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2.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063521, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study helps to fill the existing research gap related to participant engagement in behavioural interventions and diabetes management. We examined type 2 diabetes control over time among Mexican Americans by level of engagement in a chronic care management (CCM) program that included community health worker (CHW)-delivered multilevel interventions. The programme complemented clinical care and promoted behaviour changes to improve diabetes self-management. DESIGN: Quasiexperimental study. SETTING: The study was implemented in the Rio Grande Valley region in the USA. Recruitment was conducted in clinics and community events. All other visits were provided in participant homes and community locations. PARTICIPANTS: 5649 adults (aged ≥18 years) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who enrolled in a community-delivered CCM programme between September 2013 and 2018. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention comprised two components: CHW home visits conducted every 3 months and diabetes self-management education (DSME) classes provided in community locations. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measured at baseline every 3 months for up to 24 months. We first examined changes in HbA1c levels over time. The number of completed CHW and DSME encounters was used to classify participants into engagement groups-high engagement defined as ≥10 encounters (n=2952); low engagement defined as 1-9 encounters (n=2697). We used univariable and multivariable longitudinal linear regression models with a generalised estimating equation method. We tested interactions between engagement groups and time. RESULTS: Participants' mean HbA1c decreased from 10.20% at baseline to 8.93% (p<0.0001) at 3 months, remaining stable thereafter. Changes in HbA1c were statistically different between the engagement groups. High engagement participants had lower HbA1c levels over the first 15 months of the follow-up period compared with low engagement participants, as compared at 3 months (-0.44%, 95% CI -0.57% to -0.31%; p<0.0001), 6 months (-0.31%, 95% CI -0.43% to -0.14%; p<0.0001), 9 months (-0.27%, 95% CI -0.42% to -0.13%; p=0.0001), 12 months (-0.23%, 95% CI -0.37% to -0.08%; p=0.0025) and 15 months (-0.32%, 95% CI -0.54% to -0.10%; p=0.0040). At months 18, 21 and 24, the HbA1c differences were not statistically significant (18 months: -0.34%, 95% CI -0.77% to 0.08%; p=0.1086; 21 months: -0.22%, 95% CI -1.00% to 0.56%; p=0.5721; 24 months: -0.42%, 95% CI -1.38% to 0.55%; p=0.3966). CONCLUSIONS: Higher engagement in the CCM programme delivered by CHWs and coordinated with clinical care was associated with beneficial improvements in type 2 diabetes control, but both engagement groups showed strong improvements.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Americanos Mexicanos
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(12): 106851, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), Mexican Americans (MAs) have worse stroke outcomes. We report here the methods, background literature, and initial recruitment of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi-Post Acute Care (BASIC-PAC) Project which aims to explore PAC in MAs and NHWs from multiple perspectives: patients, caregivers, and community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rigorous active and passive stroke surveillance captures all strokes in Nueces County, Texas. Stroke patients are followed for 90 days to determine their care transitions and factors influencing their rehabilitation setting. Informal caregivers of the stroke patients are identified and interviewed at 90 days to determine aspects of their caregiving and caregiver outcomes. Available community resources are compared with stated needs among stroke patient and caregivers to determine unmet needs. RESULTS: Between October, 2019 and October, 2021, among the 629 stroke patients eligible, 413 were MA, 227 were NHW. Of the 629, all of the six follow-up calls were completed by 355 of the MAs (87%) and 191 of the NHWs (87%). During this same time period, we attempted to approach 621 potential caregivers. Of these, 458 (73.8%) potential caregivers participated in interviews to determine caregiver eligibility, and 373 (81.4%) of these participating potential caregivers met the eligibility criteria. CONCLUSIONS: BASIC-PAC has strong initial recruitment and is poised to provide valuable data on multiple aspects of PAC and how PAC differs by ethnicity and contributes to worse stroke outcomes in MAs. Based on the study findings, interventions can be developed that will improve stroke health equity.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Americanos Mexicanos , Encéfalo , Texas/epidemiologia
4.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 14(1): 173, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enrollment into clinical trials of persons at risk for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) in whom the onset of disease can be accurately predicted facilitates the interpretation of outcomes (e.g., biomarkers, treatment efficacy). Attitudes toward involvement in such studies are biased by intrinsic cultural and social characteristics. Our objective was to study how demographic factors such as country of residence, age, sex, schooling, parenthood, and urbanization affect attitudes towards participation in hypothetical clinical trials in Mexican families at risk for ADAD living either in Mexico or in the United States. METHODS: Participants were 74 members of different families known to harbor an ADAD mutation living in Mexico (n = 50) or in the United States (n = 24). Participants were asked, in a written questionnaire, their interest in participating in four hypothetical clinical trial scenarios of increasing perceived invasiveness. The questionnaire then asked about their willingness should there be a 50% chance of being assigned to a placebo group. The influences of demographic variables on decisions were performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. RESULTS: Participants who live in Mexico, who have or plan to have children, who do not attend or do not plan to attend school, and who live in rural areas gave more positive responses regarding their willingness to participate compared to those living in the U.S. The 50% chance of being in a placebo group increased the willingness to participate for family members living in Mexico. The main reason for participation was to help future generations, while the main reasons for refusal were not wanting to undergo genetic testing and consideration of adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: We found a higher level of willingness to participate in clinical trials among persons living in rural Mexico and our data suggest that altruism towards future generations is a major motivation, though this was balanced against concerns regarding side effects. Our results emphasize the importance of sharing information and assessing its understanding in potential participants with diverse backgrounds in the nature of ADAD and regarding the design of clinical trials prior to their enrollment in such studies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Americanos Mexicanos , Criança , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , México , Atitude
5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(5): 784-792, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine current contraceptive use by parity among four ethnicity and nativity groups: non-Latina White women in the United States, Mexican-American women in the United States, foreign-born women of Mexican origin in the United States, and Mexican women in Mexico. METHODS: We combined nationally representative data from sexually active women, aged 15-44 years, and not seeking pregnancy from the U.S. National Survey of Family Growth and the Mexican National Survey of Demographic Dynamics. This is a secondary binational analysis. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated the prevalence of moderately or most effective contraceptive method use (compared with least effective or no contraceptive method) by ethnicity and nativity and tested the interaction between ethnicity and nativity and parity. RESULTS: Compared with non-Latina White women, women of Mexican origin had lower odds of using a moderately or most effective contraceptive method (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] [95% CI] Mexican-American women: 0.69 [0.54-0.87]; foreign-born women: 0.67 [0.48-0.95]; Mexican women in Mexico: 0.59 [0.40-0.87]). Among parous women, the adjusted probability of using a moderately or most effective contraceptive method was approximately 65% among all four groups. Contraceptive method use did not differ by parity among non-Latina White women. However, parous Mexican-American women were 1.5 times more likely to use moderately or most effective contraceptive methods than nulliparous Mexican-American women (adjusted probability 66.1% vs 42.7%). Parous foreign-born women were 1.8 times more likely to use most or moderately effective contraceptive methods than their nulliparous counterparts (64.5% vs 36.0%), and parous Mexican women in Mexico were three times more likely to use moderately or most effective contraceptive methods (65.2% vs 21.5%). CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that access to effective contraception is limited outside the context of childbearing for women of Mexican origin in the United States and, to an even larger extent, in Mexico.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais , Americanos Mexicanos , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Feminino , México , Paridade , Anticoncepção
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e31164, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253982

RESUMO

Liver metabolism is strongly linked to bone metabolism, and a significant correlation between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and bone mineral density (BMD) in adults has been demonstrated. However, the current relationship between NAFLD and BMD in the adolescent population remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific relationship between NAFLD and BMD in adolescents aged 12 to 19 years in the United States. The quantitative relationship between NAFLD and total BMD was investigated using multivariate logistic regression and smoothed fitted curve curves based on multiperspective data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 740 adolescents were included in this study after excluding unusable samples. The results showed that NAFLD was positively associated with total BMD in adolescents. The results of the subgroup analysis showed that this positive association was mainly found in boys, whites and blacks. The association was not significant in girls, Mexican Americans and other racial groups. Among US adolescents, there was a significant positive association between NAFLD and total BMD, and this relationship varied by gender and race.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Brancos
7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 90(2): 905-915, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite tremendous advancements in the field, our understanding of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) among Mexican Americans remains limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize MCI and dementia among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. METHODS: Baseline data were analyzed from n = 1,705 (n = 890 Mexican American; n = 815 non-Hispanic white) participants enrolled in the Health and Aging Brain Study-Health Disparities (HABS-HD). RESULTS: Among Mexican Americans, age (OR = 1.07), depression (OR = 1.09), and MRI-based neurodegeneration (OR = 0.01) were associated with dementia, but none of these factors were associated with MCI. Among non-Hispanic whites, male gender (OR = 0.33), neighborhood deprivation (OR = 1.34), depression (OR = 1.09), and MRI-based neurodegeneration (OR = 0.03) were associated with MCI, while depression (OR = 1.09) and APOEɛ4 genotype (OR = 4.38) were associated with dementia. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study revealed that the demographic, clinical, sociocultural and biomarker characteristics of MCI and dementia are different among Mexican Americans as compared to non-Hispanic whites.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Masculino , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Vida Independente , Brancos , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084053

RESUMO

PURPOSES: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and frailty in older Mexican Americans has not been previously studied. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI and frailty among non-frail older Mexican Americans at baseline over 18 years of follow up. METHODS: Longitudinal population-based study of 1,648 non-institutionalized Mexican Americans aged ≥ 67 years from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (1995/96-2012/13). Frailty phenotype was defined as meeting three or more of the following: unintentional weight loss of >10 pounds, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, low physical activity, and slow walking speed. BMI (kg/m2) was classified as underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5-<25), overweight (25-< 30), obesity category I (30-<35), and obesity category II/morbid obesity (≥35). Covariates included socio-demographics, comorbidities, cognitive function, and depressive symptoms. Generalized Estimating Equation models were performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of frailty as a function of BMI category. RESULTS: Participants with underweight or obesity category II/ morbid obesity had greater odds of frailty over time compared to those with normal weight (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.29-4.44 and OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07-2.44, respectively) after controlling for all covariates. Participants with BMIs in the overweight or category I obesity were at lower odds of frailty over time. CONCLUSIONS: Mexican American older adults with BMIs in the underweight or obesity category II/morbid obesity were at higher odds of frailty over time. This indicates that maintaining a healthy weight in this population may prevent future frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Obesidade Mórbida , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Seguimentos , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This present study experimentally evaluated the Pasos Para Prevenir Cancer (PPPC) program to determine whether participation was associated with improved physical activity engagement. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention programs improve physical activity (PA) engagement and lead to healthier weights, which substantially impacts cancer and cardiometabolic disease risk. There is a shortage of knowledge on the effectiveness of programs tailored to populations along the U.S.-Mexico border. METHODS: We collected demographic, nutrition, and physical activity data at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) for 209 participants. We analyzed the average metabolic equivalents (METS) per week for all physical activity levels and types and the achievement of the recommended METS per week to determine the demographic characteristics most associated with a change between baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: Light activity was the most common activity at all three points, and it slightly increased at 6 months in work settings. Subjects conducted moderate physical activity primarily at home and work, and moderate physical activity increased more compared to vigorous physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention tailoring might improve PA engagement in Mexican Americans residing on the U.S.-Mexico border; however, larger studies that are more diverse are required.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Neoplasias , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Texas
10.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221123471, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increasing in the older American population, especially Mexican Americans. Sleep disorders are common in older adults with T2DM. This study examined the relationship between T2DM-related complications and sleep complaints in older Mexican Americans over 9 years of follow-up. METHODS: Study included 310 participants aged 77 years or older with self-reported diabetes from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (2007/08-2016). RESULTS: Of the 310 participants, the mean age was 82.04 years. The cohort had significantly more females (69.03%) than males (30.97%). A substantial number of participants had trouble falling asleep (16.13%), waking up several times (36.45%), trouble staying asleep (15.16%), and feeling tired and worn out after waking up (12.90%). The percent of diabetes complications were 70.2% for circulation problems, 58.2% for eye disorders, 15.9% for kidney disease, and 4.4% for amputation. Participants who experienced sleep complaints for 15 or more days in a month were more likely to experience diabetic complications. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated a significant relationship between T2DM macro- and micro-vascular complications and increased risk of sleep disorders in older Mexican Americans.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 90(1): 61-68, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093702

RESUMO

We examined ethnoracial differences in fatty acid binding protein (FABP)-a family of intracellular lipid carriers-and clarified FABP3 associations with gray and white matter. Relative to Mexican Americans (MAs), FABP3 was higher in Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWS, p < 0.001). Regressions revealed, independent of traditional AD markers, FABP3 was associated with neurodegeneration (B = -0.08, p = 0.003) and WMH burden (B = 0.18, p = 0.03) in MAs, but not in NHWs (ps > 0.18). Findings suggest FABP3 is related to neural health within MAs and highlight its potential as a prognostic marker of brain health in ethnoracially diverse older adults.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Humanos , Idoso , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Americanos Mexicanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Brancos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores
12.
J Aging Health ; 34(9-10): 1291-1301, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study estimates the number of years after age 65 that Mexican Americans live with likely dementia and the impact of dementia on community-based services (CBS) use by nativity. METHODS: Using the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly Sullivan methods are employed to predict duration of dementia and logistic regressions identify the predictors of service utilization. RESULTS: Foreign-born women spend more years than other groups with dementia. The foreign-born are more likely to use out-of-home services, whereas U.S.-born are more likely to use in-home services. The foreign-born with dementia of relatively recent onset had the highest probability of service use. DISCUSSION: Given the high cost of institutional care and availability of family caregivers, community-based services are a potentially useful alternative for the growing Mexican-American population living with dementia. Expanded Medicaid and CBS programs could be an equitable and cost-effective alternative that should be investigated.


Assuntos
Demência , Americanos Mexicanos , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Hispânico ou Latino , Cuidadores , Serviço Social
13.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221116231, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that liver disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the US, afflicting 4.5 million people in 2018, or approximately 1.7% of the American adult population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with liver disease among older Mexican Americans over 18 years of follow-up. METHODS: Non-institutionalized Mexican Americans aged ≥67 years (N = 1938) from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (1995/96-2012/13) were studied. Measures included socio-demographic variables, self-reported liver disease, language of interview, medical conditions, hand-grip strength, physical and cognitive function, depressive symptoms, and body mass index. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) of liver disease over time. RESULTS: The mean age at baseline was 74.9 ± 6.0 years and 58.4% were female. The prevalence of liver disease ranged from 2.4% to 8.4%. Over time, the odds ratio of reporting liver disease was 1.17 (CI = 1.12-1.22). Older age, Spanish interview, arthritis, diabetes, heart failure, cancer, and high scores on the Mini-Mental-State-Examination were factors associated with greater odds of reporting liver disease over time. Married participants reported lower odds of liver disease over time. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of liver disease in this population was high, ranging from 2.4% to 8.4%. Diabetes, heart failure, arthritis, and cancer were risk factors for liver disease. Screening for liver function among patients with these morbidities may help prevent liver disease in this population with high rates of diabetes and obesity.


Assuntos
Artrite , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hepatopatias , Idoso , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Fam Community Health ; 45(4): 299-307, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985028

RESUMO

The present work studies how community health workers (CHWs) perform the role of educator and how this relates to the implementation of other CHW roles, skills, and qualities. Prior studies on this topic have relied on interviews or focus groups rather than analysis of CHW interactions. We conducted a thematic analysis of 24 transcripts of conversations occurring between CHWs and participants during home visits as part of the Mexican American Trial of Community Health Workers, a randomized controlled trial that improved clinical outcomes among low-income Mexican American adults with type 2 diabetes. Three themes describing interactions related to diabetes self-management education accounted for about half of encounter content. The other half of encounter content was dedicated to interactions not explicitly related to diabetes described by 4 subthemes. In a successful CHW intervention, focused educational content was balanced with other interactions. Interactions not explicitly related to diabetes may have provided space for the implementation of core CHW roles, skills, and qualities other than educator, particularly those related to relationship building. It is important that interventions provide CHWs with sufficient time and flexibility to develop strong relationships with participants.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Grupos Focais , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos
15.
Stroke ; 53(11): 3394-3400, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between stroke and dementia is well established. Less is known about this association in underrepresented ethnic groups. In a large ethnically diverse cohort, we examined whether history of stroke was associated with cognitive impairment, and whether this relationship differed by ethnicity (Mexican American [MA] versus non-Hispanic White). METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study conducted in Nueces County, TX, a biethnic community with a large and primarily nonimmigrant MA population. Residents aged ≥65 were recruited door-to-door or by telephone between May 2018 and December 2021. The primary exposure was history of stroke, obtained by self-report. Demographic, medical, and educational histories were also obtained. The primary outcome was the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a scale that evaluates multiple domains of cognitive performance. Scores were divided into 3 ordinal categories, roughly corresponding to normal cognition (MoCA 26-30), mild cognitive impairment (MoCA 20-25), or probable dementia (MoCA 0-19). RESULTS: One thousand eight hundred one participants completed MoCA screening (55% female; 50% MA, 44% Non-Hispanic White, 6% other), of whom 12.4% reported history of stroke. Stroke prevalence was similar across ethnicities (X2 2.1; P=0.34). In a multivariable cumulative logit regression model for the ordinal cognition outcome, a stroke by ethnicity interaction was observed (P=0.01). Models stratified by ethnicity revealed that stroke was associated with cognitive impairment across ethnicities, but had greater impact on cognition in non-Hispanic Whites (cumulative odds ratio=3.81 [95% CI, 2.37-6.12]) than in MAs (cumulative odds ratio=1.58 [95% CI, 1.04-2.41]). Increased age and lower educational attainment were also associated with cognitive impairment, regardless of ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: History of stroke was associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment after controlling for other factors in both MA and Non-Hispanic White participants. The magnitude of the impact of stroke on cognition was less in MA than in Non-Hispanic White participants.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Estudos de Coortes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/diagnóstico
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12514, 2022 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869121

RESUMO

Variability in response to short-acting ß2-agonists (e.g., albuterol) among patients with asthma from diverse racial/ethnic groups may contribute to asthma disparities. We sought to identify genetic variants associated with bronchodilator response (BDR) to identify potential mechanisms of drug response and risk factors for worse asthma outcomes. Genome-wide association studies of bronchodilator response (BDR) were performed using TOPMed Whole Genome Sequencing data of the Asthma Translational Genomic Collaboration (ATGC), which corresponded to 1136 Puerto Rican, 656 Mexican and 4337 African American patients with asthma. With the population-specific GWAS results, a trans-ethnic meta-analysis was performed to identify BDR-associated variants shared across the three populations. Replication analysis was carried out in three pediatric asthma cohorts, including CAMP (Childhood Asthma Management Program; n = 560), GACRS (Genetics of Asthma in Costa Rica Study; n = 967) and HPR (Hartford-Puerto Rico; n = 417). A genome-wide significant locus (rs35661809; P = 3.61 × 10-8) in LINC02220, a non-coding RNA gene, was identified in Puerto Ricans. While this region was devoid of protein-coding genes, capture Hi-C data showed a distal interaction with the promoter of the DNAH5 gene in lung tissue. In replication analysis, the GACRS cohort yielded a nominal association (1-tailed P < 0.05). No genetic variant was associated with BDR at the genome-wide significant threshold in Mexicans and African Americans. Our findings help inform genetic underpinnings of BDR for understudied minority patients with asthma, but the limited availability of genetic data for racial/ethnic minority children with asthma remains a paramount challenge.


Assuntos
Asma , Broncodilatadores , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Dineínas do Axonema/genética , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Criança , Etnicidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispânico ou Latino/genética , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , Grupos Minoritários , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 80(2): 138-151, 2022 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed U.S. cardiometabolic health trends-optimal levels of multiple risk factors and absence of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD)-or its impact on health disparities. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate U.S. trends in optimal cardiometabolic health from 1999 to 2018. METHODS: We assessed proportions of adults with optimal cardiometabolic health, based on adiposity, blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and clinical CVD; and optimal, intermediate, and poor levels of each component among 55,081 U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. RESULTS: In 2017-2018, only 6.8% (95% CI: 5.4%-8.1%) of U.S. adults had optimal cardiometabolic health, declining from 1999-2000 (P trend = 0.02). Among components of cardiometabolic health, the largest declines were for adiposity (optimal levels: 33.8%-24.0%; poor levels: 47.7%-61.9%) and glucose (optimal levels: 59.4%-36.9%; poor levels: 8.6%-13.7%) (P trend <0.001 for each). Optimal levels of blood lipids increased from 29.9%-37.0%, whereas poor decreased from 28.3%-14.7% (P trend <0.001). Trends over time for blood pressure and CVD were smaller. Disparities by age, sex, education, and race/ethnicity were evident in all years, and generally worsened over time. By 2017-2018, prevalence of optimal cardiometabolic health was lower among Americans with lower (5.0% [95% CI: 2.8%-7.2%]) vs higher education (10.3% [95% CI: 7.6%-13.0%]); and among Mexican American (3.2% [95% CI: 1.4%-4.9%]) vs non-Hispanic White (8.4% [95% CI: 6.3%-10.4%]) adults. CONCLUSIONS: Between 1999 and 2000 and 2017 and 2018, U.S. cardiometabolic health has been poor and worsening, with only 6.8% of adults having optimal cardiometabolic health, and disparities by age, sex, education, and race/ethnicity. These novel findings inform the need for nationwide clinical and public health interventions to improve cardiometabolic health and health equity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Hum Biol ; 34(10): e23785, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2016 U.S. presidential election was a major source of stress among many adults. Psychosocial stress can manifest physiologically in elevated blood pressure (BP). Little is known regarding the association of macro-level sociopolitical events with BP changes at the population-level. This study sought to characterize population-level changes in BP following the 2016 U.S. presidential election. METHODS: Using 2015-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we included participants aged ≥18 years during the same periods prior to (May to October 2015/2016) and after (May to October 2017/2018) the election. Survey-weighted data were analyzed to compare population-level systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) pre- and post-election, stratified by race/ethnicity. Sex differences were also investigated. RESULTS: We observed significant increases in SBP among non-Hispanic (NH) Asian participants (+3.4 mmHg; p = .046), but not among other racial/ethnic participants. DBP increased among NH Black participants (+2.3 mmHg; p = .049) and Mexican American participants (+2.9 mmHg; p = .007), but not among other racial/ethnic participants. These changes appeared attributable to differential BP changes by sex. CONCLUSIONS: At the population-level, variable changes in BP were observed by race/ethnicity following the 2016 U.S. presidential election, possibly driven by SBP elevations among women.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
20.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 57(6): 678-686, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596957

RESUMO

AIMS: This study assessed contributions of exposure to neighborhood stressors (violent victimization, witnessing crime, greater alcohol and drug availability) to variation in alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms among drinkers in three cities in Texas, USA. METHODS: We used data from interviews conducted from 2011 to 2013 with Mexican-origin adults (ages 16-65) in the US-Mexico Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions who were past-year drinkers (N = 1960; 55% male) living in two cities in the Texas-Mexico border region (Laredo, n = 751 and Brownsville/McAllen, n = 814) and one interior comparison site (San Antonio, n = 771). Analyses (conducted in 2018 and 2019) examined overall and gender-stratified multilevel mediated effects of each border site (versus San Antonio) on AUD symptoms through the neighborhood-level factors, adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates. RESULTS: Overall, drinkers in Laredo reported more AUD symptoms than drinkers in the other cities, and their neighborhoods had more witnessing of crime and greater perceived drug availability, as well as higher levels of disadvantage and a lower proportion non-Hispanic White residents, than neighborhoods in San Antonio. Witnessing neighborhood crime was associated with increased AUD symptoms, while neighborhood disadvantage and proportion non-Hispanic White residents each were negatively associated with AUD symptoms. Perceived neighborhood insecurity, crime victimization, perceived neighborhood drug availability and neighborhood alcohol availability (off- and on-premise) were not significantly associated with AUD symptoms. Stratified models suggested possible gender differences in indirect effects through witnessing neighborhood crime. CONCLUSION: Reducing witnessing of neighborhood crime may help reduce AUD symptoms among adults living in the US border region.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Americanos Mexicanos , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Etanol
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