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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105292, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585228

RESUMO

Economic evaluations of road safety measures are only rarely published in the scholarly literature. We collected and (re-)analyzed evidence in order to conduct cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) for 29 road safety measures. The information on crash costs was based on data from a survey in European countries. We applied a systematic procedure including corrections for inflation and Purchasing Power Parity in order to express all the monetary information in the same units (EUR, 2015). Cost-benefit analyses were done for measures with favorable estimated effects on road safety and for which relevant information on costs could be found. Results were assessed in terms of benefit-to-cost ratios and net present value. In order to account for some uncertainties, we carried out sensitivity analyses based on varying assumptions for costs of measures and measure effectiveness. Moreover we defined some combinations used as best case and worst case scenarios. In the best estimate scenario, 25 measures turn out to be cost-effective. 4 measures (road lighting, automatic barriers installation, area wide traffic calming and mandatory eyesight tests) are not cost-effective according to this scenario. In total, 14 measures remain cost-effective throughout all scenarios, whereas 10 other measures switch from cost-effective in the best case scenario to not cost-effective in the worst case scenario. For three measures insufficient information is available to calculate all scenarios. Two measures (automatic barriers installation and area wide traffic calming) even in the best case do not become cost-effective. Inherent uncertainties tend to be present in the underlying data on costs of measures, effects and target groups. Results of CBAs are not necessarily generally valid or directly transferable to other settings.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/economia , Ambiente Construído/economia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105290, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585230

RESUMO

Highway operations are marred with inherent risks of injury or death, making risk management critical for ensuring the adequate safety of the people involved. This paper investigates the interaction between various highway safety risk factors and effective risk mitigation strategies related to such interaction. The Covariate-Balanced Determinant Detector (CBDD) technique is used to estimate the quantity of both individual and combined risks, and their effect on highway operations safety. Through this technique, the most dangerous risk combinations have been identified and corresponding risk mitigation scenarios have been developed. The results illustrate that the most dangerous scenarios probably result from the interactive effect of risk factors rather than individual factors, and the effect of mitigation strategies should be evaluated in response to a risk scenario before it is implemented.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105271, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586823

RESUMO

While there has been increasing interest in wet-weather pavement markings due to their improved visibility and potential for enhancing road safety in wet-night conditions, there is a lack of research evaluating their safety effectiveness based on actual wet-night crash data. This paper presents the safety assessment of wet-weather pavement markings in the Atlanta District of the Texas Department of Transportation, conducted by two different evaluation approaches that are known to be rigorous and statistically defensible: Empirical-Bayes before-after analysis and full Bayes before-after analysis with comparison groups. The results from both approaches suggest that there are positive safety effects of wet-weather pavement markings for relevant crashes, providing evidence-based support for safety benefits of wet-weather markings.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Ambiente Construído/normas , Humanos , Segurança
4.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105285, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476585

RESUMO

Over the years the characteristics of traffic on Dutch motorways has changed, but its design guidelines did not develop as rapidly and large parts remain unchanged since the first guidelines from the 1970s. During the latest revision of the Dutch motorway design guidelines it became clear that a solid and comprehensive theoretical, or evidence based, background was lacking for the validity of the prescribed ramp spacing and required length for weaving segments. This article presents the underpinning of revising the Dutch design manual for motorways for turbulence in traffic. For this study loop detector data at eight on-ramps and five off-ramps were collected as well as empirical trajectory data at fourteen different on-ramps (three), off-ramps (three) and weaving segments (eight) in The Netherlands. The results show that the areas around ramps that are influenced by turbulence are smaller than described in the design manuals and that, in their present form, the microscopic simulation software packages VISSIM and MOTUS fail to simulate the number and location of lane-changes around ramps realistically.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/normas , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Baixos
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 336-349, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377497

RESUMO

Under the Safe System framework, Road Authorities have a responsibility to deliver inherently safe roads and streets. Addressing this problem depends on knowledge of the road network safety conditions and the number of funds available for new road safety interventions. It also requires the prioritisation of the various interventions that may generate benefits, increasing safety, while ensuring that reasonable steps are taken to remedy the deficiencies detected within a reasonable timeframe. In this context, Road Safety Inspections (RSI) are a proactive tool for identifying safety issues, consisting of a regular, systematic, on-site inspection of existing roads, covering the whole road network, carried out by trained safety expert teams. This paper aims to describe how topic modelling can be effectively used to identify co-occurrence patterns of attributes related to the run-off-road crashes, as well as the corresponding patterns of road safety interventions, as described in the RSI reports. We apply latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), a widespread method for fitting a topic model, to analyse the topics mentioned in RSI reports, divided into two groups: problems found; and proposed solutions. For this study, 54 RSI gathered over six years (2012-2017) were analysed, covering 4011 km of Irish roads. The results indicate that important keywords relating to the "forgiving roadside" and "clear zone" concepts, as well as the relevant European technical standards (CEN-EN1317 and EN 12,767), are absent from the extracted latent topics. We also found that the frequency of topics related to roadside safety is higher in the problems record set than in the solutions record set, meaning that problems are more easily identified and related to the roadside area than interventions may be. This paper presents methodological empirical evidence that the LDA is appropriate for identifying the co-occurrence patterns of attributes related to the ROR crashes in road safety inspections' reports, as well as the interventions' patterns associated with these crashes. Also, it provides valuable information aimed to determine the extent to which national road authorities in Europe and their contractors are currently capable of implementing and maintaining compliance with roadside standards and guidelines throughout the life cycle of roads.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irlanda , Probabilidade , Segurança
6.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 211-224, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170560

RESUMO

Frequent vehicle-pedestrian conflicts deserve special attention for safety assessment at intersections. This study helps verify how the simulation as an innovative approach can be utilized for right-turning vehicle-pedestrian conflict assessment at intersection crosswalks prior to implementation. Various behavior models such as vehicle turning path, turning speed, gap acceptance model and pedestrian behavior model, have been established. Through integrating the calibrated models into one simulation platform, the stochastic behavior of vehicles and pedestrians under different geometric layouts and operational conditions can be reproduced. Based on the field data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at two urban intersections in Beijing, China, it was demonstrated through validation of surrogate safety measures (SSMs), i.e., Post Encroachment Time (PET) and vehicle passing speed at conflict points, that the simulation model can reasonably represent the frequency and severity of conflict occurrence at signalized crosswalks. The sensitivity analysis results indicated that large dimensions and turning angles of intersections tend to result in undesirable safety performance.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Pequim , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pedestres/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Segurança
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 1-6, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078947

RESUMO

Factors explaining systematic variation in the number of injury accidents on road bridges in Norway during 2010-2016 have been identified by means of negative binomial regression models. A total of 6824 bridges recording in total 1368 accidents were included. Although almost 90% of the bridges recorded zero accidents, there is no evidence of an excessive number of zeros, often referred to as "zero-inflation". Traffic volume, stated as AADT (Annual Average Daily Traffic), was found to be the single most important factor influencing the number of accidents. It explained nearly 72% of the systematic variation in the number of accidents. The number of accidents increased less than proportionately with traffic volume, meaning that accidents per million vehicle kilometres declined with increasing traffic volume. Long bridges were found to be safer than short bridges and recently built bridges were safer than older bridges. Based on in-depth studies, a more detailed analysis of factors associated with fatal accidents was performed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/normas , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Noruega
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 128: 159-163, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026673

RESUMO

Morbidity and mortality due to road traffic injuries (RTI) is one of the few public health problems where society and decision makers still accept death and disability on such a large scale as inevitable. Discussion only revolves around the number of deaths and injuries we are willing to accept. The partial departure from this mode of thinking is 'Vision Zero' for road safety that was adopted by the Swedish parliament in 1997. The long-term objective is that no one shall be killed or seriously injured in traffic and that the design, function and use of the transport system shall be adapted to the standards this requires. In this article we try to understand the concept of RTI as a public health problem and why that understanding has led to the introduction of Vison Zero and then sporadic attempts to establish road safety as a fundamental human right. We provide some details surrounding these events, the reasons for their limited success, and suggest ways in how we might move forward in establishing a place for rights and obligations to ensure road safety in reality. Some of the ways forward include: (a) Every policy, law or safety standard (concerning roads, vehicles or traffic management) established by the state to be accompanied by a justification for the same by including systematic reviews of the scientific evidence used for the decision and the expected safety benefits in numerical estimates. (b) Manufacturers of vehicles and other road-based technologies to explicitly state the quality and limits of the safety features embedded in their technologies. (c) International agencies dealing with road safety (state and non-state) to examine all sources of systematic reviews of road safety interventions and use them to justify the policies they pursue. They should also make it explicit that they will fund road safety activity by non-government organisations only if they promote interventions justified by scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Política Pública , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisões , Direitos Humanos/normas , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Suécia
9.
Accid Anal Prev ; 128: 114-131, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991290

RESUMO

How do the findings of road safety research affect the practice by which the road infrastructure is built and operated? The question is seldom asked. I discuss the complexities of the research-practice symbiosis in the light of two historical anecdotes. These allow me to point out several issues of concern. My general conclusion is that the relationship, as it evolved over time, is unpremeditated and occasionally dysfunctional. Issues of concern are the lightness with which decisions affecting road-user safety can be based on opinion that is unsupported by evidence, that such opinions can trump inconvenient evidence, that research findings can be willfully distorted or disregarded, that questionable results can be given a ring of consensual truth, and that the questions which research asks and what findings get published are at times influenced by external interest. In sum, the concern is that practice is not sufficiently evidence-based. Road users have a right to expect that decisions substantially affecting their safety take into account fact-based expectation of safety consequences. It is therefore time to endow the research-practice relationship with a premeditated and purposeful structure.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Ambiente Construído/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pesquisa/normas , Segurança
10.
Accid Anal Prev ; 128: 53-64, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980986

RESUMO

Public Private Partnerships (PPP) have become common in providing high-quality infrastructure in many countries worldwide. One of the main reasons for PPP agreements is to improve efficiency and quality in the delivery of public services, as well as to boost investments for expensive projects. Despite PPPs having been particularly widespread in the case of the construction and rehabilitation of high-capacity road infrastructure, their impact in terms of road safety outcomes is still unexplored. This paper studies the effects of PPPs on road safety outcomes by taking advantage of the variety of production models provided in the Spanish highway network. Results based on a panel-data fixed-effects method show that the most relevant aspect influencing road safety outcomes is the quality of design of the road. However, we find evidence suggesting that privately operated highways (PPPs) are positively correlated with better road safety outcomes for roads with similar quality. This finding that should be confirmed by further research raises interest in the mechanisms that could produce this link between management models and road safety.


Assuntos
Parcerias Público-Privadas , Segurança , Transportes/normas , Ambiente Construído/normas , Humanos , Espanha , Transportes/economia
11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E35, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine aspects of the built environment that may have contributed to the low levels of physical activity reported in both the gestational and postnatal periods by women participating in a diet and physical activity intervention in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta. METHODS: The built environments of 12 towns were measured by using the Rural Active Living Assessment tools and the Community Park Audit Tool. Correlations between town assessment scores and town size variables were computed by using Kendall τ coefficient. The street distance from a participant's home address to the nearest park was computed by using network analysis in ArcGIS. RESULTS: Rural Active Living Assessment scores were low with mean values between 0% (town policy) and 68% (parks and playgrounds) of the highest possible scores. The mean (standard deviation) number of parks per town was 2.6 (3.2), and 55% of the 31 parks were in the 2 largest towns. Most parks (87%) had a single amenity while 1 park had more than 4 amenities. Distance from a participant's home to the nearest park ranged from less than 0.1 to 8.8 miles (mean [standard deviation], 1.2 [1.8]). CONCLUSION: These 12 Lower Mississippi Delta towns scored low on assessments of physical environment features and amenities, town characteristics, and programs and policies associated with physical activity in rural communities. To increase the physical activity levels of rural residents, it may be necessary to first improve the built environment in which they live.


Assuntos
Exercício , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Mississippi , Parques Recreativos/normas , Gravidez , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 127: 172-176, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893576

RESUMO

Road engineers have special responsibilities to design and maintain roads that are safe, secure, and serviceable. This paper explores some of the challenges such responsibilities pose, especially from the vantage point of non-engineers whose lives are deeply affected by the work of road engineers. It also supports the thesis that road engineers need to be prepared to consult and work with professionals in other fields than engineering in order to fulfill their responsibilities well.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído/normas , Engenharia/normas , Segurança/normas , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 127: 198-209, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903986

RESUMO

Most existing interchanges in the United States were built more than 50 years ago based on old design policies. Many of these designs are not consistent with current traffic and pedestrian demands anymore. Therefore, this inconsistency has caused problems regarding operation and safety. This paper models safety performance of a new design called super diverging diamond interchange (super DDI) considering VISSIM simulation and surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM). Six other interchange designs were also considered for comparing to the new super DDI design. Overall, 252 simulation scenarios were modeled in VISSIM and then tested by SSAM. Also, the same number of tests were considered to evaluate pedestrian performance of the designs considered in this study. Based on results, super DDI showed a high potential either in terms of traffic safety and pedestrian safety. In comparison to other designs, super DDI had the minimum number of simulated conflicts as well as the lowest mean speed and time to collision (TTC) of simulated conflicts. This fact shows that super DDI could perform promising in reducing crash frequency and crash severity. Reviewing the geometry of the super DDI, lower traffic involving in each conflict point should be one of the main reasons for the promising traffic safety performance of the design. Regarding pedestrian performance, super DDI got the third rank of the lowest mean pedestrian travel times. There is no free-flowing conflict between vehicles and pedestrians in a super DDI. Therefore, pedestrian paths of the super DDI are predicted to be safer than the paths in a typical DDI design.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Segurança , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Pedestres
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 125: 174-187, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771587

RESUMO

Despite the recognized benefits of electronic toll collection (ETC) system as an important part of toll plaza area, the mixed traffic of electronic toll collection (ETC) vehicles and manual toll collection (MTC) vehicles in the toll plaza diverging area are considered risky to vehicles, in which complex diverging and crossing behavior of vehicles would increase the collision risks. Therefore, it is vitally important to investigate the vehicle collision risk in the up stream toll plaza area. Video data are collected from a typical toll plaza in Nanjing, China, and vehicle trajectory data are extracted using an automated analysis system based on OpenCV. An extended Time-To-Collision (TTC) is proposed to evaluate the vehicle collision risk. Subsequently, the different effects on vehicle collision risk of vehicles with different toll collection types, target lanes and locations are compared. Furthermore, the random parameters logistic model is developed to investigate the effects of explanatory factors on the collision risk of vehicles diverging or adjusting their lane position. The results suggested that the MTC vehicles have the highest collision risk in the toll plaza diverging area and there are significant different effects on collision risk among vehicles with different target toll collection lanes. Further, more dangerous situations could be found for a vehicle if it is closer to the toll collection lanes and surrounded by heavy traffic. It is also confirmed that mixed traffic with MTC and ETC vehicles could increase the crash risk in the toll plaza diverging area. It is expected that the findings could help engineers and operators select the appropriate engineering and traffic control solutions to enhance the safety at the toll plaza diverging area.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/normas , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores de Risco , Gravação em Vídeo
15.
J Public Health Policy ; 40(3): 292-307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808998

RESUMO

In just a few decades, China has undergone probably the fastest motorization of a transportation system in history. Now possessing the longest roadway network and the highest volume of car sales in the world, China has also faced major public health impacts from adopting automobiles, including air pollution and traffic fatalities. This paper synthesizes various sources to present the challenges to road safety in China. The country's rapid development expresses many patterns and features familiar to developed nations, such as declining urban density, increased use of sport utility vehicles, and strict drunk-driving laws. It also mirrors patterns familiar to developing nations-high-fatality rates for pedestrians and nondrivers, low salaries and corruption among police officers, and infrequent seat-belt use. Despite these similarities, China also exhibits particular attributes, such as a nationwide cadre evaluation system and tightly controlled media organization, which influence the traffic risks that receive national attention.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/normas , Automóveis/normas , Ambiente Construído/normas , China , Previsões , Humanos , Política , Segurança
16.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 26(1): 3-11, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616872

RESUMO

This study assesses the impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The participants were 720 commercial vehicle drivers. While simple random sampling was used to select 6 out of 137 federal highways, stratified random sampling was used to select six categories of commercial vehicle drivers. The study used qual-dominant mixed methods approach comprising key informant interviews; group interviews; field observation; policy appraisal and secondary literature on traffic signs. Result shows that the failure of government to provide and maintain traffic signs in order to guide road users through the numerous accident black spots on the highways is the major cause of road accidents in Nigeria. The study argues that provision and maintenance of traffic signs present opportunity to promoting safety on the highways and achieving the sustainable development goals.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/normas , Segurança/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Condução de Veículo , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Manutenção/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Observação , Fatores de Risco , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adulto Jovem
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 123: 159-169, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513457

RESUMO

The interchange merging area suffers a high crash risk in the freeway system, which is greatly related to the intense mandatory merging maneuvers. Ignoring such correlation may result in limited and biased conclusions and inefficient countermeasures. Recently, the availability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) provides us an opportunity to collect individual vehicle's data to conduct traffic analysis at the microscopic level. Hence, this paper contributes to the literature by proposing a new framework to analyze crash risk at freeway interchange merging areas considering drivers' merging behavior. The analysis framework is conducted based on individual vehicle data from UAV videos. A multilevel random parameters logistic regression model is proposed to investigate each driver's merging behavior in the acceleration lane. The model could identify the impact of different factors related to traffic and drivers on the merging behavior. Then, the crash risk between the merging vehicle and surrounding vehicles is calculated by incorporating the time-to-collision (TTC) and the output of the estimated merging behavior's model. The results suggest that the proposed method provides more valuable insights about the crash risk at interchange merging areas by simultaneously considering the merging behavior and the safety measure. It is concluded that the merging speed, driving ability (e.g., lane change confidence, lane-keeping instability), and the merging location can affect the crash risk. These results can help traffic engineers propose efficient countermeasures to enhance the safety of the interchange merging area. The results also have implications to the design of merging areas and the advent of connected vehicles' technology.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Ambiente Construído/normas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores de Risco , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 123: 39-50, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463029

RESUMO

This paper examined the accident risk factors associated with highway traffic and roadway design, for each of three highway classes in the United States using a bivariate modeling framework involving two levels of accident severity. With regard to the highest class (Interstates), the results suggest that, compared to no-casualty accidents, casualty accidents are more sensitive to traffic volume and average vertical grade, but less sensitive to the inside shoulder width and the median width. For US Roads, it was determined that, compared to no-casualty accidents, casualty accidents are more sensitive to traffic volume, outside shoulder width, pavement condition, and median width but less sensitive to the average vertical grade. For the relatively lowest-class roads (State Roads), it was determined that, compared to no-casualty accidents, casualty accidents are more sensitive to the traffic volume, lane width, outside shoulder width, and pavement condition. Compared to the relatively lower-class highways, accidents at higher-class highways are more sensitive to: changes in traffic volume, average vertical grade, median width, inside shoulder width, and the pavement condition (no-casualty accidents only); but less sensitive to changes in lane width, pavement condition (casualty accidents only), and the outside shoulder width. This variation in sensitivity across the different road classes could be attributed to the differences in road geometry standards across the road classes, as the results seem to support the hypothesis that these standards strongly influence accident occurrence. It is hoped that the developed bivariate negative binomial models can help highway engineers to evaluate their current design standards and policy, and to assess the safety consequences of changes in these standards in each road class.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/classificação , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança , Ambiente Construído/normas , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 123: 51-59, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465990

RESUMO

Single-motorcycle crashes are overrepresented on horizontally curved segments of rural, two-lane, undivided (RTU) highways. However, the relationship between single-motorcycle crash risk and the design features of horizontal curves on RTU highways is not well-studied in existing literature. This study aims to quantify the effect of horizontal curve type and radius on the risk of single-motorcycle crashes with a matched case-control study that can address the issues of the low sample mean, aggregation bias, and uncontrolled confounders existing in the traditional cross-sectional study. In the matched case-control study, three matching factors-year, annual average daily traffic (AADT), and segment length-were selected to match controls (RTU segments without crash records) with cases (RTU segments with crash records). A total of 1601 cases and 16,010 matched controls over 11 years (2005-2015) were identified as matched-strata. A conditional logistic model was fitted on the matched-strata data to estimate the crash modification factors (CMFs) of horizontal curve design features for single-motorcycle crashes. The modeling results highlighted the interaction effects between curve type and radius on the risk of single-motorcycle crashes. Sharp (radius ≤ 1500 ft) non-reverse curves were identified as the riskiest curve design for motorcyclists, followed by sharp reverse curves and moderate (1500 ft < radius ≤ 3000 ft) reverse curves. The study also revealed that motorcyclists might take safety-compensation behaviors on sharp curves, narrow shoulders, and poor pavement conditions. Engineering and education countermeasures are suggested for comprehending curve presence and associated risk level, reducing curve entry speed, and improving safety awareness. Finally, the limitations of the study and possible solutions are discussed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Motocicletas , População Rural , Segurança , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 122: 308-317, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated associations between the installation of eleven street design elements, between 2007 and 2015, and subsequent changes in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions in New York City. METHODS: Collision data were from Accident Location Information System in the New York State Department of Transportation. Safety improvement projects at 118 intersections were reviewed and their implemented street design elements were identified. First, we assessed potential regression-to-the-mean effects using historic trends of pedestrian collision count at the intersection project locations. Second, we used a two-group pretest-posttest design to assess individual element's associations with pedestrian collision reduction after installations. Pedestrian collision count and pedestrian- and vehicle-based pedestrian collision rates were examined. Third, regression trees were used to classify the intersections with design elements as independent variables for the target variables of collision outcomes, to identify street design element combinations associated with pedestrian collision reductions. RESULTS: Treatments with pedestrian refuge island or pedestrian plaza had reductions in pedestrian collision count and pedestrian-based collision rate while their comparisons had no changes. Treatments with pedestrian refuge island had a larger reduction in pedestrian collision when combined with lane removal or narrowing. Treatment with curb extension or pedestrian plaza had reductions in vehicle-based pedestrian collision rate while their comparisons had no changes. Other studied elements showed no, small, or insignificant associations with post-project pedestrian collision reductions.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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