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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 564, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetable amaranth is a source of natural phytopigments and functional components of the commercial food industry for sustainable health benefits across the globe. It is guessed that recently identified amaranth (drought-tolerant) genotypes may contain ample phytopigments and phytochemicals suitable to extract juice as drinks. Hence, phytopigments and phytochemicals content of amaranth were assessed in detail for suitability as drinks to feed the phytochemicals deficient community across the globe. RESULTS: The selected amaranth contained adequate carbohydrates, protein, moisture, and dietary fiber, phytopigments, minerals, phytochemicals including the ability to scavenge radicals. Nine flavonoids compounds were estimated in amaranth genotypes including six flavonols, one flavanol, one flavone, and one flavanone. It is the first effort in which we identified one flavonol such as myricetin, one flavanol, such as catechin, one flavone i. e., apigenin, and one flavanone, like naringenin in drought-tolerant vegetable amaranth. Across six flavonols, quercetin and rutin were the most noteworthy compounds followed by myricetin and isoquercetin. Across the accessions, AT7 and AT15 had abundant phytochemicals, and radical quenching ability including considerable proximate, nutraceuticals, and phytopigments in comparison to the accessions AT3 and AT11. AT15 demonstrated the maximum total flavonols including the highest rutin and hyperoside. AT7 showed high total flavonols including the highest quercetin, isoquercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. The association of values revealed that studied phytopigments and phytochemicals of vegetable amaranth accessions demonstrated good radical quenching ability of 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2- Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl equivalent to Trolox. CONCLUSIONS: These advance lines AT7 and AT15 had abundant nutraceuticals, phytopigments, and phytochemicals including radical quenching ability. These lines might significantly contribute to the promotion of health benefits and feeding the community across the globe deficit in nutraceuticals and antioxidants. Identified flavonoid compounds open the new route for pharmacological study.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Bebidas/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Amaranthus/fisiologia , Secas
2.
Food Chem ; 332: 127415, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619945

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the combined effect of storage at 4 °C (10-days) and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the phytochemical profile of red beet (Beta vulgaris) and amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) microgreens. The untargeted profiling based on UHPLC-QTOF metabolomics allowed annotating 316 compounds, comprising mainly polyphenols and lipids. An impact of storage on the total phenolic content (TPC) was observed, with a maximum increase at 10-days of storage for both red beet (+1.3-fold) and amaranth (+1.1-fold). On the other hand, in vitro digestion of both red beet and amaranth microgreens produced a significant increase in TPC (36-88%), CUPRAC (27-40%), DPPH (6-43%), and BC (41-57%) to reach the maximum at 10 days of storage. Tyrosinase inhibitory potential also decreased following digestion. The combination of biochemical changes occurring in microgreen immature plants (likely in response to the harvest stress) with changes during digestion, determined the actual functional value of microgreens.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Digestão , Análise Discriminante , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3868, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123184

RESUMO

A. blitum is good sources of abundant natural antioxidant phytopigments such as anthocyanin, betalain, betaxanthin, and betacyanin and antioxidant phytochemicals of interest in the food industry. The chances of utilizing amaranth pigments and phytochemicals had been evaluated for extracting colorful juice as drink purposes. Hence, the presence of nutrients, phytopigments, phytochemicals, and radical scavenging activity of selected A. blitum leafy vegetables were evaluated. Leaves of A. blitum have considerable fiber, moisture, protein, and carbohydrates. It has considerable magnesium, calcium, potassium (30.42, 24.74, 10.24 mg g-1), zinc, iron, copper, manganese, (878.98, 1153.83, 26.13, 207.50 µg g-1), phytopigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll ab, chlorophyll b, (63.69, 90.60, 29.32 mg 100 g-1), betalain, betaxanthin, betacyanin (112.01, 58.38, 53.63 µg 100 g-1), vitamin C (1848.15 µg g-1), total carotenoids, ß-carotene (1675.38, 1281.66 µg g-1), TPC, TFC (253.45 GAE and 162.97 RE µg g-1 DW), and TAC (29.46, 55.72 µg g-1 DW in Tolax equivalent DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging capacity) in A. blitum. The accessions DS3, DS6, DS8, and DS12 exhibited the highest TAC in Trolox equivalent DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging capacity, flavonoids, and considerable phytopigments. These accessions had excellent antioxidant profiles along with high yielding potentiality. Hence, A. blitum provides an excellent source of proximate, phenolics, minerals, flavonoids, vitamins, and phytopigments to address the nutritional and antioxidant deficiency in daily diet.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Verduras/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3892, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127553

RESUMO

We evaluated 17 genotypes of stem amaranth (Amaranthus lividus) in terms of dietary fiber, moisture, carbohydrates, fat, ash, gross energy, protein, minerals, phytopigments, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamins, total flavonoids (TFC), total polyphenols (TPC) and their variations. Stem amaranth leaves have abundant dietary fiber, moisture, carbohydrates, and protein. We found significant amount of potassium, calcium, magnesium (9.61, 24.40, and 29.77 mg g-1 DW), iron, manganese, copper, zinc, (1131.98, 269.89, 25.03, and 1006.53 µg g-1 DW), phytopigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll ab chlorophyll b, (27.76, 42.06, and 14.30 mg 100 g-1 FW), betalain, betaxanthin, betacyanin (62.92, 31.81, 31.12 µg 100 g-1 FW), total carotenoids, beta-carotene (1675.38, 1289.26 µg g-1 FW), vitamin C (1355.46 µg g-1 FW), TPC, TFC (228.63 GAE and 157.42 RE µg g-1 DW), and TAC (DPPH, ABTS+) (26.61, 51.73 TEAC µg g-1 DW) in the leaves of stem amaranth. Genotypes exhibited a wide range of variations. Three genotypes DS40, DS30, and DS26 could be used as an antioxidant profile enriched stem amaranth. Phenolics, phytopigments, flavonoids, and vitamins of stem amaranth leaves exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Stem amaranth could be a potential source of dietary fiber, moisture, carbohydrates, protein, minerals, phenolics, phytopigments, flavonoids, and vitamins in our daily diet for attaining nutritional and antioxidant sufficiency.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Minerais/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química
5.
Food Chem ; 315: 126246, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028198

RESUMO

Growing concerns about the safety of using synthetic surfactants to stabilize food emulsions have inspired a trend towards the use of natural ingredients like starch as alternative food stabilizers in what are called Pickering emulsions. The hydrophilicity of commercially available starches, however, necessitates further chemical treatment to increase their hydrophobicity and emulsifying ability. Here we demonstrate an alkaline isolation method to extract amaranth and quinoa starch from flour while retaining a high protein content, which gives these materials an emulsifying ability comparable to octenyl succinylated starches in the literature. We highlight the key role played by protein by showing that a serial reduction of the protein content leads to a parallel reduction in emulsifying ability, and that pH affects this ability. Our method of retaining proteins naturally present in amaranth and quinoa not only bolsters their nutritional profile but also takes advantage of these proteins' native hydrophobicity for improved emulsification.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Emulsificantes/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Amido/química , Emulsões/química , Farinha , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Plantas/química
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3026-3032, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049526

RESUMO

Glufosinate is considered a contact herbicide because of its fast activity and limited translocation in plants. We used Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) as a model species to study plant-related factors affecting glufosinate uptake and translocation. Glufosinate uptake increased rapidly during the initial 24 h, achieving maximum uptake from this time on. The rate of uptake saturated with doses higher than 250 µM glufosinate, suggesting the involvement of a membrane transporter. When glufosinate concentrations were higher (>1 mM), uptake was a simple diffusion process in favor of a concentration gradient between the inside and the outside of the cells. Glufosinate uptake was inhibited by the presence of glutamine. The fast action of glufosinate did not limit its own translocation. Because glufosinate is highly water soluble, it translocates mostly through the apoplast or the xylem system. Consequently, old leaves tend to accumulate more herbicide than young meristematic leaves.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/metabolismo , Aminobutiratos/metabolismo , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Amaranthus/química , Aminobutiratos/química , Transporte Biológico , Herbicidas/química , Cinética , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Xilema/química , Xilema/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 137: 111178, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035214

RESUMO

Nowadays, consumers are more conscious of the environmental and nutritional benefits of foods. Pseudocereals grains, edible seeds belonging to dicotyledonous plant species, are becoming a current trend in human diets as gluten-free (GF) grains with excellent nutritional and nutraceutical value. Pseudocereals are a good source of starch, fiber, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals such as saponins, polyphenols, phytosterols, phytosteroids, and betalains with potential health benefits. The present review aims to summarize the nutritional quality and phytochemical profile of the three main pseudocereal grains: quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat. In addition, current evidence about their health benefits in animal models and human studies is also provided in detail. Based on the accumulating research supporting the inclusion of pseudocereals grains in the diet of celiac persons, this review discusses the recent advances in their application for the development of new GF products. Future directions for a wider cultivation and commercial exploitation of these crops are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Dieta Livre de Glúten , Grão Comestível/química , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Amaranthus/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Fagopyrum/química , Humanos
8.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 48(1): 560-571, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046511

RESUMO

In this paper, the first bio-nano colloid including manganese oxide nanoparticles and copper nanocomplex in the presence of Amaranthus spinosus as one unwanted plant was prepared (Mn3O4/CuL bio-nanocolloid). As-prepared bio nanocolloid was analysed completely by different techniques such as FT-IR, ICP-AES, SEM, EDX, TEM and elemental analysis to have the size, structure, morphology and elements in this compound. This bio-nanocolloid showed high catalytic activity towards green oxidation reactions of alcohols using hydrogen peroxide under solvent free conditions. The longevity, easy and practical recoverability of the solid catalyst was also confirmed for six times. The natural starting material for a long-term stability catalyst preparation, using ideal oxidant (H2O2), solventless and easy work up show the great potential in scalability for actual industries applications.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Cobre/química , Química Verde , Compostos de Manganês/química , Nanocompostos/química , Óxidos/química , Álcoois/química , Catálise , Coloides , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Oxirredução , Bases de Schiff
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1336, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992722

RESUMO

Amaranth has two morphological types described as red and green morphs. Previous studies have extensively characterised red morph amaranth regarding both morphological and chemical properties including antioxidant activity, antioxidant phytochemical profile, mineral content and proximate composition. However, there is scarce information concerning green morph amaranth. Hence, the present study evaluated 12 green morph genotypes for proximate composition, antioxidant activity, antioxidant pigments, minerals, and phytochemicals. Green morph amaranth was found to contain abundant carbohydrates, dietary fiber and protein. We found notable levels of inorganic minerals including potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc. Antioxidant capacity quantified as free radical quenching capacity varied between 27 and 48 µg g-1 Trolox equivalents. We additionally quantified antioxidants, including total phenolics, total flavonoid equivalents and vitamin C, as well as the antioxidant pigments carotenoids, chlorophylls and betalains. These data indicated that four green morph genotypes could be considered as enriched in their antioxidant profiles. Green morph amaranth could be a potential source of nutritional components and antioxidant phytochemicals in the human diet providing opportunities to address mineral nutrient deficiencies and provide an antioxidant rich food.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alelos , Amaranthus/genética , Antioxidantes/química , Genótipo , Minerais/química , Nutrientes/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Verduras
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 144: 705-714, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857164

RESUMO

The impact of starch granule size on 2-octenyl-1-succinic anhydride (OSA) modification remains unclear. To investigate changes of structural, physicochemical, digestibility and emulsifying properties due to OSA modification, five small granule starches (from wheat, rice, oat, quinoa and amaranth) were selected and compared with a standard large granule starch (waxy maize). OSA starches were prepared in 3% (volume by weight) OSA reagent with continuous stirring for 6 h under constant pH of 8.5. The hypothesis was that property changes induced by OSA treatment can be more efficiently achieved in small granule starches (< 10 µm diameter). Small granule OSA starches generally had greater emulsion stability, swelling power and digestibility after gelatinization than waxy maize OSA starch, likely due to the unique physical properties and specific molecular structures of small granule starches, i.e. low sedimentation coefficient, low DP of amylopectin and highly branched amylopectin with short chain length. Granule sizes of OSA starches significantly impact on swelling power, amylose leaching, digestibility and emulsifying capacity, but to different extents depending on botanical origin.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Amido/análogos & derivados , Amido/química , Anidridos Succínicos/química , Amaranthus/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Avena/química , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Emulsões/química , Estrutura Molecular , Oryza/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Amido/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triticum/química , Água , Zea mays/química
11.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113642, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806465

RESUMO

Although elevated levels of antimony (Sb) in agricultural soil and plant systems can have harmful effects on human health and ecosystems, little is known about the toxicity of Sb to plants and its mechanism. The assessment of Sb bioavailability is essential for understanding its potential risks and toxicity. In this study, we used pot experiments with two agricultural soil types spiked with Sb to investigate the dose-effect relationship between exposure to Sb and toxic effects (growth and bioaccumulation) on edible amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor Linn.). Soil solution (pore water) and seven single extractants were used to assess the bioavailability of Sb. Different toxic effects of Sb to amaranth cultivated in two types of soils (alkaline and acid soil) were observed. In alkaline soil (chestnut soil, pH 8.39), antimony is more easily absorbed by root and transported to shoot by plants, leading to more adverse effects, than in acid soil (pH 4.91) under the same exposure level. Our findings also highlight the need for more attention on asymptomatic accumulation of Sb in plants, especially for agricultural products cultivated in contaminated areas. The extraction efficiency of Sb was various in different extractants and soil types, Mehlich 3, NaHCO3 and Na2HPO4 for Sb were more efficient than other extractants in both tested alkaline and acid soil. Based on the extractability and correlation coefficients of toxic effects on amaranth and extractable Sb, we found that 0.1 M Na2HPO4 is the best extractant to predict the bioavailability of Sb in soil, and M3 is a suitable alternative. Antimony concentration in soil solution can also be used as an alternative indicator of the bioavailability of Sb.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Antimônio , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Amaranthus/química , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antimônio/metabolismo , Antimônio/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ecossistema , Solo/química , Solo/classificação , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
12.
Food Sci Technol Int ; 26(4): 344-352, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870194

RESUMO

Pseudocereals are gluten-free, nutrient-dense raw materials that are being considered for the production of gluten-free products, especially bread. This study proposes a gluten-free sourdough formula based on equal amounts of amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa with a dough yield of 250, and an elaboration method to obtain ripe sourdough. Sourdough was characterized in terms of microbiology, pH, and total titratable acidity. The established protocol made it possible to obtain a spontaneous ripe sourdough with lactic acid bacteria populations of 9.60 ± 0.02 log CFU/g and total yeasts and non-Saccharomyces yeast populations (lysine positive) of 7.91 ± 0.15 and 7.52 ± 0.10 log CFU/g, respectively. Great pH stability and total titratable acidity were maintained in the ripe sourdough phase, with values of 4.04 ± 0.02 and 18.39 ± 0.56 ml NaOH 0.1 M/10 g, respectively, at the time of the next refreshment. The use of this sourdough could be an interesting alternative for the production of not only gluten-free bread but also other gluten-free products.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Pão/análise , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Fagopyrum/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Glutens/análise , Pão/microbiologia , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sementes/química
13.
Food Chem ; 308: 125601, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670190

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to analyse the hypotensive effect of amaranth protein/peptides on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The mechanism of action of these peptides was studied in vivo and ex vivo. We also tested the effect of protection against gastrointestinal digestion (GID) exerted by an O:W emulsion on the integrity of the antihypertensive peptides. All samples tested produced a decrease in blood pressure (SBP). The animals treated with emulsion (GE) and emulsion + peptide (GE+VIKP) showed the most significant reduction in the SBP (42 ±â€¯2 mmHg and 35 ±â€¯2 mmHg, respectively). The results presented suggest that after GID, a variety of peptides with biological activities were released or were resistant to this process. These peptides play a role in the regulation of the SBP by acting on plasma ACE, plasma renin and the vascular system. These results support the use of amaranth protein/peptides in the elaboration of functional foods for hypertensive individuals.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18233, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796754

RESUMO

Red color (A. tricolor) genotypes are an excellent source of pigments, such as betalain (1122.47 ng g-1 FW), ß-xanthin (585.22 ng g-1 FW), ß-cyanin (624.75 ng g-1 FW), carotenoids (55.55 mg 100 g-1 FW), and antioxidant phytochemicals, such as vitamin C (122.43 mg 100 g-1 FW), TFC (312.64 RE µg g-1 DW), TPC (220.04 GAE µg g-1 DW), TAC (DPPH and ABTS+) (43.81 and 66.59 TEAC µg g-1 DW) compared to green color (A. lividus) genotype. Remarkable phenolic acids, such as salicylic acid, vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, gentisic acid, ß-resorcylic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, chlorogenic acid, sinapic acids, trans-cinnamic acid, m-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and flavonoids, such as rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetin, myricetin, quercetin, apigenin, kaempferol, and catechin were observed in the red color amaranth genotypes, which was much higher compared to the green color amaranth genotype. We newly identified four flavonoids such as quercetin, catechin, myricetin, and apigenin in amaranth. Among the three selected advanced genotypes studied the red color genotype VA13 and VA3 had abundant antioxidant pigments, phytochemicals, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity could be selected for extracting colorful juice. Correlation study revealed that all antioxidant constituents of red color amaranth had strong antioxidant activity. The present investigation revealed that two red color genotypes had an excellent source of antioxidants that demand detail pharmacological study.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Cor , Corantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18225, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796801

RESUMO

The herbicides glyphosate and imazamox inhibit the biosynthetic pathway of aromatic amino acids (AAA) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), respectively. Both herbicides share several physiological effects in the processes triggered in plants after herbicide application that kills the plant, and mixtures of both herbicides are being used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects in the mixture of glyphosate and imazamox in glyphosate-sensitive (GS) and -resistant (GR) populations of the troublesome weed Amaranthus palmeri. The changes detected in the physiological parameters after herbicide mixtures application were similar and even less to the changes detected after individual treatments. This pattern was detected in shikimate, amino acid and carbohydrate content, and it was independent of the EPSPS copy number, as it was detected in both populations. In the case of the transcriptional pattern of the AAA pathway after glyphosate, interesting and contrary interactions with imazamox treatment were detected for both populations; enhancement of the effect in the GS population and alleviation in the GR population. At the transcriptional level, no cross regulation between AAA and BCAA inhibitors was confirmed. This study suggests that mixtures are equally or less toxic than herbicides alone, and would implicate careful considerations when applying the herbicide mixtures.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Amaranthus/química , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Amaranthus/fisiologia , Aminoácidos Aromáticos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/farmacologia , Herbicidas/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Chiquímico/análise
16.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 132-148, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095876

RESUMO

Los oligoelementos son importantes constituyentes nutricionales de las hierbas comestibles. Se colectaron 11 especies, nueve nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) y dos introducidas (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea) en dos regiones de Guatemala. Se prepararon muestras de la hierba seca, cocida y de caldo de hierba fresca. Se cuantificaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica los macro (N, P, K) y oligoelementos (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn), taninos por espectrofotometría y oxalatos por permanganimetría. El contenido de oligoelementos es diverso, para Zn, la hierba control S. oleracea contienen buena cantidad (90-140 ppm); de las nativas D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) y A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) tienen la mayor cantidad. Respecto a Fe las hierbas control tienen buena composición (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm y M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); de las nativas A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) y L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) tienen buenas concentraciones. Se encontraron niveles elevados de oxalatos en S. oleracea (67.30 (5.51) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g) y S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); en las demás hierbas se encontraron niveles menores. Los niveles de taninos fueron bajos (0.1-0.8 mg/g) para todas las especies. Se demuestra que cuatro especies nativas tienen un buen contenido de oligoelementos y presentan valores menores de antinutricionales que los controles.


Trace elements are important nutritional constituents from edible herbs. Eleven species were collected in two regions of Guatemala, nine native (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) and two introduced (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea). Dry, cooked and broth samples were prepared. By atomic absorption spectrometry, macro (N, P, K) and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn) were quantified, tannins by spectrophotometry, and oxalates by permanganometry. Trace elements content is diverse, for Zn, control herb S. oleracea contained high quantity (90-140 ppm); from the natives D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) and A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) contained high amounts. For Fe, control herbs had high composition (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm, M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); from the natives A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) and L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) had the highest amounts. High levels of oxalates were demonstrated in S. oleracea (67.30 (5.48) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g), and S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); from the others levels.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/classificação , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Taninos/análise , Amaranthus/química , Jatropha/química
17.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3075-3082, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599971

RESUMO

The hypocholesterolemic effect of amaranth was studied in male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet that was supplemented with amaranth flour, AF, or isolated protein, AI. Likewise, an in vitro test was carried out, in which the capacity of the AI, AF, the digested isolate, DAI, and the digested amaranth flour, DAF, to displace the cholesterol of the model micelles was evaluated. The in vivo results showed an increase in the excretion of cholesterol through feces (77% for AF7; 23% and 108% for AI30 and AF30, respect control) and a decrease in the content of hepatic cholesterol (98% for AF7; 96% and 53% for AI30 and AF30 respect control); whereas in vitro it was shown that both AF and DAF have greater power to displace cholesterol than the AI and DAI (IC50 0.1, 0.71, 0.2, and 2.1 for AF, DAF, AI, and DAI, respectively). These evidences show that the proteins and fibers of amaranth have an effect on cholesterol metabolism. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, consumers give great importance to the effect that food has on health. The results shown in this work evidence the potential hypocholesterolemic activity presented by amaranth, this is of great importance due to the increase in the incidence of dyslipidemia in the world population and the importance of amaranth as a nonextensive crop of excellent agronomic, nutritional, and bioactive properties suitable for preparation of functional foods.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/análise , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta , Fezes/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
J Nat Prod ; 82(10): 2744-2753, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557021

RESUMO

Traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of antimicrobials; however, the bioactive peptide constituents of most ethnobotanical species remain largely unexplored. Herein, PepSAVI-MS, a mass spectrometry-based peptidomics pipeline, was implemented for antimicrobial peptide (AMP) discovery in the medicinal plant Amaranthus tricolor. This investigation revealed a novel 1.7 kDa AMP with strong activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, deemed Atr-AMP1. Initial efforts to determine the sequence of Atr-AMP1 utilized chemical derivatization and enzymatic digestion to provide information about specific residues and post-translational modifications. EThcD (electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation) produced extensive backbone fragmentation and facilitated de novo sequencing, the results of which were consistent with orthogonal characterization experiments. Additionally, multistage HCD (higher-energy collisional dissociation) facilitated discrimination between isobaric leucine and isoleucine. These results revealed a positively charged proline-rich peptide present in a heterogeneous population of multiple peptidoforms, possessing several post-translational modifications including a disulfide bond, methionine oxidation, and proline hydroxylation. Additional bioactivity screening of a simplified fraction containing Atr-AMP1 revealed activity against Staphylococcus aureus LAC, demonstrating activity against both a Gram-negative and a Gram-positive bacterial species unlike many known short chain proline-rich antimicrobial peptides.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Prolina
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9241-9253, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369258

RESUMO

Antiviral compounds targeting viral replicative processes have been studied as an alternative for the control of begomoviruses. Previously, we have reported that the peptide AmPep1 has strong affinity binding to the replication origin sequence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). In this study, we describe the mechanism of action of this peptide as a novel alternative for control of plant-infecting DNA viruses. When AmPep1 was applied exogenously to tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with TYLCV, a decrease in the synthesis of the two viral DNA strands (CS and VS) was observed, with a consequent delay in the development of disease progress in treated plants. The chemical mechanism of action of AmPep1 was deduced using Raman spectroscopy and molecular modeling showing the formation of chemical interactions such as H bonds and electrostatic interactions and the formation of π-π interactions between both biomolecules contributing to tampering with the viral replication.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Begomovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , RNA Viral/química , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Begomovirus/química , Begomovirus/genética , Begomovirus/fisiologia , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , RNA Viral/genética , Tabaco/virologia
20.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438557

RESUMO

Amaranthus hypochondriacus spp. is a commonly grown cereal in Latin America, known for its high protein content. The objective of this study was to separate and identify bioactive peptides found in amaranth seeds through enzymatically-assisted hydrolysis using alcalase and flavourzyme. Hydrolysis was carried out for each enzyme separately and compared to two-step continuous process where both enzymes were combined. The biological activity of the resulting three hydrolysates was analyzed, finding, in general, higher bioactive potential of the hydrolysate obtained in a continuous process (combined enzymes). Its fractions were separated by RP-HPLC, and their bioactivity was analyzed. In particular, two fractions showed the highest biological activity as ACE inhibitors with IC50 at 0.158 and 0.134, thrombin inhibitors with IC50 of 167 and 155, and antioxidants in ABTS assay with SC50 at 1.375 and 0.992 mg/L, respectively. Further sequence analysis of the bioactive peptides was carried out using MALDI-TOF, which identified amino acid chains that have not been reported as bioactive so far. Bibliographic survey allowed identification of similarities between peptides reported in amaranth and other proteins. In conclusion, amaranth proteins are a potential source of peptides with multifunctional activity.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Subtilisinas/metabolismo
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