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1.
Nurs Res ; 68(6): 494-500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing the effects of acculturation on quality of life and emotional health, especially during pregnancy, we developed an intervention that would target these factors in order to improve maternal well-being during the prenatal period and potentially improve infant outcomes, particularly preterm birth for Mexican-American women (Latinas). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of these pilot studies was to test the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of the mastery lifestyle intervention (MLI) to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms and improve coping as implemented in prenatal clinics with culturally homogenous groups of Latinas. METHODS: The MLI was tested in three small pilot studies (n = 15), one in El Paso, Texas (an urban area), and two in Bastrop, Texas (a rural area outside Austin), for acceptability and feasibility. A pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design was used with pregnant self-identified Mexican-American Latinas at 14-20 weeks' gestation. Measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative coping were used. RESULTS: Feasibility was a success in terms of implementation of the MLI in an active prenatal clinic setting and the use of electronic tablets for data collection and entry of data into REDcap. Satisfaction was high, with the location of the MLI being at their primary OB/GYN clinic. Participants reported that six intervention sessions appear to be ideal as was the class length of 1.5 to 2 hours. On Cohen's d, there were medium to large effect size decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms and small to medium effect size decreases in the use of negative coping strategies and small effect sizes for increases in positive coping strategies. DISCUSSION: Pilot testing of the MLI indicated that it was well accepted from the participants and feasible as a culturally tailored behavioral therapy administered in a group setting by nurse practitioners. Our initial pilot results also suggest preliminary efficacy as indicated by moderate to large Cohen's d effect sizes for depression and anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Aculturação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida , Texas
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540018

RESUMO

An oral health prevention intervention was conducted with Mexican-American (MA) caregivers, focused on improving their oral health knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy. Five in-person intervention sessions were conducted with caregivers, followed by a 15 min skill-building exercise. A goal-setting sheet was provided, and two goals were chosen for fulfilment during the three month intervention period. The data on parental oral health knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy were collected pre- and post-intervention using a portion of Basic Factors Research Questionnaire (BRFQ). Paired t-tests were conducted to test significant differences in the means of pre- and post-intervention oral health behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy scores, and pre- and post-intervention individual item scores. Forty six primary caregivers were enrolled. There were significant differences in the means of pre- and post-intervention oral health knowledge (p = 0.003), oral health behavior (p = 0.0005), and self-efficacy scores (p = 0.001). The individual item mean scores showed that there was a significant increase in the number of times caregivers checked for spots (p = 0.016) and a significant decrease in the consumption of sweet or sugary drinks (p = 0.032) post-intervention. Most of the caregivers believed that cavities were caused by germs in the mouth (p = 0.001), sharing utensils with children was bad for their teeth (p < 0.001), and fluoride toothpaste was best for a child's teeth (p < 0.001). The intervention resulted in improved caregiver oral health knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Americanos Mexicanos , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS Genet ; 15(9): e1008225, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545791

RESUMO

European and African descendants settled the continental US during the 17th-19th centuries, coming into contact with established Native American populations. The resulting admixture among these groups yielded a significant reservoir of Native American ancestry in the modern US population. We analyzed the patterns of Native American admixture seen for the three largest genetic ancestry groups in the US population: African descendants, Western European descendants, and Spanish descendants. The three groups show distinct Native American ancestry profiles, which are indicative of their historical patterns of migration and settlement across the country. Native American ancestry in the modern African descendant population does not coincide with local geography, instead forming a single group with origins in the southeastern US, consistent with the Great Migration of the early 20th century. Western European descendants show Native American ancestry that tracks their geographic origins across the US, indicative of ongoing contact during westward expansion, and Native American ancestry can resolve Spanish descendant individuals into distinct local groups formed by more recent migration from Mexico and Puerto Rico. We found an anomalous pattern of Native American ancestry from the US southwest, which most likely corresponds to the Nuevomexicano descendants of early Spanish settlers to the region. We addressed a number of controversies surrounding this population, including the extent of Sephardic Jewish ancestry. Nuevomexicanos are less admixed than nearby Mexican-American individuals, with more European and less Native American and African ancestry, and while they do show demonstrable Sephardic Jewish ancestry, the fraction is no greater than seen for other New World Spanish descendant populations.


Assuntos
Migração Humana/tendências , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Geografia , Haplótipos , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , Estados Unidos
4.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(4): 1213-1226, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478823

RESUMO

Drawing on five waves of longitudinal data from 392 families (52% female; mean age of wave 1 [Mage_W1] = 12.89, standard deviation [SD] = .48; Mage_W5 = 21.95, SD = .77; 199 European American and 193 Mexican American families; 217 intact and 175 stepfather families), this study documented transactional relations of mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms with youth's symptomatology from early adolescence to young adulthood. Trait and time-varying cross-lagged models revealed that both mothers' and fathers' between- and within-person differences in depressive symptoms were associated with youth's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Whereas each parent's depressive symptoms uniquely contributed to youth's internalizing symptoms, however, only mothers' depressive symptoms influenced youth's externalizing symptoms. Although reciprocal effects of youth's internalizing symptoms on parents' depressive symptoms were not significant, youth's externalizing symptoms predicted changes in mothers' depressive symptoms over time. Moderation analyses revealed distinct transactional patterns by family ethnicity and child gender, but not by family structure. This study revealed dynamic transactions among family members' symptomatology that point to opportune times and targets for intervention efforts aimed at mitigating the negative impact of parents' depressive symptoms on youth's adjustment.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Depressão , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Mecanismos de Defesa , Características da Família , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nurs Res ; 68(5): 348-357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through its influence on social interactions, simpatía may have a wide-ranging influence on Latinx health. Simpatía-which does not have a direct English translation-refers to being perceived as likeable, pleasant, and easygoing. Research to investigate the influence simpatía on Latinx health is limited, likely due to a lack of options for measuring simpatía among diverse Latinx populations. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this research was to develop a bilingual, survey-based simpatía scale for use among ethnically diverse Latinx adults in health-related settings. METHODS: Data were obtained through a telephone survey data of 1,296 Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults living in the United States. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish. Exploratory factor analysis, item response theory analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and computation of estimates of internal consistency reliability were conducted to inform the development of the final simpatía scale. RESULTS: Results indicate that the final, nine-item, simpatía scale has high internal consistency (α = .83) and measurement invariance among Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults. Two dimensions were identified, as indicated by a perceptions subscale and a behavior subscale. Cuban Americans were found to have the highest simpatía scores, followed by Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. DISCUSSION: Culture is often identified as a powerful potential influence on health-related behaviors, but measures are often not available to assess specific cultural traits. By developing a new tool for measuring simpatía, this research advances opportunities for understanding and promoting Latinx health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Multilinguismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Cuba/etnologia , Características Culturais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
8.
Sch Psychol ; 34(5): 555-565, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343212

RESUMO

Utilizing ecological theory and multiple world theory, the current study investigated the effects of cultural factors (i.e., Familismo and school climate), parental involvement, and academic socialization on academic achievement of Latina/o secondary school students. This study had 2 primary foci. First, this study sought to address how the cultural value of Familismo and the interaction between home and school cultures play a role in parental involvement and academic achievement. Second, the effect of academic socialization was tested as a distinct factor from parental involvement. Data were collected from 116 Latina/o students living along the U.S./Mexico border. This study tested a path model that explained 30% of the variance in academic achievement, 25% of the variance in academic socialization, and 21% of the variance in parental involvement. Among 8 proposed relationships, 6 were supported while 2 were not. The mediating effects of parental involvement and academic socialization were supported that connect Familismo, school climate, and academic achievement. Implications for Latina/o secondary students who navigate between the different cultural worlds of home and school are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Cultura , Hispano-Americanos , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Socialização , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Modelos Psicológicos
9.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(5): 577-587, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259575

RESUMO

Although the importance of religion in the help-seeking processes of Latinx populations has been discussed (e.g., Moreno & Cardemil, 2013), few studies have considered the effects of religious and cultural factors on Mexican American women's underutilization of professional mental health services and less willingness to seek counseling. To address this gap in the literature, this study focuses on religious cultural values reported by Mexican American college women and how sociocultural factors, such as spiritual and biological etiology beliefs and self-stigma, can shape their willingness to seek counseling, using the cultural influences on mental health (CIMH) theoretical framework (Hwang, Myers, Abe-Kim, & Ting, 2008). Using structural equation modeling, we tested 2 theoretically and empirically derived models of willingness to seek counseling among 276 Mexican American college women at a large Hispanic-serving university in the Southwest. The findings highlighted the direct and indirect ways in which religious cultural values related to willingness to seek counseling and the importance of accounting for etiology beliefs and self-stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/tendências , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Estigma Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 782, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity (PA) preferences associated with increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and decrease in sedentary time in Mexican American (MA) women participating in a Promotora (community health worker)-led intervention on the U.S.-Mexico border. METHODS: Enlace ('to link' in Spanish) was a randomized clinical trial to increase PA in low-income, MA women living in South Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border. A total of 620 participants were recruited into the study. The primary outcome was increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using the Actigraph GT3X 16 Mb accelerometer. A modified version of the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors Physical Activity (CHAMPS) instrument was used to predict MVPA. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models predicted change in MVPA by change in CHAMPS activities. ANOVA analysis determined the variance explained in change in MVPA by change in time engaged in activity. Individual effect sizes were then calculated for significant activity type change on MVPA increase. RESULTS: There were significant increases in all CHAMPS activities except aerobic machines and errand walking. An increase in leisure walking (O.R. = 2.76, p = .046), errand (O.R. = 3.53, p = .051), and brisk walking (O.R. = 4.74, p = .011), dance (O.R. = 8.22, p = .003), aerobics class (O.R. = 32.7, p = .001), and light housework (O.R. = 6.75, p = .000), were associated with a decrease in sedentary time. Significant effect sizes for MVPA were observed for jogging (1.2, p = .050), general exercise (1.6, p = .024), and other exercise not specified (2.6, p = .003). Significant effect sizes for sedentary time were detected for leisure time (.031, p = .036), errands (.017, p = .022), brisk walking (.022, p = .003), dance (.042, p = .005), and aerobics class (.013, p = .009). DISCUSSION: Participants who engaged in walking and aerobic activities through this intervention significantly increased their engagement in MVPA and decreased their sedentary time. These findings are novel, since preferences have not been examined in relation to MVPA or sedentary time in MA women. CONCLUSION: PA preferences need to be considered when aiming to promote activities that reduce sedentary time and increase PA participation among marginalized groups, such as MA women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02046343 .


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Pobreza/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Texas
11.
Stroke ; 50(7): 1641-1647, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177986

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders are common after stroke, though there are limited data on trends over time. We investigated time trends in DNR orders in a community with a large minority population. Methods- Cases of ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were identified from the BASIC study (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi) from June 2007 through October 2016. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess time to DNR orders, with an interaction term added to allow separate hazard ratios for early (≤24 hours) and late (>24 hours) DNR. Stroke type-specific calendar trends were assessed with an interaction term between calendar year (linear) and stroke type. Results- Two thousand six hundred seventy-two cases were included (ICH, 14%). Mean age was 69, 50% were female, and race-ethnicity was Mexican American (58%), non-Hispanic white (37%), and African American (5%). Overall, 16% had a DNR order during the hospitalization. For ICH, DNR orders (early and late) were stable over the study period. However, early DNR orders became more common over time after ischemic stroke (hazard ratio for 2016 versus 2007: 1.89; 95% CI, 1.06-3.39), with no change over time for late DNR orders after ischemic stroke. Mexican Americans (hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.86) and African Americans (hazard ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04-0.71) were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to have early DNR orders, though there were no race-ethnic differences in late DNR orders. There was no change in race-ethnic difference in DNR orders over the time of the study (interaction P>0.60). Conclusions- Despite revised national guidelines cautioning against early DNR orders in ICH, presence of DNR orders after ICH was stable between 2007 and 2016, with only slight increases in early DNR orders after ischemic stroke. Mexican Americans and African Americans remain less likely than non-Hispanic whites to have early DNR orders after stroke.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica)/ética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Med Care ; 57(7): 521-527, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ideally, doctors ask each patient's current views about involvement in decision-making, but inquiries prove inconclusive with some inpatients. Doctors may then need indirect indicators of those views. We, therefore, explored ethnic group and sex as cultural indicators of patients' current preferences and perceptions about such involvement. METHODS: In open-response interviews, we asked those preferences and perceptions of 26 Mexican American (MA), 18 Euro-American (EA), and 14 African American (AA) adult inpatients. We content-analyzed responses blindly to identify themes and linked those themes to ethnic group and sex. RESULTS: Only sex indicated patients' current preferences. Regardless of ethnic group, most men preferred decision-making by the doctor (with or without the patient); most women, decision-making by the patient (with or without the doctor). But both ethnic group and sex together indicated patients' current perceptions. Specifically, each ethnic group as a whole most often perceived decision-making by the doctor alone and the patient alone on separate occasions, but the sexes within ethnic groups differed. For MAs roughly equal numbers of men and women perceived such decision making, for EAs more men than women did so, and for AAs more women than men did so. In addition, no EA men but some EA women perceived decision-making by the doctor alone, and some MA men and women-but no EAs or AAs-perceived decision-making by the patient alone. Primarily ethnic group indicated matches between current preferences and perceptions: Most EAs had matches; most MAs and AAs did not. CONCLUSIONS: Whenever direct inquiries fail, ethnic group and sex may indicate adult inpatients' current preferences and perceptions about involvement in decision-making. Yet matching those preferences and perceptions, especially for minority patients, remains difficult.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Participação do Paciente , Preferência do Paciente/etnologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Fam Community Health ; 42(3): 213-220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107732

RESUMO

Low-income children of Mexican immigrants are at high risk for obesity. Drawing on a sample of 104 Mexican American children (Mage = 8.39 years; 61% female), this longitudinal study considered relations between food insecurity and chronic stress (ie, parent report and hair cortisol measurement) on body mass index (BMI) and examined whether stress moderated associations between food insecurity and BMI. Analyses revealed that undocumented status was associated with food insecurity and chronic stress but not when accounting for poverty. Food insecurity was only associated with higher BMI for children with the highest hair cortisol. Results suggest that chronic stress may impact body weight among food-insecure children.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Pobreza/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(19): e15605, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083252

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker for cardiovascular events and also has been studied as a biomarker for cognitive decline. By the year 2050 the Hispanic population in the United States will reach 106 million, and 65% of those will be of Mexican heritage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between CRP levels and cognitive functioning in a sample of Mexican American older adults. A cross-sectional analysis of data from 328 cognitive normal, Mexican American participants from the community-based Health and Aging Brain Among Latino Elders (HABLE) study were performed. Statistical methods included t-test, chi square, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression modeling. Cognitive performance was measured by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Logical Memory I and II, Digit Span, FAS, and Animal Naming tests. Age, years of education, gender, diagnostic of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were entered in the model as covariates. High CRP levels significantly predicted FAS scores (B = -0.135, P = .01), even after adjusting for covariates. Education (B = 0.30, P < .05), and diagnosis of hypertension (B = -0.12, P = .02) were also independent predictors of FAS scores. Participants with higher CRP levels had greater adjusted odds of poorer performance in the FAS test (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.13-2.72, P = .01) when compared to participants with lower CRP levels. This was also true for participants with hypertension (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.34-3.60, P < .05). Higher CRP levels were not associated with MMSE, logical memory, digit span, and animal naming scores. In conclusion, our study showed a clear association between CRP levels and verbal fluency and executive function in a cognitively normal community-dwelling population of Mexican-Americans.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Cognição , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
15.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1519-1524, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084331

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- We assessed ethnic differences in medication adherence 3 months poststroke in a population-based study as an initial step in investigating the increased stroke recurrence risk in Mexican Americans compared with non-Hispanic whites. Methods- Ischemic stroke cases from 2008 to 2015 from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project in Texas were followed prospectively for 3 months poststroke to assess medication adherence. Medications in 5 drug classes were analyzed: statins, antiplatelets, anticoagulants, antihypertensives, and antidepressants. For each drug class, patients were considered adherent if they reported never missing a dose in a typical week. The χ2 tests or Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric tests were used for ethnic comparisons of demographics, risk factors, and medication adherence. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed for the association of ethnicity and medication nonadherence. Results- Mexican Americans (n=692) were younger (median 65 years versus 68 years, P<0.001), had more diabetes mellitus ( P<0.001) and hypertension ( P<0.001) and less atrial fibrillation ( P=0.003), smoking ( P=0.003), and education ( P<0.001) than non-Hispanic whites (n=422). Sex, insurance status, high cholesterol, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack history, excessive alcohol use, tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) treatment, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and comorbidity index did not significantly differ by ethnicity. There was no significant difference in medication adherence for any of the 5 drug classes between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Conclusions- This study did not find ethnic differences in medication adherence, thus challenging this patient-level factor as an explanation for stroke recurrence disparities. Other reasons for the excessive stroke recurrence burden in Mexican Americans, including provider and health system factors, should be explored.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Texas
16.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 1127-1141, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084645

RESUMO

Exposure to threat increases the risk for internalizing problems in adolescence. Deficits in integrating bodily cues into representations of emotion are thought to contribute to internalizing problems. Given the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in regulating bodily responses and integrating them into representations of emotional states, coordination between activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and autonomic nervous system responses may be influenced by past threat exposure with consequences for the emergence of internalizing problems. A sample of 179 Mexican-origin adolescents (88 female) reported on neighborhood and school crime, peer victimization, and discrimination when they were 10-16 years old. At age 17, participants underwent a functional neuroimaging scan during which they viewed pictures of emotional faces while respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and skin conductance responses were measured. Adolescents also reported symptoms of internalizing problems. Greater exposure to threats across adolescence was associated with more internalizing problems. Threat exposure was also associated with stronger negative coupling between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and RSA. Stronger negative ventromedial prefrontal cortex-RSA coupling was associated with fewer internalizing problems. These results suggest the degree of coordinated activity between the brain and parasympathetic nervous system is both enhanced by threat experiences and decreased in adolescents with more internalizing problems.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Bullying , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Grupo Associado , Preconceito , Fatores Sexuais
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 582, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight have increased dramatically in the United States over the last decades. The complexity of interrelated causal factors that result in obesity needs to be addressed within the cultural dynamic of sub-populations. In this study, we sought to estimate the effects of a multifaceted, community-based intervention on body mass index (BMI) among Mexican-heritage children. METHODS: Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family) was a quasi-experimental intervention study designed to reduce the rate of BMI growth among Mexican-heritage children in California's Central Valley. Two rural communities were matched based on demographic and environmental characteristics and were assigned as the intervention or comparison community. The three-year intervention included parent workshops on nutrition and physical activity; school-based nutrition lessons and enhanced physical education program for children; and a monthly voucher for fruits and vegetables. Eligible children were between 3 and 8 years old at baseline. Intent-to-treat analyses were estimated using linear mixed-effect models with random intercepts. We ran a series of models for each gender where predictors were fixed except interactions between age groups and obesity status at baseline with intervention to determine the magnitude of impact on BMI. RESULTS: At baseline, mean (SD) BMI z-score (zBMI) was 0.97 (0.98) in the intervention group (n = 387) and 0.98 (1.02) in the comparison group (n = 313) (NS). The intervention was significantly associated with log-transformed BMI (ß = 0.04 (0.02), P = 0.03) and zBMI (ß = 0.25 (0.12), P = 0.04) among boys and log-transformed BMI among obese girls (ß = - 0.04 (0.02), P = 0.04). The intervention was significantly and inversely associated with BMI in obese boys and girls across all age groups and normal weight boys in the oldest group (over 6 years) relative to their counterparts in the comparison community. CONCLUSIONS: A community-based, multifaceted intervention was effective at slowing the rate of BMI growth among Mexican-heritage children. Our findings suggest that practitioners should consider strategies that address gender disparities and work with a variety of stakeholders to target childhood obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01900613 . Registered 16th July 2013.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Americanos Mexicanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , California , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnologia , Pais/educação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , População Rural
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 515, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among cervical cancer patients in the U.S., a disproportionate number are Hispanics/Latinos. Also, about a third of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer annually in Mexico die of the disease. Vaccines are available to protect against HPV, the cause of cervical cancer. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 200 mothers of Mexican origin in the U.S. Midwest and Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Based on a validated bilingual questionnaire, this study elicited information about knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV vaccination and cervical cancer. RESULTS: Mothers living in Mexico showed better knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine (77.8%) than participants living in the U.S. (48%) p < .0001. Logistic regression revealed that receiving information about the HPV vaccine from medical providers was a significant predictor of mothers' willingness to vaccinate their children. CONCLUSIONS: A need for increasing public health education of Mexican mothers in the Midwest on HPV/HPV vaccination, may lead to improving utilization of the vaccination and eventually a reduction of cervical cancer. HPV vaccination for boys is critical for reducing the risk of transmission to sexual partners and decreasing the risk of HPV- related diseases in the population. Therefore, we recommend increasing efforts to vaccine boys and increasing knowledge that boys must also be vaccinated, especially in Mexico.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 200: 1-5, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063887

RESUMO

We know little about determinants of violence and drug use in Mexican northern cities, places considered to be at high risk for alcohol, drug use, and violence, including crimes and homicides. METHODS: Data are from the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2011-2013), a survey of respondents living in the border metropolitan areas of Nuevo Laredo (n = 828) and Reynosa and Matamoros (n = 821) and in the non-border metropolitan area of Monterrey (n = 811). Associations between violence (interpersonal, direct community [such as physical attack] and indirect community violence [such as heard gunshots]), drug related activities and neighborhood insecurity with alcohol use disorders (AUD), drug misuse (illicit and out of prescription) and area-level disadvantage (ALD) were estimated with multilevel logistic models, controlling for covariates. RESULTS: Substance use was generally related to violence regardless of ALD in these northern cities in Mexico (statistically significant odds ratios range: 0.68-4.24). AUD was associated with 3 forms of violence and also with drug-related activities, but not with neighborhood insecurity. Both illicit drug use and misuse prescription medicines seem to act in unison and were related only to indirect community violence and drug related activities. ALD in these cities was associated with physical violence and neighborhood insecurity. An inverse relationship between illicit drug use and neighborhood insecurity was an unexpected finding. CONCLUSIONS: AUD and drug use were associated with violence and drug involvement regardless of ALD. Neighborhood insecurity depended mainly on ALD and to an inverse relationship with illicit drug use that needs further study.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Violência/economia
20.
Sleep Health ; 5(2): 201-207, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the relationship between circadian sleep and activity behaviors (sedentary time [SED], light-intensity physical activity [LPA], and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity [MVPA]) across 3 consecutive days. METHODS: This study included 308 Mexican American children aged 8-10 years from the San Francisco Bay Area. Minutes of sleep duration, SED, LPA, and MVPA were estimated using hip-worn accelerometers from Wednesday night to Saturday night. A cross-lagged panel model was used to estimate paths between sleep duration the prior night and subsequent behaviors, and paths between behaviors to subsequent sleep duration across the 3 days. We adjusted for child age, sex, body mass index, and household income. RESULTS: Overall, children were 8.9 (SD 0.8) years old; the weighted average for weekday and weekend combined was 9.6 (SD 0.7) hours per night in sleep duration, 483 (SD 74) min/d SED, 288 (SD 61) min/d LPA, and 63 (SD 38) min/d MVPA. Cross-lagged panel analyses showed that, over 3 days, for every 1-hour increase in sleep duration, there were an expected 0.66-hour (40-minute) decrease in SED, 0.37-hour (22-minute) decrease in LPA, and 0.06-hour (4-minute) decrease in MVPA. For every 1-hour increase in LPA, there was an expected 0.25-hour (15-minute) decrease in sleep duration. CONCLUSION: An additional hour of sleep the night before corresponded to an hour decrease in combined SED and LPA the next day in Mexican American children. For every hour of LPA, there was an associated 15-minute decrease in sleep. Encouraging longer sleep may help to reduce SED and LPA, and help offset LPA's negative predictive effect on sleep.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Exercício/fisiologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Sono , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
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