Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.922
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9660, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690626

RESUMO

Long-term and chronic visual suppression to the non-preferred eye in early childhood is a key factor in developing amblyopia, as well as a critical barrier to treat amblyopia. To explore the relationship between selective visual attention and amblyopic suppression and its role in the success of amblyopic training, we used EEG source-imaging to show that training human adults with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia with dichoptic attention tasks improved attentional modulation of neural populations in the primary visual cortex (V1) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We also used psychophysics to show that training reduced interocular suppression along with visual acuity and stereoacuity improvements. Importantly, our results revealed that the reduction of interocular suppression by training was significantly correlated with the improvement of selective visual attention in both training-related and -unrelated tasks in the amblyopic eye, relative to the fellow eye. These findings suggest a relation between interocular suppression and selective visual attention bias between eyes in amblyopic vision, and that dichoptic training with high-attention demand tasks in the amblyopic eye might be an effective way to treat amblyopia.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Adulto , Ambliopia/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Olho , Humanos , Lobo Parietal , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 9409749, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35756400

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of macular and optic disc parameters in children with amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes, using fundus images under optical coherence tomography (OCT). 36 patients with anisometropic amblyopia were selected in the experimental group, and another 36 healthy volunteers were selected in the control group, OCT examinations were performed in all groups, and the mean diopter, mean corrected visual acuity (CVA), mean axial length, mean optic disc retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and mean macular fovea thickness were recorded in the two groups. The results found that the average diopter of the patients in the control group and the experimental group was +2.30 ± 2.54 D and +5.51 ± 1.76 D, respectively. The average CVA was 0.86 ± 0.07 and 0.22 ± 0.16, respectively; the average eye axial length was 22.41 ± 1.20 mm and 21.11 ± 0.78 mm, respectively. As P < 0.05, the differences were statistically significant in the three indicators between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the average thickness of the RNFL of the optic disc and the average thickness of the central fovea of macula (P > 0.05). There was some correlation among CVA, diopter, eye axial length, RNFL thickness, and average thickness of macular fovea, but the correlation was not significant. It was suggested that there were certain differences in the macular and optic disc parameters between amblyopic and nonamblyopic children, but the difference is little. Thereout, a certain objective basis was provided for the early detection and treatment of amblyopia.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Disco Óptico , Ambliopia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual
3.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270361, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749450

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate an electronic glasses frame for smart liquid crystal shutter glasses that monitors wearing and occlusion times to potentially improve therapy adherence in amblyopia therapy of children. METHODS: The first generation of an electronic glasses frame for adults was further developed, miniaturized and functionally tested in a proof of concept study on a small group of healthy children. Seven healthy children (4 females, 3 males, 2-9 years) were enrolled in the study. The subjects were instructed to wear the smart shutter glasses and to record their activities in daily life. Averaged and individual results were calculated for the precision of wearing position detection and activity recognition. Also, the proper execution of the configured occlusion pattern was observed. RESULTS: The first generation of an electronic glasses frame for smart liquid crystal shutter glasses in a miniaturized form factor for children. A key element is the implementation of the adaptive shutter operation and of smart algorithms for real-time therapy monitoring. In the proof of concept study, these algorithms monitored the state of wearing position, the wearer's activity and the configured occlusion pattern. The average agreement of the detected states of wearing position was 72.6%. The average activity recognition match was 77.3%. The removal of the glasses was 100% correctly detected and the occlusion was 100% halted when active motion was recognized. CONCLUSION: The assembled smart shutter glasses for children are suitable for demonstrating the feasibility of continuous therapy monitoring by calculating wearing and occlusion times due to smart algorithms for wearing position detection, activity recognition, and occlusion monitoring. However, further research and studies are necessary to optimize the individual fit and performance of this wearable therapeutic device.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Cristais Líquidos , Óculos Inteligentes , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Óculos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 253, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interest in developing alternative methods for the treatment of amblyopia has long been a topic of interest among clinicians and researchers, as prescribed occlusion and penalization therapies do not always provide an effective response and are associated with a high risk of recurrence and non-compliance. Here, we present the protocol of a small-scale RCT to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of a novel VR-based system designed to provide binocular vision training to children with anisometropic amblyopia. METHODS: We aim to recruit a total of 60 children with anisometropic amblyopia aged 5-17 years with no previous treatment for amblyopia other than refractive correction from the pediatric ophthalmology units of the University Clinical Hospital of Valladolid and the Vithas Medimar International Hospital of Alicante. Children who meet the eligibility criteria and consent to participate will be randomly assigned to a three-month intervention group of 18 half-hour in-office therapy sessions with the NEIVATECH system (group A) or to a parallel group receiving 2 hours of conventional patching per day at home for the same period of time (group B). Assessments of visual function will be carried out before the intervention and at 1, 2 and 3 months, with changes in distance BCVA being the primary outcome measure to be considered. Patient safety, compliance, satisfaction and acceptance to treatment will also be assessed after therapy as other valuable outcome measures. In addition, a rsfMRI scan will be performed on a subgroup of 5 patients from each group at the pre-intervention visit and at the post-intervention visit to test the effects of both therapies on neural plasticity in the visual cortex. DISCUSSION: The NEIVATECH system has been conceived as a serious game designed to provide binocular vision training to anisometropic amblyopic children by complementing the concepts of perceptual learning, dichoptic training and gamification in an immersive VR environment. We hope that this novel approach may lead to greater improvements in vision performance than those provided so far by conventional patching in anisometropic amblyopic children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This protocol was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT04819386 ) on 29 March 2021.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Jogos de Vídeo , Realidade Virtual , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Privação Sensorial , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10311, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725590

RESUMO

Dichoptic therapy is a promising method for improving vision in pediatric and adult patients with amblyopia. However, a systematic understanding about changes in specific visual functions and substantial variation of effect among patients is lacking. Utilizing a novel stereoscopic augmented-reality based training program, 24 pediatric and 18 adult patients were trained for 20 h along a three-month time course with a one-month post-training follow-up for pediatric patients. Changes in stereopsis, distance and near visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity for amblyopic and fellow eyes were measured, and interocular differences were analyzed. To reveal what contributes to successful dichoptic therapy, ANCOVA models were used to analyze progress, considering clinical baseline parameters as covariates that are potential requirements for amblyopic recovery. Significant and lasting improvements have been achieved in stereoacuity, interocular near visual acuity, and interocular contrast sensitivity. Importantly, astigmatism, fixation instability, and lack of stereopsis were major limiting factors for visual acuity, stereoacuity, and contrast sensitivity recovery, respectively. The results demonstrate the feasibility of treatment-efficacy prediction in certain aspects of dichoptic amblyopia therapy. Furthermore, our findings may aid in developing personalized therapeutic protocols, capable of considering individual clinical status, to help clinicians in tailoring therapy to patient profiles for better outcome.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Astigmatismo , Adulto , Ambliopia/terapia , Astigmatismo/terapia , Criança , Percepção de Profundidade , Humanos , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051423, 2022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatments for amblyopia, the most common vision deficit in children, often have suboptimal results. Occlusion/atropine blurring are fraught with poor adherence, regression and recurrence. These interventions target only the amblyopic eye, failing to address imbalances of cortical input from the two eyes ('suppression'). Dichoptic treatments manipulate binocular visual experience to rebalance input. Poor adherence in early trials of dichoptic therapies inspired our development of balanced binocular viewing (BBV), using movies as child-friendly viewable content. Small observational studies indicate good adherence and efficacy. A feasibility trial is needed to further test safety and gather information to design a full trial. METHODS/ANALYSIS: We will carry out an observer-masked parallel-group phase 2a feasibility randomised controlled trial at two sites, randomising 44 children aged 3-8 years with unilateral amblyopia to either BBV or standard occlusion/atropine blurring, with 1:1 allocation ratio. We will assess visual function at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks. The primary outcome is intervention safety at 16 weeks, measured as change in interocular suppression, considered to precede the onset of potential diplopia. Secondary outcomes include safety at other time points, eligibility, recruitment/retention rates, adherence, clinical outcomes. We will summarise baseline characteristics for each group and assess the treatment effect using analysis of covariance. We will compare continuous clinical secondary endpoints between arms using linear mixed effect models, and report feasibility endpoints using descriptive statistics. ETHICS/DISSEMINATION: This trial has been approved by the London-Brighton & Sussex Research Ethics Committee (18/LO/1204), National Health Service Health Research Authority and Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. A lay advisory group will be involved with advising on and disseminating the results to non-professional audiences, including on websites of funder/participating institutions and inputting on healthcare professional audience children would like us to reach. Reporting to clinicians and scientists will be via internal and external meetings/conferences and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03754153.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Ambliopia/terapia , Atropina , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medicina Estatal
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1722-1726, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502060

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the conventional eye patch with Occlu-tab-a binocular open-type amblyopia training device-and evaluate their effectiveness in amblyopia treatment. Methods: In this prospective, multi-center study, 40 patients between ages 3 to 12 years, diagnosed with anisometropic amblyopia (refraction difference of both eyes ≥ 2 D, best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA] of the amblyopic eye ≤ 0.1 [logMAR]) were treated with Occlu-tab or conventional eye patch for 1 h per day thrice a week. We compared the visual acuity of both groups before and after 6, 7, and 8 weeks of amblyopia treatment. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used to compare the visual acuity of both groups pre- and post-treatment. Results: Both groups had significantly improved visual acuity at 6, 7, and 8 weeks compared to that before treatment (all P < 0.001). The improvement in BCVA of the Occlu-tab group (0.33 ± 0.25) was significantly greater than that of the eye patch group (0.16 ± 0.17) after 8 weeks of treatment (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Amblyopia treatment using binocular open game training with Occlu-tab led to greater improvement in visual acuity than that with a conventional eye patch for the same treatment duration.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Duração da Terapia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Acuidade Visual
8.
Strabismus ; 30(2): 99-110, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587794

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of a novel therapy based on pleoptic exercises combined with standard occlusion in patients with meridional amblyopia. The exercising system itself, termed focal ambient visual acuity stimulation (FAVAS), consists of sinusoidally modulated circular gratings, which were implemented as a background pattern in computer games binding the children's attention. For the assessment of therapeutic effects, we tested for the development of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in patients trained with a gaming field background of moving gratings (Moving) compared to patients treated with stationary gratings (Stationary). Patients with amblyopia (caused by strabismus, refraction, or both) and astigmatism were randomly allocated to two groups, all of whom received a standard occlusion regimen. In combination with occlusion, using a crossover design, the first group (Moving-Stationary group) was alternately exercised for 10 days with a series of Moving followed by 10 days with Stationary and the second group (Stationary-Moving group) vice versa. The treatment-dependent training effect on BCVA was measured with respect to the alignment of the least vs. the most ametropic meridian in both groups. BCVA was examined using a meridionally direction-sensitive visual test inventory, and we estimated the monocular BCVA in all patients along four meridians: 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° before and after Moving as compared to Stationary treatments. The Moving-Stationary group consisted of 17 children (34 eyes) aged 10 to 13 (average 11.6 ± 0.3) years. The Stationary-Moving group consisted of 20 children (40 eyes) aged 9 to 14 (average 12.5 ± 0.4). In both groups, visual acuity increased significantly only with Moving combined with occlusion. Thereby, the visual acuity (logMAR) along different meridians showed a statistically significant improvement induced by Moving if testing was coincident with alignment of the directional optical characters close to the most ametropic meridian in the Moving-Stationary group (0.73 ± 0.32 to 0.41 ± 0.22, p < 0.01) and also in the Stationary-Moving group (0.48 ± 0.27 to 0.33 ± 0.18, p < 0.01). Significant improvement was also induced by Moving if tested in alignment with the perpendicular orientation close to the least ametropic meridian, although with a smaller amount, in the Moving-Stationary group (0.49 ± 0.23 to 0.37 ± 0.21, p < 0.01) as well as in the Stationary-Moving group (0.33 ± 0.18 to 0.28 ± 0.16, p < 0.01). After Stationary combined with occlusion, however, there was no statistically significant improvement, regardless of the meridian. Visual training of patients with meridional amblyopia by a series of online exercises using attention-binding computer games which contained moving gratings as a background stimulus (Moving) resulted in a statistically significant improvement in visual acuity in the most refractive meridian, and to a lesser extent, in the least refractive meridian. No statistically significant improvement was achieved after the respective exercising series in the sham condition with stationary gratings (Stationary).


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Astigmatismo , Ambliopia/terapia , Astigmatismo/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual
9.
Trials ; 23(1): 358, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aniseikonia represents a potential barrier to neuroplasticity which may limit visual outcomes in children with anisometropic amblyopia. Full correction of refractive error is the first step in standard amblyopia treatment, which corrects for image focus but neglects image size differences. METHODS: The MAGNIFY study is a double-masked, randomised clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of aniseikonia correcting lenses in children at first diagnosis of significant anisometropia. We hypothesis that aniseikonia correction lenses will improve image clarity and reduce the retinal size differences producing better visual acuity and stereoacuity improvements after 15 weeks of optical treatment for children with anisometropia. Eligible children will be randomly allocated to the treatment group (aniseikonia-correcting spectacle lenses) or control group (standard spectacle lenses). Visual acuity and binocular functions will be assessed every 5 weeks during the 15-week optical treatment phase according to standard amblyopia treatment protocol. DISCUSSION: It is possible that correcting aniseikonia along with anisometropia at first diagnosis will promote binocularity as well as increase spectacle adherence by reducing visual discomfort, improving optical treatment outcomes. This could then reduce the need for additional amblyopia treatment such as patching or atropine, reducing the burden on hospital eye departments and potentially improving visual outcomes for children with amblyopia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12620000061932 . Registered on 24 January 2020. Protocol 15th November 2019, version one.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Aniseiconia , Anisometropia , Ambliopia/diagnóstico , Ambliopia/terapia , Aniseiconia/diagnóstico , Anisometropia/terapia , Austrália , Criança , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(4): 1318-1320, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326046

RESUMO

Purpose: To study the efficacy of supplemental occlu-pad therapy with partial occlusion in children with refractive anisometropic amblyopia. Methods: Thirty-one children who did not improve after partial occlusion of 6 h for 6 months were supplemented with the use of occlu-pad for 1 h per day and three such sessions in a week. Results: The mean age was 6.8+/-1.4 years (range 5-9 years). A significant improvement of 3.2+/-1.3 lines in visual acuity was noticed at the end of 3 months of starting this supplemental therapy in children. Out of 31 children, 26 children improved at least 2 lines or more at the end of 3 months. All children (n = 9) having anisohyperopic amblyopia improved at the end of 3 months. Conclusion: Occlu-pad is useful in supplementing occlusion therapy in cases of refractive amblyopia and is more effective in anisohyperopic amblyopia.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Anisometropia , Ambliopia/complicações , Ambliopia/terapia , Anisometropia/complicações , Anisometropia/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Privação Sensorial , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4157, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264692

RESUMO

Contrast-rebalanced dichoptic movies have been shown to be an effective binocular treatment for amblyopia in the laboratory. Yet, at-home therapy is a more practical approach. In a randomized clinical trial, we compared dichoptic movies, streamed at-home on a handheld 3D-enabled game console, versus patching as amblyopia treatment. Sixty-five amblyopic children (3-7 years; 20/32-125) were randomly assigned to one of two parallel arms, binocular treatment (3 movies/week) or patching (14 h/week). The primary outcome, change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at the 2-week visit was completed by 28 and 30, respectively. After the primary outcome, both groups of children had the option to complete up to 6 weeks of binocular treatment. At the 2-week primary outcome visit, BCVA had improved in the movie (0.07 ± 0.02 logMAR; p < .001) and patching (0.06 ± 0.01 logMAR; p < 0.001) groups. There was no significant difference between groups (CI95%: - 0.02 to 0.04; p = .48). Visual acuity improved in both groups with binocular treatment up to 6 weeks (0.15 and 0.18 logMAR improvement, respectively). This novel, at-home, binocular movie treatment improved amblyopic eye BCVA after 2 weeks (similar to patching), with additional improvement up to 6 weeks. Repeated binocular visual experience with contrast-rebalanced binocular movies provides an additional treatment option for amblyopia.Clincaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03825107 (31/01/2019).


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Jogos de Vídeo , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Computadores de Mão , Seguimentos , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Pirimetamina , Sulfadiazina , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular
13.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 135, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents pity their amblyopic child when they think that they suffer from occlusion therapy. We measured health-related quality of life during occlusion therapy. METHODS: We developed the Amblyopia Parents and Children Occlusion Questionnaire (APCOQ). It was designed by a focus group of patients, orthoptists and ophthalmologists and consisted of twelve items concerning skin contact of patch, activities, contact with other children, emotions and awareness of necessity to patch. Parents filled out the Proxy Version shortly before the Child Version was obtained from their child. Child Version item scores were compared with Proxy Version item scores and related to the child's age, visual acuity, refraction, angle of strabismus, and cause of amblyopia. RESULTS: 63 children were recruited by orthoptists, and their parents agreed to participate. Three children were excluded: one child with Down-syndrome, one child with cerebral palsy, and one child who had been treated by occlusion therapy. Included were 60 children (mean age 4.57 ± 1.34 SD) and 56 parents. Children had occluded 128 ± 45 SD days at interview. Prior to occlusion, 54 children had worn glasses. Cronbach's α was 0.74 for the Child Version and 0.76 for the Proxy Version. Children judged their quality of life better than their parents did, especially pertaining to skin contact and activities like games and watching TV. Notably, 13 children with initial visual acuity ≥ 0.6 logMAR in the amblyopic eye experienced little trouble with games during occlusion. Quality of life in eight children with strabismus of five years and older correlated negatively (Spearman rank mean rho = -0.43) with angle of strabismus. Children with amblyopia due to both refractive error and strabismus (n = 14) had, relatively, lowest quality of life, also according to their parents, as proxy. Several children did not know why they wore a patch, contrary to what their parents thought. CONCLUSIONS: Children's quality of life during occlusion therapy is affected less than their parents think, especially regarding skin contact, playing games and watching TV during occlusion. Quality of life correlates negatively with the angle of strabismus in children five years and older. Children do not know why they wear a patch, contrary to what their parents think. Notably, children with low visual acuity in the amblyopic eye, had little difficulty playing games.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Qualidade de Vida , Ambliopia/psicologia , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acuidade Visual
14.
Strabismus ; 30(2): 78-89, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259060

RESUMO

This study aimed to calculate the dose-response relationship and predictors of visual acuity (VA) improvement following occlusion therapy at the IWK Health Center Eye Clinic and to add to amblyopia therapy dose-response relationship literature. A retrospective chart review was performed, considering patients who reached an occlusion therapy outcome at the IWK Eye Clinic between 2012 and 2019. The treatment outcome was defined as equal VA or stable VA for three consecutive clinical visits despite reported compliance. Subjective patching hours from parental reports, not prescribed hours, were used for statistical analyses. One hundred and thirty-four patients (66 females and 68 males) ages 2-11 years were included. Results showed a dose-response relationship of 224 hours/0.1logMAR increase in VA and total dose of 1344 hours for full-time occlusion and 504 hours for part-time occlusion was required to reach outcome VA. The fastest VA improvement occurred with younger age at treatment initiation, during the first 4 weeks of treatment, and in patients with strabismic and/or severe amblyopia. Classification of amblyopia, age, VA chart, initial distance VA (amblyopic eye), and treatment dose predicted the hour dose-response relationship. Dose-response relationship was faster in younger participants, in participants with strabismic and severe amblyopia, and during the first month of occlusion. Additionally, by creating a GLM model of dose-response relationship, relationship calculations can be performed. Therefore, an estimated timeline can be developed to allow allocation of clinical resources and to prepare patients for the treatment duration required and possibly increase treatment compliance.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Privação Sensorial , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 44, 2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a critical period for visual development, conventionally considered to be the first 6 years of life. Children aged 7 years and older are significantly less responsive to amblyopia treatment. This study investigated the efficacy of binocular vision therapy in amblyopic children aged 7-10 years. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 36 children with unilateral amblyopia who were divided into a case group (receiving vision therapy, optical correction, and part-time patching of the weaker eye) and a control group (receiving optical correction and part-time patching of the weaker eye). Visual acuity (VA) was measured at baseline, at the 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month visits, and 3 months after cessation of treatment. RESULTS: There were 19 subjects in the case group and 17 subjects in the control group. Mean VA in the case group improved from 0.39 ± 0.24 logMAR at baseline to 0.10 ± 0.23 logMAR at the endpoint of treatment (p < 0.001, paired t-test). Mean VA in the control group improved from 0.64 ± 0.30 logMAR at baseline to 0.52 ± 0.27 logMAR at the endpoint of treatment (p = 0.015, paired t-test). The improvement was significantly greater in the case group than in the control group (p = 0.006, two-samples independent t-test). All subjects underwent follow-up examinations within 6 to 12 months. There was no regression of VA in the case group 3 months after cessation of vision therapy. The patients in the case group who received visual therapy were with better VA improvement then patients with only optic correction and patching. CONCLUSIONS: Vision therapy combined with conventional treatment (optical correction and part-time patching) is more effective than conventional treatment alone in children aged 7-10 years with unilateral refractive amblyopia. The treatment results not only in greater vision gain, but also in shorter duration of treatment.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Privação Sensorial , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD011347, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current treatments for amblyopia, typically patching or pharmacological blurring, have limited success. Less than two-thirds of children achieve good acuity of 0.20 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, with limited improvement of stereopsis, and poor adherence to treatment. A new approach, based on presentation of movies or computer games separately to each eye, may yield better results and improve adherence. These treatments aim to balance the input of visual information from each eye to the brain.  OBJECTIVES: To determine whether binocular treatments in children, aged three to eight years, with unilateral amblyopia result in better visual outcomes than conventional patching or pharmacological blurring treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register), MEDLINE, Embase, ISRCTN, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO ICTRP to 19 November 2020, with no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Two review authors independently screened the results of the search for relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled children between the ages of three and eight years old with unilateral amblyopia. Amblyopia was classed as present when the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was worse than 0.200 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, with BCVA 0.200 logMAR or better in the fellow eye, in the presence of an amblyogenic risk factor, such as anisometropia, strabismus, or both. To be eligible, children needed to have undergone cycloplegic refraction and  ophthalmic examination, including fundal examination and optical treatment, if indicated, with stable BCVA in the amblyopic eye despite good adherence with wearing glasses. We included any type of binocular viewing intervention, on any device (e.g. computer monitors viewed with liquid-crystal display shutter glasses; hand-held screens, including mobile phones with lenticular prism overlay; or virtual reality displays). Control groups received standard amblyopia treatment, which could include patching or pharmacological blurring of the better-seeing eye. We included full-time (all waking hours) and part-time (between 1 and 12 hours a day) patching regimens. We excluded children who had received any treatment other than optical treatment; and studies with less than 8-week follow-up. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary outcome of the review was the change from baseline of distance BCVA in the amblyopic eye after 16 (± 2) weeks of treatment, measured in logMAR units on an age-appropriate acuity test. MAIN RESULTS: We identified one eligible RCT of conventional patching treatment versus novel binocular treatment, and analysed a subset of 68 children who fulfilled the age criterion of this review. We obtained data for the mean change in amblyopic eye visual acuity, adverse events (diplopia), and adherence to prescribed treatment at 8- and 16-week follow-up intervals, though no data were available for change in BCVA after 52 weeks. Risk of bias for the included study was considered to be low. The certainty of evidence for the visual acuity outcomes at 8 and 16 weeks of treatment and adherence to the study intervention was rated moderate using the GRADE criteria, downgrading by one level due to imprecision. The certainty of evidence was downgraded by two levels and rated low for the proportion of participants reporting adverse events due to the sample size.  Acuity improved in the amblyopic eye in both the binocular and patching groups following 16 weeks of treatment (improvement of -0.21 logMAR in the binocular group and -0.24 logMAR in the patching group, mean difference (MD) 0.03 logMAR (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.04; 63 children). This difference was non-significant and the improvements in both the binocular and patching groups are also considered clinically similar. Following 8 weeks of treatment, acuity improved in both the binocular and patching groups (improvement of -0.18 logMAR in the patching group compared to -0.16 logMAR improvement in the binocular-treatment group) (MD 0.02, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.08). Again this difference was statistically non-significant, and the differences observed between the patching and binocular groups are also clinically non-significant. No adverse event of permanent diplopia was reported. Adherence was higher in the patching group (47% of participants in the iPad group achieved over 75% compliance compared with 90% of the patching group).  Data were not available for changes in stereopsis nor for contrast sensitivity following treatment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there is only one RCT that offers evidence of the safety and effectiveness of binocular treatment. The authors are moderately confident that after 16 weeks of treatment, the gain in amblyopic eye acuity with binocular treatment is likely comparable to that of conventional patching treatment. However, due to the limited sample size and lack of long term (52 week) follow-up data, it is not yet possible to draw robust conclusions regarding the overall safety and sustained effectiveness of binocular treatment. Further research, using acknowledged methods of visual acuity and stereoacuity assessment with known reproducibility, is required to inform decisions about the implementation of binocular treatments for amblyopia in clinical practice, and should incorporate longer term follow-up to establish the effectiveness of binocular treatment. Randomised controlled trials should also include outcomes reported by users, adherence to prescribed treatment, and recurrence of amblyopia after cessation of treatment.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Estrabismo , Jogos de Vídeo , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Óculos , Humanos , Acuidade Visual
17.
J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil ; 72(2): 69-76, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the acceptability of a novel occlusion dose monitor (ODM) for glasses wearers with amblyopia. The novel ODM consists of a patch worn over the glasses, a logger affixed to the glasses frame, and a system that processes the logged data for interpretation by an algorithm. METHODS: In this pilot study, pediatric amblyopes (ages 2-8) were recruited for a cosmesis test of a sham logger for a 1-week period. Patients were then recruited to test a functional ODM for a 2-week period and their parents were asked to document patch wear in a diary. Feedback was solicited using a modified Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group (PEDIG) Amblyopia Treatment Index (ATI). RESULTS: Five children tested the sham logger and eight children tested the functional ODM. Early feedback recommended esthetic modifications including the use of colored shrink wrap to affix the logger to the glasses' frame. The modified patch did not reduce patients' willingness to wear the patch as compared to a standard patch. ODM-recorded wear correlated with diary-recorded wear. The specific timestamps for wear were identical for patients with good ODM-diary concordance. CONCLUSIONS: The novel ODM is acceptable for parents and children and correlates with diary records of patch wear.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Ambliopia/terapia , Bandagens , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Óculos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Privação Sensorial
18.
J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil ; 72(2): 77-85, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The World Health Organization's Package of Eye Care Interventions (PECI) aims to support incorporation of amblyopia detection and treatment into health service provision. The aim of this study was to systematically review clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for amblyopia to inform the development of this package. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Global Index Medicus databases, guideline databases and professional body websites were searched for CPGs published in English between 2010 and 9th March 2020. Guidelines were assessed using the AGREE II tool. RESULTS: Five CPGs from North America published between 2017-2019 were identified. One CPG provided recommendations on amblyopia treatment and four focused on amblyopia detection and assessment. Non-specialist screening for amblyopic risk factors was recommended in children aged 3-5 years. At least one comprehensive eye examination was recommended for infants and children aged 0-5 years. Treatment recommendations consisted of refractive correction followed by occlusion or cycloplegic penalization. CONCLUSIONS: Additional evidence is required to compare the benefits and limitations of comprehensive eye examinations for asymptomatic children to those from screening programs. Identified CPGs were produced in high-resource countries and may not be readily applied in lower resource settings where the PECI has the greatest potential to improve service provision.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Ambliopia/diagnóstico , Ambliopia/terapia , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Exame Físico
19.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(5): 2114-2124, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167462

RESUMO

The visual depth perception is composed of monocular and binocular depth cues. Studies show that in absence of binocular depth cues the performance of visuomotor tasks like pointing to or grasping objects is limited. Thus, binocular depth cues are of great importance for motor control required in everyday life. However, binocular depth cues like retinal disparity (basis for stereopsis) might be influenced due to developmental disorders of the visual system. For example, amblyopia in which one eye's visual input is not processed leads to loss of stereopsis. The primary amblyopia treatment is occlusion of the healthy eye to force the amblyopic eye to train. However, improvements in stereopsis are poor. Therefore, binocular treatments arose that equilibrate both eyes' visual input to enable binocular vision. However, most approaches rely on divided stimuli which do not account for loss of stereopsis. We created a Virtual Reality (VR) with reduced monocular depth cues in which a stereoscopic task is shown to both eyes simultaneously, consisting of two balls jumping towards the user. One ball appears closer to the user which must be identified. To evaluate the task performance the reaction time is measured. We validated our approach with 18 participants with stereopsis under three contrast settings including one leading to monocular vision. The number of correct responses reduces from 90% under binocular vision to 52% under monocular vision corresponding to random guessing. Our results indicate that it is possible to disable monocular depth cues and create a dynamic stereoscopic task inside a VR.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Realidade Virtual , Ambliopia/terapia , Gráficos por Computador , Sinais (Psicologia) , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 6, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989762

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess whether monocular contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity impairments remain when visual acuity is fully recovered in children with refractive amblyopia. Methods: A retrospective review of 487 patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia whose visual acuity improved to 0.08 logMAR or better in both eyes following optical treatment was conducted. Measurements of monocular contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity had been made when visual acuity normalized. All patients had been treated with refractive correction for approximately 2 years following diagnosis. No other treatments were provided. Monocular contrast sensitivity was measured using the CSV-1000E chart for children 6 years of age or younger and a psychophysical technique called the quick contrast sensitivity function in older children. Stereoacuity was measured using the Random Dot Test that includes monocular cues and the Randot Stereoacuity Test that does not have monocular cues. Results: Statistically significant interocular differences in contrast sensitivity were observed. These differences tended to occur at higher spatial frequencies (12 and 18 cycles per degree). Stereoacuity within the age-specific normal range was achieved by 47.4% of patients for the Random Dot Test and only 23.1% of patients for the Randot Stereoacuity Test. Conclusions: Full recovery of visual acuity following treatment for refractive amblyopia does not equalize interocular contrast sensitivity or restore normal stereopsis. Alternative therapeutic approaches that target contrast sensitivity and/or binocular vision are required.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/terapia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Óculos , Hiperopia/terapia , Miopia/terapia , Ambliopia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Privação Sensorial , Testes Visuais/métodos , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...