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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408410

RESUMO

Despite their enormous potential, the use of indoor localization systems (ILS) remains seldom. One reason is the lack of market transparency and stakeholders' trust in the systems' performance as a consequence of insufficient use of test and evaluation (T&E) methodologies. The heterogeneous nature of ILS, their influences, and their applications pose various challenges for the design of a methodology that provides meaningful results. Methodologies for building-wide testing exist, but their use is mostly limited to associated indoor localization competitions. In this work, the T&E 4iLoc Framework is proposed-a methodology for T&E of indoor localization systems in semi-controlled environments based on a system-level and black-box approach. In contrast to building-wide testing, T&E in semi-controlled environments, such as test halls, is characterized by lower costs, higher reproducibility, and better comparability of the results. The limitation of low transferability to real-world applications is addressed by an application-driven design approach. The empirical validation of the T&E 4iLoc Framework, based on the examination of a contour-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) ILS, an ultra wideband ILS, and a camera-based ILS for the application of automated guided vehicles in warehouse operation, demonstrates the benefits of T&E with the T&E 4iLoc Framework.


Assuntos
Ambiente Controlado , Confiança , Coleta de Dados , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408899

RESUMO

Plant disease and insect pests are major limiting factors that reduce crop production worldwide. The ornamental indoor cultivation cash crop dwarf coffee Punica arabica 'Pacas' is also troubled by these issues. Silicon (Si) is one of the most abundant elements in the lithosphere and positively impacts plant health by effectively mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. Several studies have shown that Si activates plant defense systems, although the specific nature of the involvement of Si in biochemical processes that lead to resistance is unclear. In our study, Si significantly promoted the growth and development of dwarf coffee seedlings grown in plant growth chambers. More than that, through natural infection, Si suppressed disease and insect pests by improving physiology (e.g., the strong development of the internal structures of roots, stems, and leaves; higher photosynthetic efficiency; more abundant organic matter accumulation; the promotion of root activity; the efficient absorption and transfer of mineral elements; and various activated enzymes) and up-regulating defense genes (CaERFTF11 and CaERF13). Overall, in agriculture, Si may potentially contribute to global food security and safety by assisting in the creation of enhanced crop types with optimal production as well by mitigating plant disease and insect pests. In this sense, Si is a sustainable alternative in agricultural production.


Assuntos
Coffea , Silício , Animais , Café , Ambiente Controlado , Insetos , Plantas , Silício/farmacologia
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35161555

RESUMO

Wireless sensing is the utmost cutting-edge way of monitoring different health-related activities and, concurrently, preserving most of the privacy of individuals. To meet future needs, multi-subject activity monitoring is in demand, whether it is for smart care centres or homes. In this paper, a smart monitoring system for different human activities is proposed based on radio-frequency sensing integrated with ensemble machine learning models. The ensemble technique can recognise a wide range of activity based on alterations in the wireless signal's Channel State Information (CSI). The proposed system operates at 3.75 GHz, and up to four subjects participated in the experimental study in order to acquire data on sixteen distinct daily living activities: sitting, standing, and walking. The proposed methodology merges subject count and performed activities, resulting in occupancy count and activity performed being recognised at the same time. To capture alterations owing to concurrent multi-subject motions, the CSI amplitudes collected from 51 subcarriers of the wireless signals were processed and merged. To distinguish multi-subject activity, a machine learning model based on an ensemble learning technique was designed and trained using the acquired CSI data. For maximum activity classes, the proposed approach attained a high average accuracy of up to 98%. The presented system has the ability to fulfil prospective health activity monitoring demands and is a viable solution towards well-being tracking.


Assuntos
Software , Caminhada , Ambiente Controlado , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(4): 210-222, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143378

RESUMO

Exposures to vapors generated by small spills of organic solvents are common in the occupational hygiene practice. In these scenarios, contaminant mass release is exponentially decreasing, driven by an evaporation rate constant alpha (α). Knowing α is fundamental for adequately modeling peak concentrations and/or short-term exposures that occur and for achieving efficient occupational risk analysis and management. The purpose of this study was to measure alpha experimentally using a gravimetric approach in a controlled environment during solvent evaporation tests designed to simulate small spills of solvents. The effects of several factors on α were evaluated. Equations based on regression models derived from the experimental data were proposed for predicting α. Predictions were externally validated against experimental data. A total of 183 tests was performed. Data analyses found that alpha (α) values increased with vapor pressure, spill surface area-to-spill volume ratio, and air speed across the spill. Larger α were associated with petri dish containers compared to watch glasses. Three regression models were created for predicting α. They had four variables in common, namely vapor pressure, molecular weight, air speed above the liquid, and surface tension of the liquid. The fifth variable was either spill volume, spill surface area, or spill surface area-to-spill volume ratio. The R2 of the regression models were equal to 0.98. External validation showed mean relative errors of -32.9, -32.0, and -25.5%, respectively, with associated standard deviations of the relative errors of 17.7, 33.3, and 26.0%, respectively, and associated R2 of 0.92, 0.65, and 0.87, respectively. The proposed equations can be used for estimating α in exposure scenarios similar to those evaluated in this study. Moreover, these models constitute a step further in the improvement of knowledge on estimating evaporation rates for small spills of organic solvents.


Assuntos
Ambiente Controlado , Modelos Teóricos , Fenômenos Físicos , Medição de Risco , Solventes/análise
5.
Phytopathology ; 112(1): 180-188, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410854

RESUMO

In Brazil, citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus' (CLam) and 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). However, there are few studies about HLB epidemiology when both Liberibacter spp. and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri), are present. The objective of this work was to compare the transmission of HLB by ACP when both CLam and CLas are present as primary inoculum. Two experiments were performed under screenhouse conditions from April 2008 to January 2012 (experiment 1) and from February 2011 to December 2015 (experiment 2). The experiments were carried out with sweet orange plants infected with CLam or CLas as inoculum source surrounded by sweet orange healthy plants. One hundred Liberibacter-free adult psyllids were monthly confined to the source of inoculum plants for 7 days with subsequent free movement inside the screenhouse. Fortnightly, nymphs and adults of psyllids were monitored. Psyllid and leaf samples were collected periodically for Liberibacter detection by PCR or quantitative PCR. CLas was detected more frequently than CLam in both psyllid and leaf samples. No mixed infections were detected in the psyllids. A clear prevalence of CLas over CLam was observed in both experiments. The final HLB incidences were 16.7 and 14.5% of Liberibacter-positive test plants, and CLas was detected in 92.3 and 93.1% of these infected plants. Mixed infection was observed only in 3.8% of infected test plants in experiment 1. These results endorse the shift in the prevalence of CLam to CLas observed in citrus orchards of São Paulo, Brazil.


Assuntos
Citrus , Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Animais , Brasil , Ambiente Controlado , Liberibacter , Doenças das Plantas
6.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(1): 1-16, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302493

RESUMO

Rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns will affect agricultural production substantially, exposing crops to extended and more intense periods of stress. Therefore, breeding of varieties adapted to the constantly changing conditions is pivotal to enable a quantitatively and qualitatively adequate crop production despite the negative effects of climate change. As it is not yet possible to select for adaptation to future climate scenarios in the field, simulations of future conditions in controlled-environment (CE) phenotyping facilities contribute to the understanding of the plant response to special stress conditions and help breeders to select ideal genotypes which cope with future conditions. CE phenotyping facilities enable the collection of traits that are not easy to measure under field conditions and the assessment of a plant's phenotype under repeatable, clearly defined environmental conditions using automated, non-invasive, high-throughput methods. However, extrapolation and translation of results obtained under controlled environments to field environments is ambiguous. This review outlines the opportunities and challenges of phenotyping approaches under controlled environments complementary to conventional field trials. It gives an overview on general principles and introduces existing phenotyping facilities that take up the challenge of obtaining reliable and robust phenotypic data on climate response traits to support breeding of climate-adapted crops.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ambiente Controlado , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Adaptação Fisiológica , Secas , Transpiração Vegetal , Estresse Salino
7.
PDA J Pharm Sci Technol ; 76(2): 109-119, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131012

RESUMO

In cleanroom facilities, both disposable and reusable textile garments (coveralls, boots, hoods, and frocks) meet the particulate standards from the most rigorous to the most basic levels. However, the reusables clearly offer two other important benefits, lower annual cost and lower environmental impact. The objectives of this article are to now provide quantitative reusable product benefits on a U.S. national environmental and economic basis. This is the first quantitative, novel multi-user economic evaluation of selecting cleanroom reusables over disposables. For personal protection equipment (PPE), these cost and environmental benefits indicate there is also an improved environmental and economic aspect to the increased national demand for reusables related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while necessary cleaning with approved detergents is easily achieved. The current reusable cleanroom market (14.1 million packages) was estimated to be 60% nonsterile and 40% sterilized. The total market is about 50% reusable and 50% disposable. This research documents that there is an annual cost reduction of about 58% when selecting reusables over disposables, giving an economic savings to the U.S. cleanroom sector from reusables of about $1.2 billion in the next decade. This is also saving the total U.S. about 136 million MJ natural resource energy/year (38 million kWh) and about 8.4 million kg CO2eq annually (removal of about 1,650 cars/year). A maximum hypothetical case for reusables at 87.5% of the market (12.5% are mandatory Hazmat disposable) would yield a U.S. national savings of nearly $2.1 billion/decade to the cleanroom sector bottom line, as well as 2.4 billion MJ nre savings in energy or removal of about 29,000 cars/decade. These results indicate there are effective, verifiable, and easily obtained environmental and economic benefits by the basic transition by diverse cleanrooms in deciding to select reusable garments.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equipamentos Descartáveis , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ambiente Controlado , Humanos , Têxteis
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509593

RESUMO

There is increased interest in rearing salmon in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), where environmental conditions can be tightly controlled to optimize growth. Photoperiod and salinity are two important parameters that can be manipulated in RAS. A longer photoperiod permits more time for feeding, while intermediate salinities may reduce the energetic costs of ionoregulation, both of which may enhance growth. However, little is known about how rearing at different photoperiods and salinity affect behaviour, an understudied but important research topic for intensive fish rearing. To address this, we examined the behavioural effects of two salinities and two photoperiod regimes in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) post-smolts reared continuously for 120 days in a RAS. Fish were reared on a photoperiod of either 12 h light:12 h dark (12:12), or 24 h light (24:0) at salinities of 2.5 and 10 ppt. To investigate behavioural differences associated with these treatments, we quantified: i) movement in an open-field test, ii) exploratory behaviour/boldness using a novel object approach test, and iii) anxiety-like behaviour with a light/dark test. The 24:0 groups displayed no differences in boldness/anxiety-like behaviour and locomotion relative to the 12:12 groups at their respective salinities. Taken together, fish reared under continuous light (24:0) show negligible behavioural alterations compared to fish reared under normal light dark conditions (12:12).


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Oncorhynchus kisutch/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Animais , Ansiedade , Aquicultura/instrumentação , Comportamento Animal , Ambiente Controlado , Locomoção , Oncorhynchus kisutch/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade
10.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 238, 2021 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Spacecraft Assembly Facility (SAF) at the NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the primary cleanroom facility used in the construction of some of the planetary protection (PP)-sensitive missions developed by NASA, including the Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover that launched in July 2020. SAF floor samples (n=98) were collected, over a 6-month period in 2016 prior to the construction of the Mars rover subsystems, to better understand the temporal and spatial distribution of bacterial populations (total, viable, cultivable, and spore) in this unique cleanroom. RESULTS: Cleanroom samples were examined for total (living and dead) and viable (living only) microbial populations using molecular approaches and cultured isolates employing the traditional NASA standard spore assay (NSA), which predominantly isolated spores. The 130 NSA isolates were represented by 16 bacterial genera, of which 97% were identified as spore-formers via Sanger sequencing. The most spatially abundant isolate was Bacillus subtilis, and the most temporally abundant spore-former was Virgibacillus panthothenticus. The 16S rRNA gene-targeted amplicon sequencing detected 51 additional genera not found in the NSA method. The amplicon sequencing of the samples treated with propidium monoazide (PMA), which would differentiate between viable and dead organisms, revealed a total of 54 genera: 46 viable non-spore forming genera and 8 viable spore forming genera in these samples. The microbial diversity generated by the amplicon sequencing corresponded to ~86% non-spore-formers and ~14% spore-formers. The most common spatially distributed genera were Sphinigobium, Geobacillus, and Bacillus whereas temporally distributed common genera were Acinetobacter, Geobacilllus, and Bacillus. Single-cell genomics detected 6 genera in the sample analyzed, with the most prominent being Acinetobacter. CONCLUSION: This study clearly established that detecting spores via NSA does not provide a complete assessment for the cleanliness of spacecraft-associated environments since it failed to detect several PP-relevant genera that were only recovered via molecular methods. This highlights the importance of a methodological paradigm shift to appropriately monitor bioburden in cleanrooms for not only the aeronautical industry but also for pharmaceutical, medical industries, etc., and the need to employ molecular sequencing to complement traditional culture-based assays. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bactérias , Ambiente Controlado , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Astronave
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762676

RESUMO

Low-cost optical scattering particulate matter (PM) sensors report total or size-specific particle counts and mass concentrations. The PM concentration and size are estimated by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) proprietary algorithms, which have inherent limitations since particle scattering depends on particles' properties such as size, shape, and complex index of refraction (CRI) as well as environmental parameters such as temperature and relative humidity (RH). As low-cost PM sensors are not able to resolve individual particles, there is a need to characterize and calibrate sensors' performance under a controlled environment. Here, we present improved calibration algorithms for Plantower PMS A003 sensor for mass indices and size-resolved number concentration. An aerosol chamber experimental protocol was used to evaluate sensor-to-sensor data reproducibility. The calibration was performed using four polydisperse test aerosols. The particle size distribution OEM calibration for PMS A003 sensor did not agree with the reference single particle sizer measurements. For the number concentration calibration, the linear model without adjusting for the aerosol properties and environmental conditions yields an absolute error (NMAE) of ~ 4.0% compared to the reference instrument. The calibration models adjusted for particle CRI and density account for non-linearity in the OEM's mass concentrations estimates with NMAE within 5.0%. The calibration algorithms developed in this study can be used in indoor air quality monitoring, occupational/industrial exposure assessments, or near-source monitoring scenarios where field calibration might be challenging.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Material Particulado/química , Aerossóis/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Ambiente Controlado , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Umidade , Modelos Lineares , Exposição Ocupacional , Tamanho da Partícula , Refratometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Baixa Visão/metabolismo
12.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 289, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seed sanitization via chemical processes removes/reduces microbes from the external surfaces of the seed and thereby could have an impact on the plants' health or productivity. To determine the impact of seed sanitization on the plants' microbiome and pathogen persistence, sanitized and unsanitized seeds from two leafy green crops, red Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. 'Outredgeous') and mizuna mustard (Brassica rapa var. japonica) were exposed to Escherichia coli and grown in controlled environment growth chambers simulating environmental conditions aboard the International Space Station. Plants were harvested at four intervals from 7 days post-germination to maturity. The bacterial communities of leaf and root were investigated using the 16S rRNA sequencing while quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and heterotrophic plate counts were used to reveal the persistence of E. coli. RESULT: E. coli was detectable for longer periods of time in plants from sanitized versus unsanitized seeds and was identified in root tissue more frequently than in leaf tissue. 16S rRNA sequencing showed dynamic changes in the abundance of members of the phylum Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes in leaf and root samples of both leafy crops. We observed minimal changes in the microbial diversity of lettuce or mizuna leaf tissue with time or between sanitized and unsanitized seeds. Beta-diversity showed that time had more of an influence on all samples versus the E. coli treatment. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the seed surface sanitization, a current requirement for sending seeds to space, could influence the microbiome. Insight into the changes in the crop microbiomes could lead to healthier plants and safer food supplementation.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfecção , Ambiente Controlado , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20005, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625578

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) is one of the most efficient ways to prevent obesity and its associated diseases worldwide. In the USA, less than 10% of the adult population were able to meet the PA recommendations when accelerometers were used to assess PA habituation. Accelerometers significantly differ from each other in step recognition and do not reveal raw data. The aim of our study was to compare a novel accelerometer, Sartorio Xelometer, which enables to gather raw data, with existing accelerometers ActiGraph GT3X+ and activPAL in terms of step detection and energy expenditure estimation accuracy. 53 healthy subjects were divided into 2 cohorts (cohort 1 optimization; cohort 2 validation) and wore 3 accelerometers and performed an exercise routine consisting of the following speeds: 1.5, 3, 4.5, 9 and 10.5 km/h (6 km/h for 2nd cohort included). Data from optimization cohort was used to optimize Sartorio step detection algorithm. Actual taken steps were recorded with a video camera and energy expenditure (EE) was measured. To observe the similarity between video and accelerometer step counts, paired samples t test and intraclass correlation were used separately for step counts in different speeds and for total counts as well as EE estimations. In speeds of 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 9 and 10.5 km/h mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) % were 8.1, 3.5, 4.3, 4.2, 3.1 and 7.8 for the Xelometer, respectively (after optimization). For ActiGraph GT3X+ the MAPE-% were 96.93 (87.4), 34.69 (23.1), 2.13 (2.3), 1.96 (2.6) and 2.99 (3.8), respectively and for activPAL 6.55 (5.6), 1.59 (0.6), 0.81 (1.1), 10.60 (10.3) and 15.76 (13.8), respectively. Significant intraclass correlations were observed with Xelometer estimates and actual steps in all speeds. Xelometer estimated the EE with a MAPE-% of 30.3, activPAL and ActiGraph GT3X+ with MAPE percentages of 20.5 and 24.3, respectively. The Xelometer is a valid device for assessing step counts at different gait speeds. MAPE is different at different speeds, which is of importance when assessing the PA in obese subjects and elderly. EE estimates of all three devices were found to be inaccurate when compared with indirect calorimetry.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Metabolismo Energético , Calorimetria Indireta , Ambiente Controlado , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Atividade Motora
14.
J Microbiol Methods ; 190: 106325, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517038

RESUMO

Laminar flow cabinets (LFCs) ensure a safe working space within which product manipulation can be carried out safely excluding contaminations of the product with the environmental microorganisms. However, for environmental monitoring applications mobile laboratories are required and these prefer the lighter gloveboxes (GB; restricted arm movement) or still air boxes (SAB; free arm movement) over the heavier, more expensive LFCs, which need to be regularly maintained. Nevertheless, the efficiency of simple GBs/SABs (no HEPA filter), in providing semi-sterile working conditions has yet to be clearly defined. Consequently, our aim was to assess the suitability of GBs/SABs for semi-sterile applications by using passive and active bioaerosol sample collection procedures within the interior spaces of these boxes. Prior to sample collection the boxes were pre-treated with different spraying preparations (70% ethanol, 2% detergent or sterile water). For a greater restriction of bioaerosol entry, SABs were constructed with covered arm ports and these were classified as partially covered (SABPC) and completely covered SABs (SABCC). Results showed that ethanol sprayed GB and SABCC exhibited microbial aerosol colony counts of zero after one hour of passive sample collection, and active sample collection revealed counts ranging between 1.9 (for GB) - 2.3 Log10CFU/m3 (for SABCC). However, ethanol sprayed SAB and SABPC were ineffective having colony counts of 6.9 and 6.5 Log10CFU/m3, respectively. Other spraying regimes resulted in even higher colony counts (up to 7.3 Log10CFU/m3). Therefore, the ethanol sprayed GB and SABCC could effectively be used for semi-sterile applications, with the SABCC allowing for an unrestricted arm movement within it.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Ambiente Controlado
15.
J Therm Biol ; 99: 102984, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420627

RESUMO

Heat stress can negatively affect cow's physiology, behavior, and milk production. This study evaluates the effectiveness of roof mounting misting fans to improve heat and humidity index which reduces heat stress in a cowshed. Local climatic conditions were monitored and cooling system ability to control heat stress were assessed. Measurements were conducted at different cooling zones and levels comparing with shaded and open zones. The temperature and humidity index measurements outside the cowshed THIout showed that animals exposed to high degrees of heat stress during most of the day. The average value of THIout was 87.49, whereas the average value of adjusted outside temperature and humidity index THIadj was greater than THIout by 10% when solar radiation was considered. The maximum difference of hourly averages for temperature and humidity indices THIadj and THI occurred at noon when the intensity of solar radiation was highest. The average value for temperature and humidity index under misting fans THIfan was 82.27 whereas inside the cowshed under shade THIshade was 85.20. This conclude that the misting fans was able to reduce heat stress in a limited degree. Further improvement in terms of the cowshed design aspects and an increase of cooling efficiency is needed.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Ambiente Controlado , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Umidade , Temperatura
16.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(3): 697-716, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362539

RESUMO

The built environment has been integral to response to the global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In particular, engineering controls to mitigate risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and other newly emergent respiratory pathogens in the future will be important. Anticipating emergence from this pandemic, or at least adaptation given increasing administration of effective vaccines, and the safety of patients, personnel, and others in health care facilities remain the core goals. This article summarizes known risks and highlights prevention strategies for daily care as well as response to emergent infectious diseases and this parapandemic phase.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Defesa Civil , Instalações de Saúde/tendências , Controle de Infecções , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Defesa Civil/métodos , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Ambiente Controlado , Arquitetura Hospitalar/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Rev. psicanal ; 28(2): 369-390, Agosto 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367279

RESUMO

Diante dos desafios com que a prática psicanalítica se depara no contexto da pandemia atual, um dos mais notáveis diz respeito à comunicação. A mediação das sessões por mídias técnicas tornou-se ubíqua. Este artigo propõe um diálogo entre a psicanálise e a teoria das materialidades da comunicação para esboçar um olhar mídia-psicanalítico sobre alguns destes desafios, que ensejam também renovadas discussões teóricas. Após um breve panorama das teses de alguns autores de destaque no campo das materialidades (McLuhan, Flusser, Kittler), procuramos delimitar a rediscussão ­ à luz da tese de que o sentido da comunicação emerge sempre no seio de um agenciamento material específico ­ de alguns pontos teóricos fundamentais da teoria psicanalítica, em especial as noções de setting e cena analítica. Estabelecem-se, assim, linhas iniciais para um debate que já se demonstra frutífero entre a psicanálise e as teorias comunicacionais que desnaturalizam a relação entre homem e técnica (AU)


Faced with the challenges set before the psychoanalytic practice in the context of the current pandemic, one of the most pronounced concerns communication. Mediation of sessions by means of technical media has become ubiquitous. This paper proposes a dialogue between psychoanalysis and the theory of the materialities of communication in order to outline a media-psychoanalytic look over some of these challenges, which also include renewed theoretical discussions. After a brief overview of the theses of some prominent authors in the field of materialities (McLuhan, Flusser, Kittler), we try to frame the rediscussion ­ based on the idea that the meaning of communication always emerges within the core of a specific material agency ­ of some seminal theoretical points of the psychoanalytic theory, especially the concepts of setting and analytical scene. Initial threads are thus established for a debate that is already fruitful between psychoanalysis and the theories of communication that denaturalize the relationship between man and technique


Ante los desafíos a los que se enfrenta la práctica psicoanalítica en el contexto de la pandemia actual, uno de los más destacables se refiere a la comunicación. La mediación de sesiones por medios técnicos se ha vuelto ubicua. Este artículo propone un diálogo entre el psicoanálisis y la teoría de las materialidades de la comunicación para esbozar una mirada media-psicoanalítica sobre algunos de estos desafíos, que también dan lugar a renovadas discusiones teóricas. Tras una breve reseña de las tesis de algunos autores destacados en el campo de las materialidades (McLuhan, Flusser, Kittler), buscamos definir la rediscusión ­ a la luz de la tesis de que el sentido de la comunicación siempre emerge en el seno de una gestión material específica ­ de algunos puntos teóricos fundamentales de la teoría psicoanalítica, especialmente las nociones de setting y escena analítica. Así, se establecen las líneas iniciales de un debate que ya se presenta fructífero entre el psicoanálisis y las teorías comunicacionales que desnaturalizan la relación entre hombre y técnica


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Barreiras de Comunicação , Teoria Psicanalítica , Ambiente Controlado , Pandemias
18.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(4): 276-281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297688

RESUMO

With a recent emphasis on sterile compounding regulatory requirements, a newly constructed space or renovations to an existing space may need to be considered in any pharmacy where sterile compounding occurs. Pharmacy leaders from two facilities within a health system outline their experience with important aspects of cleanroom renovation learned through the process. Identifying how to maintain sterile compounding operations during construction is required to continue patient-care services. The collaboration of several disciplines on a construction team will help ensure the new/ renovated space has the necessary components to eventually support compounding sterile preparations. Through thorough understanding of the proposed changes of sterile compounding regulatory requirements and extensive planning, a successful renovation and go-live coordination can occur. This article serves to summarize key takeaways from two pharmacy leaders' cleanroom construction experiences.


Assuntos
Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Farmácia , Composição de Medicamentos , Ambiente Controlado , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente
19.
J Hosp Infect ; 115: 117-123, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal type of ventilation in operating theatres for joint arthroplasty has been debated for decades. Recently, the World Health Organization changed its recommendations based on articles that have since been criticized. The economic and environmental impact of ventilation is also currently an important research topic but has not been well investigated. AIM: To compare how large, high-volume, laminar airflow (LAF) and turbulent airflow (TAF) ventilation systems perform during standardized simulated total hip arthroplasty (THA), as they pertain to colony-forming units (cfu), particle counts, and energy consumption. METHODS: Two identical operating theatres were used to perform simulated THA. The only difference was that one was equipped with LAF and the other with TAF. Cfu and particles were collected from key points in the operating theatre, and energy was measured for each simulation. Thirty-two simulations were done in total. FINDINGS: LAF had significantly reduced cfu and particle count when compared with TAF, at both 100% and 50% air influx. Furthermore, it was shown that lowering the air influx by 50% in LAF did not significantly affect cfu or particles, although reducing the fresh air influx from 100% to 50% significantly lowered the energy consumption. Most simulations in TAF did not meet the cleanroom requirements. CONCLUSION: Cfu were significantly lower in LAF at both 100% and 50% air influx. It is possible to reduce fresh air influx in LAF operating theatres by 50%, significantly reducing energy consumption, while still maintaining cfu and particle counts below the ISO classification threshold required for THA surgery.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Microbiologia do Ar , Ambiente Controlado , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Células-Tronco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Ventilação
20.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(3): 211-216, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125711

RESUMO

A fundamental principle of aseptic compounding involves the enumeration, identification, and continuing control of biological contaminants in the cleanroom. To accomplish those tasks, a robust and consistent program of environmental sampling must be implemented and the results of such testing used to guide required remedial action in all areas dedicated to sterile compounding. In this article, the surveillance of "micromonsters" (microorganisms that contaminate areas dedicated to aseptic compounding) in the cleanroom is discussed, the implementation of a sustainable program for viable air and surface sampling is examined, and the value of that testing in maintaining an acceptable level of aseptic control is considered.   Basics  A diluent is an inert filler used to create the desired bulk and flow properties of capsules, as well as compression characteristics of tablets. Diluents, as well as other excipients, must meet certain criteria in a formulation. Many excipients used in oral solid-dosage formulations have many uses, and a thorough understanding of their properties and limitations is necessary in order to use them rationally. This article discusses the physicochemical properties and the chemical and physical incompatibilities of diluents. Also provided is a list of commonly used diluents in solid-drug dosage forms and a list of the physiochemical characteristics of selected capsule and tablet diluents.


Assuntos
Ambiente Controlado , Excipientes , Composição de Medicamentos , Comprimidos
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