass of aggregates attached to roots and non-macroaggregated soil was 122.3 and 134.8 g m-2, respectively, while biomass of free (particulate) organic matter and invertebrate biogenic aggregates was 62.9 and 41.7 g m-2, respectively. Multivariate analysis of NIR spectra signals of field aggregates separated root aggregates with high concentrations of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (41.5% of explained variance, axis I) from those biogenic aggregates, including root aggregates, with large concentrations of C and high C:N ratio (21.6% of total variability, axis II). Partial Least Square (PLS) regressions were used to compare NIR spectral signals of samples (casts and soil) and develop calibration equations relating these spectral data to those data obtained for chemical variables in the lab. After a derivatization process, the NIR spectra of field aggregates were projected onto the PLS factorial plane of the NIR spectra from the lab incubation. The projection of the NIR spectral signals onto the PLSR models for C, N, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] from casts produced and incubated in the lab allowed us to identify the species and the age of the field biogenic aggregates. Our hypothesis was to test whether field aggregates would match or be in the vicinity of the NIR signals that corresponded to a certain species and the age of the depositions produced in the lab. A NIRS biogenic background noise (BBN) is present in the soil as a result of earthworm activity. This study provides insights on how to analyse the role of these organisms in important ecological processes of soil macro-aggregation and associated organic matter dynamics by means of analyzing the BBN in the soil matrix.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Solo/química , Altitude , Amônia/análise , Animais , Carbono/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(7): 2422-2430, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715709

RESUMO

A field experiment with five treatments, control (CK, no fertilizer), conventional fertilization (U), double-effect inhibitor synergistic urea (DU), coated urea (CU) and slow/controlled release urea mixture (CDU), was conducted to investigate the effects of conventional fertilization (240 kg N·hm-2) and one-off application of different slow/controlled release fertilizers (180 kg N·hm-2) on the yield and quality of fresh maize, soil inorganic nitrogen (N), and ammonia (NH3) emissions. The results showed that the total amount of ammonia volatilization was the highest in treatment of conventional fertilization (U), with N topdressing being an important source of NH3 emission. Compared with U treatment, the NH3 volatilization in the DU, CU, and CDU treatments was reduced by 78%-81%. At harvest stage, the soil layer of 80-100 cm in the U treatment had the highest nitrate concentration (51.6 mg·kg-1), resulting in a high risk of N leaching. In contrast, the nitrate concentrations in the same soil layer in the slow/controlled release fertilizer treatments were much lower, reducing the risk of leaching. In comparison with U, three slow/controlled release fertilizer treatments with 25% lower N application did not decrease yield but increased seed Vc, soluble sugar and protein contents. The agronomic efficiency and economic benefit of DU treatment were the highest among three slow/controlled release fertilizers treatments. In conclusion, the application of new type of slow/controlled release fertilizer could improve the yield and quality of fresh maize, and significantly reduce the risk of ammonia loss and N leaching. Considering the higher cost of the polymer coated urea, the double-effect inhibitor urea has lower cost and is more convenient to make. It is therefore a better choice to fresh maize planting.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Agricultura , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Nitrogênio , Solo , Zea mays
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140433, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610240

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major pathway of nitrogen (N) losses from paddy fields, and could be potentially mitigated by cultivation of high nitrogen use efficiency (high-NUE) rice cultivars. However, the relationship between NUE and NH3 volatilization has not been validated under field conditions. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of four rice cultivars with different NUE [Wuyunjing 23 (W23), Zhendao 11 (Z11), Wuyujing 3 (W3), and Aoyusi 386 (A386)] on NH3 volatilization, as well as the related mechanisms. Two high-NUE rice cultivars W23 and Z11 was not more effective in reducing total NH3 volatilization from the paddy field compared to cultivar A386 with the lowest NUE. Cultivar A386 had 12.7-17.8% and 35.7-54.1% lower NH3 volatilization than other three rice cultivars at tillering fertilization stage (TFS) and panicle fertilization stage (PFS), respectively, mainly due to its greater shoot N accumulation, root biomass and volume at TFS and its greater shoot biomass, leaf area index and shoot N accumulation at PFS. There was no significant difference in NH3 volatilization among W23, Z11 and W3 at TFS. However, premature senescence phenomenon at later growth stages of A386 eventually led to its lowest NUE among the four rice cultivars. Our results suggest that NUE of rice does not link to NH3 volatilization from paddy fields. In order to make high-NUE rice cultivars also effective in mitigating NH3 volatilization, future breeding works should aim to improve N uptake capability and canopy structure at early tillering and panicle development stages while prevent premature senescence of rice plants to maintain high yields.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Oryza , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Volatilização
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 37684-37698, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608005

RESUMO

Airborne emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have the potential to pose a risk to human health and the environment. Here, we present an assessment of the emission, dispersion, and health-related impact of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emitted from a 300-head, full-scale dairy farm with an exercise yard in Beijing, China. By monitoring the referred gas emissions with a dynamic flux chamber for seven consecutive days, we examined their emission rates. An annual hourly emission time series was constructed on the basis of the measured emission rates and a release modification model. The health risk of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions around the dairy farm was then determined using atmospheric dispersion modeling and exposure risk assessment. The body mass-related mean emission factors of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were 2.13 kg a-1 AU-1 and 24.9 g a-1 AU-1, respectively (one animal unit (AU) is equivalent to 500 kg body mass). A log-normal distribution fitted well to ammonia emission rates. Contour lines of predicted hourly mean concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were mainly driven by the meteorological conditions. The concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide at the fence line were below 10 µg m-3 and 0.04 µg m-3, respectively, and were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the current Chinese air quality standards for such pollutants. Moreover, the cumulative non-carcinogenic risks (HI) of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were 4 orders of magnitudes lower than the acceptable risk levels (HI = 1). Considering a health risk criterion of 1E-4, the maximum distance from the farm fence line to meet this criterion was nearly 1000 m towards north-northeast. The encompassed area of the contour lines of the ambient concentration of ammonia is much larger than that of hydrogen sulfide. However, the contour lines of the ammonia health risk are analogous to those of hydrogen sulfide. In general, the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the dairy farm are unlikely to cause any health risks for the population living in the neighborhood.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Amônia/análise , Animais , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123812, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682263

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of lactic acid addition during poultry litter and slaughter sludge composting for controlling NH3 emissions. The results indicated that lactic acid addition reduced NH3 emissions and promoted the maturity of the composting product. Compared to the blank, nitrogen loss in the form of NH3 emissions in the 0.4%, 0.7%, and 1.0% lactic acid treatments decreased by 3.36%, 8.29%, and 14.65%, respectively. Moreover, lactic acid addition promoted the relative abundance of Lactobacillales, while the microbial community of the blank was dominated by Bacillales. The mechanism behind the control of NH3 emissions via the addition of lactic acid involved the secretion of large amounts of lactic acid by Lactobacillales, which lowers the pH of the initial compost pile. This study suggests that lactic acid is a suitable additive for composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Amônia/análise , Animais , Ácido Láctico , Esterco , Nitrogênio/análise , Aves Domésticas , Esgotos , Solo
16.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110692, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721283

RESUMO

The organic matter and nitrogen contents of swine wastewater (SW) can be reduced and, at the same time, a fertiliser as ammonium salt can be recovered by wastewater treatments. One of the most promising technique is air stripping (AS). However, the operational parameters (pH, temperature and air flow rate) of AS must be optimised, in order to maximise the ammonia recovery and reduce the requirement of chemicals and energy. In this study 27 batch tests at laboratory scale were carried out on real SW, varying (individually or simultaneously) the pH (not adjusted, 8 and 10), temperature (ambient, 40 and 60 °C) and flow rate (0, 1 and 5 Lair LSW-1 min-1) of AS; the changes in soluble COD (sCOD) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations were evaluated in response to the parameters adjustments. For the tests including AS, the ammonium sulphate recovered was also measured. In general (about 50% of the tests), more than 80% of TAN was removed. Most of these tests were carried out with pH and temperature control and AS at the highest flow rate; the highest efficiency was found for a combination of chemical, thermal and aeration treatments. For a few tests with the same process control, an increase (up to 50%) or a very limited (less than 10%) decrease of sCOD were detected; therefore, these treatments can be adopted prior of anaerobic digestion of SW. A high flow rate, which increases the removal efficiency of both sCOD and TAN, should be adopted, when AS is used as pre-treatment of activated sludge or lagooning plants. Very high amounts (over 80% of the theoretical yield) of ammonium sulphate were recovered by AS at the maximum air flow rate (5 Lair LSW-1 min-1), which would provide a nitrogen fertiliser at a sustainable cost.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio/análise , Esgotos , Suínos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140799, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673926

RESUMO

Paddy Azolla is considered as a promising technical approach to reduce ammonia (NH3) volatilization and increase nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, it is not effective in highly fertilized paddy fields as the high ammonium N (NH4+-N) concentrations adversely inhibit the growth and N uptake of Azolla. Urease inhibitors could effectively decrease NH4+-N concentrations in surface water and NH3 volatilization. However, a lack of information still exists regarding the combined effects of Azolla and urease inhibitors on NH3 volatilization, NUE, and grain yield (GY) of rice. A two-year field experiment was conducted including five treatments (no urea application (control), urea (N), urea + Azolla (NA), urea + urease inhibitor (NUI), and urea + Azolla + urease inhibitor (NAUI)). Results showed that NA treatment (-25.2%) was not effective in reducing NH3 volatilization compared with NUI treatment (-43.3%). The NAUI treatment substantially reduced NH3 volatilization (-54.6%) more than that by NA and NUI treatments, primarily because of the lower NH4+-N concentrations, pH, and temperature in surface water. Furthermore, NAUI treatments significantly increased the grain yield (GY) and the apparent N recovery efficiency (ANRE) of rice by 9.0-9.7% and 66.0-71.3%, respectively. The significant increase in GY was mainly from the increased panicle number (4.0%), spikelet number per panicle (15.9%), and total biomass (22.9%), which caused by the enhanced total N uptake (35.8%). NAUI treatment also decreased the yield-scaled NH3 volatilization by 61.1-63.6%. Overall, the co-application of Azolla and urease inhibitor in the rice field substantially decreased NH3 volatilization, and increased NUE and rice yield.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Oryza , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Urease , Volatilização
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461282, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709333

RESUMO

In recent years, core-shell silica particles (CSSPs) have been increasingly used for highly efficient separation at fast flow rates and relatively low back pressures in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, material synthesis techniques for producing CSSPs economically in batch processes remain elusive. In this report, a practical and straightforward method for the preparation of CSSPs is presented. By refluxing freshly prepared nonporous silica particles in ammonia-water solution in the presence of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) at 70-100 °C, CSSPs with shell thicknesses of up to 300 nm and pore sizes from 8 to 25 nm were easily prepared. The effects of the synthetic conditions on the shell thickness, surface area, and pore size were investigated in detail, and the method reproducibility was evaluated in scale-up experiments. A mechanism of CSSP formation is also proposed. The CSSPs were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, laser particle size (dynamic light scattering) analysis, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption experiments. The synthesized 3.4-µm CSSPs were functionalized with dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane and used as an HPLC packing material, exhibiting excellent separation performance for both small molecules and large biomolecules. In summary, we report the simplest method developed thus far for the preparation of monodisperse core-shell silica particles suitable for HPLC column packing.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Sílica Gel/química , Adsorção , Amônia/análise , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Microesferas , Peso Molecular , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenos/química , Porosidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114821, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559859

RESUMO

Rice fields significantly contribute to the global N2O and NH3 emissions. Nitrification inhibitors (NIs) show promise in decreasing N2O emission, but they can increase NH3 volatilization under traditional broadcasting. Root zone fertilization (RZF) can mitigate NH3 volatilization, but it may pose a high risk to N2O emission. Additionally, most chemical NIs have limited availability and potential for environmental contamination, in contrast, biological NIs, such as methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate (MHPP), are easily available and eco-friendly. However, the effects of RZF combined with MHPP on N2O and NH3 emissions are unknown. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in a Chinese rice field with five treatments at 210 kg urea-N ha-1 (BC: 3-split surface broadcasting; BC + MHPP: BC with MHPP; RZ, root zone fertilization; RZ + MHPP, RZF with MHPP; RZ + MHPP + NBPT, RZF with MHPP and NBPT). The results showed that although RZ eliminated NH3 volatilization, it significantly increased total N2O emission by 761% compared with BC due to the stimulation of nitrification by mid-season aeration (MSA) and the trigger of denitrification by a large amount of NO3-. Nearly 90% N2O was emitted at MSA stage for RZF treatments, and their N2O fluxes were exponentially related to the soil NO3--N concentrations in the 7-20 cm deep soil layer. RZ + MHPP greatly reduced the peak values of N2O flux due to the suppression of nitrification by MHPP and then less production of NO3- for denitrification, its total N2O emission was 79% lower compared with that of RZ. However, RZ + MHPP + NBPT further increased the total N2O emission by 1044% compared with that of BC. Compared to BC, the RZF practice reduced total NH3 volatilization by 88-92% regardless use of NIs. RZF had no influence on CH4 emissions and enhanced the rice yields. In conclusion, RZF + MHPP is a promising strategy for simultaneously reducing N2O and NH3 emissions in rice fields.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Oryza , Agricultura , Amônia/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
20.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114862, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497822

RESUMO

The losses of excessive reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural production pose detrimental impacts on water, air and land. However, N budgets of agroecosystems are still poorly quantified, presenting a barrier to understand the N turnover in agriculture. Agricultural ammonia (NH3) volatilization has been recognized as a crucial contribution to the pollution of fine particulate matters over China through reacting with acid gases. Building on these challenges, the first national-scale model analysis was constructed on the N budgets to gain an overall insight into the current status of N flows in Chinese dryland systems towards sustainable N management. Total inputs of soil N in Chinese dryland soils were estimated at 121 kg N ha-1 in 2010, considering all pathways including N manure, fertilizer, atmospheric deposition and litter from crop residues. Atmospheric N deposition accounted for 25% of N fertilizer plus N manure in Chinese dryland soils, suggesting that N deposition could not be ignored when estimating total N inputs to Chinese dryland soils. The highest ratio of NH3 volatilization to total N outputs was found at 43 kg N ha-1 (∼21%) in Northern China, followed by 41 kg N ha-1 (∼20%) in Sichuan Basin and 25 kg N ha-1 (∼26%) in Northeastern China. The modeling results indicated that, if a 20% decrease in N fertilizer plus N manure was achieved, it would lead to a 24% (7-49%) reduction in NH3 volatilization. Substantial reductions of NH3 volatilization would also be achieved by making an improvement in changing management practices (controlled release fertilizer and full irrigation). The results would give an overall insight into N budgets in Chinese dryland soils. The constructed N budgets assisted with understanding agricultural N flows and NH3 pollution, and evaluated the impacts of human activities on N cycle towards a precise way to regulate agricultural management.


Assuntos
Amônia/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Agricultura , China , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Solo , Volatilização
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