Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.618
Filtrar
1.
Health Psychol ; 40(6): 388-397, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Racial/ethnic minorities face unique stressors, including perceived discrimination (PD), that may increase the difficulty of quitting smoking relative to the general population of smokers. The current study examines the impact of acute PD on smoking lapse during a quit attempt, as well as potential mechanisms linking PD to lapse among Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans. METHOD: Participants (N = 169) were Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans living in the United States who completed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) multiple times per day for 21 days postquit. A multilevel structural equation model decomposed the effect of PD on smoking lapse into indirect effects through negative affect, positive affect, smoking urge, motivation to quit, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: Results indicated that PD operated indirectly through negative affect, positive affect, and urge to smoke, above and beyond other mechanisms, to increase risk for smoking lapse. CONCLUSIONS: Findings have direct implications for intervention development among this population, including the potential for developing strategies to buffer the impact of PD, as well as skills to directly manage increased negative affect and urge to smoke. Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) might be particularly useful, given they are designed to deliver treatment in real-time (e.g., delivery of strategies to build resilience and implement coping strategies) that could counter the impact of PD on smoking lapse. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Mexicanos , Racismo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/psicologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia
2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 93, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a serious issue, spanning all ages, and, in the U.S., disproportionately affects Latinos and African Americans. Understanding sleep, physical activity and dietary behaviors that may predict childhood obesity can help identify behavioral intervention targets. METHODS: Data were drawn from a U.S. cohort study of 323 Mexican American 8-10-year-old children and their mothers, who participated in a longitudinal study over a 2-year period. Measures were collected at baseline (BL; child mean age = 8.87, SD = 0.83), year 1 (FU1) and year 2 (FU2). Mothers reported on household income and acculturation at BL. Child height and weight were collected and BMI z-scores (BMIz) were calculated for weight status at BL, FU1, and FU2. Accelerometer-estimated sleep duration (hours) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; minutes) were collected across 3 days at BL, FU1, and FU2. Two 24-h dietary recalls were performed at each time point; from these, average energy intake (EI, kcals/day) was estimated. Cross-lagged panel analysis was used to examine behavioral predictors on BMIz at each time point and across time. RESULTS: At BL and FU1, longer sleep duration (ß = - 0.22, p < 0.001; ß = - 0.17, p < 0.05, respectively) and greater MVPA (ß = - 0.13, p < 0.05; ß = - 0.20, p < 0.01, respectively) were concurrently related to lower BMIz. At FU2, longer sleep duration (ß = - 0.18, p < 0.01) was concurrently related to lower BMIz, whereas greater EI (ß = 0.16, p < 0.01) was related to higher BMIz. Longer sleep duration at BL predicted lower BMIz at FU1 (ß = - 0.05, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Longer sleep duration was concurrently related to lower weight status at each time point from ages 8-10 to 10-12. Higher MVPA was concurrently related to lower weight status in earlier childhood (ages 8-10 and 9-11) and higher EI was concurrently related to higher weight status toward the end of childhood (ages 10-12 years). Furthermore, longer sleep in earlier childhood was protective of children's lower weight status 1 year later. These findings suggest that sleep duration plays a consistent and protective role against childhood obesity; in addition, MVPA and healthy EI remain important independent factors for obtaining a healthy weight.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Americanos Mexicanos , Sono/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia
3.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 27(4): 796-807, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To illuminate family implications of youth's work, we examined longitudinal links between the work experiences of Mexican-origin youth in late adolescence and young adulthood and father-youth relationships. METHOD: Using data from 187 Mexican-origin youth and their employed fathers, we tested youth's (52.4% female; Mage = 19.64, SD = 1.78) work hours and workplace discrimination as predictors of paternal acceptance two years later (Time 1 paternal acceptance controlled), and tested moderation by youth gender and maternal employment. RESULTS: Multivariate multilevel models revealed a curvilinear association between youth workplace discrimination and father-reported acceptance. Moderation effects of youth gender and mother employment in linear links between youth work experiences and youth-reported acceptance also emerged. Work hours were stronger negative predictors of paternal acceptance for sons than daughters and youth with employed compared to nonemployed mothers. Workplace discrimination was a positive predictor of paternal acceptance of daughters but not sons. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight complex patterns in links between youth's work and family relationships, an understudied area. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pai , Americanos Mexicanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 27(4): 717-727, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined Mexican-origin parents' perceived workplace discrimination, familism, family conflict, and gender as related to parents' well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and general physical health) over a 2-year period during the 2007-2009 "Great Recession" in the U.S. METHOD: Data were drawn from two waves of a larger study of 246 Mexican-origin predominantly immigrant families with adolescents. Using a matched-pairs sample of mothers and fathers, path analyses were conducted to test the hypothesized relations. RESULTS: Moderation analyses revealed that high levels of familism weakened the link between workplace discrimination and parents' depressive symptoms, whereas high levels of parent-youth conflict exacerbated the association to parents' psychosocial well-being. There was variation by parent gender, with parent-youth conflict being more strongly associated with fathers' self-esteem than mothers'. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that Mexican-origin parents' familism can mitigate and family conflict can exacerbate the risks of workplace discrimination on parents' psychosocial well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Conflito Familiar , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Americanos Mexicanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Local de Trabalho
5.
Dev Psychol ; 57(5): 771-782, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166020

RESUMO

Most U.S. children grow up with siblings. Theory and prior work suggest that older siblings are important sources of gender-related information and socialization. However, few studies have investigated the patterns of these associations longitudinally across early childhood. The present study examines the influence of sibling presence and gender composition on the trajectory of early gender-typed behavior and appearance in children from age 2 through 6 in a diverse sample of Dominican American (36%), African American (33%), and Mexican American (31%) mother-child dyads (N = 232; 112 girls, 120 boys) from low-income households in New York City (M = $20,459, SD = 14,632). Results found that children without older siblings spent more time playing with counterstereotypical toys and their mothers' reports indicated similar behavior over the past month (e.g., a girl playing with toy vehicles and balls; a boy playing with toy kitchen sets and dolls) than children with older siblings. Further, children with at least one other-gender sibling (e.g., a girl with an older brother) played more frequently with counterstereotypical toys compared with children with only same-gender siblings (e.g., a girl with only older sisters). Results on the relation between siblings and gender appearance were mixed. Older siblings may thus influence early trajectories of important gender domains (e.g., toy play), which can have various long-term implications for developing skills and interests. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Irmãos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Socialização
6.
Dev Psychol ; 57(5): 783-795, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166021

RESUMO

Neighborhood social processes may have important implications for parenting processes and ethnic-racial identity (ERI) processes and content in adolescence. Past research suggests that adolescents whose parents engaged in more cultural socialization, an important aspect of parental racial socialization, had higher levels of ERI processes and content. Parenting, however, is also situated within neighborhood contexts and can be influenced by resources available in neighborhoods. For example, having neighbors who share mutual values, trust one another, and appreciate/celebrate one's heritage culture may be a resource that promotes parents' efforts to engage in cultural socialization. We prospectively examined (from x¯age = 10.9-15.8 years) a model in which U.S. Mexican parents' perceptions of neighborhood social and cultural cohesion supported parents' engagement in higher levels of cultural socialization and in turn promoted adolescents' ethnic-racial identity processes and content. We tested a longitudinal mediation model with a sample of 749 U.S. Mexican adolescents (30% Mexico born; 48.9% female) and their parents. Mother-adolescent models suggest mothers' perception of neighborhood social and cultural cohesion in late childhood promoted middle adolescents' ERI affirmation via intermediate increases in maternal cultural socialization. Similar patterns were observed for ERI resolution, but only for adolescents whose mothers were born in the United States. We did not find evidence for mediation in the father-adolescent models. Findings are discussed in the context of the promoting nature of socially and culturally supportive neighborhood environments for U.S. Mexican families and adolescents. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Mexicanos , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Estudos Prospectivos , Identificação Social , Socialização , Estados Unidos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070505

RESUMO

Risk perception is used to quantify risks in the industry and is influenced by different socio-demographic variables. This work aims to determine significant differences in the risk perception between Mexican American migrants and first-generation Mexican American construction workers. This study used a sample of 112 construction workers. A guided questionnaire was applied to collect socio-demographic information. For workplace risk behaviors, we used a 21-item questionnaire adapted from the previous instrument. Each question asked the participant's perception of the frequency with which they carried out risky activities during routine work activities and the severity of the possible injuries, using a five-level Likert scale. Then, an inferential analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The main results highlight that time of residence in the United States had a significant influence (p = 0.012) on risk perception in the surveyed construction workers. On the other hand, the age and time they have been working for the organization did not significantly influence risk perception. Finally, risk perception can vary in construction workers according to different variables. It is essential to investigate the factors that influence it, to prevent risky behaviors that can lead to accidents.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Saúde do Trabalhador , Acidentes de Trabalho , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho
8.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(7): 1971-1981, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Assessment of cognition in linguistically diverse aging populations is a growing need. Bilingualism may complicate cognitive measurement precision, and bilingualism may vary across Hispanic/Latinx sub-populations. We examined the association among bilingualism, assessment language, and cognitive screening performance in a primarily non-immigrant Mexican American community. DESIGN: Prospective, community-based cohort study: The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC)-Cognitive study. SETTING: Nueces County, Texas. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling Mexican Americans age 65+, recruited door-to-door using a two-stage area probability sampling procedure. MEASUREMENTS: Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); self-reported bilingualism scale. Participants were classified as monolingual, Spanish dominant bilingual, English dominant bilingual, or balanced bilingual based upon bilingualism scale responses. Linear regressions examined relationships among bilingualism, demographics, cognitive assessment language, and MoCA scores. RESULTS: The analytic sample included 547 Mexican American participants (60% female). Fifty-eight percent were classified as balanced bilingual, the majority (88.6%) of whom selected assessment in English. Balanced bilinguals that completed the MoCA in English performed better than balanced bilinguals that completed the MoCA in Spanish (b = -4.0, p < 0.05). Among balanced bilinguals that took the MoCA in Spanish, education outside of the United States was associated with better performance (b = 4.4, p < 0.001). Adjusting for demographics and education, we found no association between the degree of bilingualism and MoCA performance (p's > 0.10). CONCLUSION: Bilingualism is important to consider in cognitive aging studies in linguistically diverse communities. Future research should examine whether cognitive test language selection affects cognitive measurement precision in balanced bilinguals.


Assuntos
Vida Independente/psicologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Multilinguismo , Vigilância da População/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Texas
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 976, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanic immigrants continue to experience higher rates of overweight and obesity compared to their non-Hispanic counterparts. Acculturation may contribute to unhealthy weight gain among immigrant populations by shifting dietary patterns from high fruit and vegetable consumption to unhealthier high fat diets. Healthy Fit, a culturally tailored community health worker (CHW) intervention, aims to reduce obesity related outcomes by providing physical activity and nutrition education and resources in a low-income Hispanic population. This study aims to evaluate outcomes of Healthy Fit participants and examine changes in body composition in relation to level of acculturation at baseline and follow-up. METHOD: In this longitudinal observational study, CHWs recruited 514 participants from community events and agencies serving low-income Hispanic populations in El Paso, Texas from 2015 to 2016. Following an in-person health screening, eligible participants received nutrition and physical activity education guided by fotonovelas, comic-like educational books. Telephone follow-ups made at 1, 3, and 6 months by CHWs encouraged follow-through on referrals. 288 participants completed the screening again during the 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly Hispanic (96%), female (82%), uninsured (79%), had a household income of less than $19,999 (70%), foreign-born (79%), preferred Spanish (86%) and few rated themselves as good or excellent for English proficiency (27%). Overall, Healthy Fit participants significantly improved (i.e., decreased) BFP by 0.71% (t = 2.47, p = 0.01) but not BMI (b = .01, t = - 0.14, p = .89). Contrary to expectations, acculturation was not associated with lower BMI (b = 0.09, p = 0.84) or BFP (b = 0.13, p = 0.85) at baseline. However, acculturation predicted changes in both BMI (b = 0.30, p = 0.03) and BFP (b = 1.33, p = 0 .01) from baseline to follow-up. Specifically, the low acculturation group improved in body composition measures over time and the high acculturation group did not improve in either measure. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest Healthy Fit was most effective among less acculturated individuals. The influence of acculturation on the efficacy of nutrition and exercise interventions suggests that Hispanics should not be treated as a homogenous subgroup.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Americanos Mexicanos , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , México , Texas/epidemiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2245, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854067

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous pathology, but the genomic basis of its variability remains poorly understood in populations other than Caucasians. Here, through DNA and RNA portraits we explored the molecular features of breast cancers in a set of Hispanic-Mexican (HM) women and compared them to public multi-ancestry datasets. HM patients present an earlier onset of the disease, particularly in aggressive clinical subtypes, compared to non-Hispanic women. The age-related COSMIC signature 1 was more frequent in HM women than in those from other ancestries. We found the AKT1E17K hotspot mutation in 8% of the HM women and identify the AKT1/PIK3CA axis as a potentially druggable target. Also, HM luminal breast tumors present an enhanced immunogenic phenotype compared to Asiatic and Caucasian tumors. This study is an initial effort to include patients from Hispanic populations in the research of breast cancer etiology and biology to further understand breast cancer disparities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105727, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We explored how the new, tissue-based stroke definition impacted incidence estimates, including an ethnic comparison, in a population-based study. METHODS: Stroke patients, May, 2014-May, 2016 in Nueces County, Texas were ascertained and validated using source documentation. Overall, ethnic-specific and age-specific Poisson regression models were used to compare first-ever ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) incidence between old and new stroke definitions, adjusting for age, ethnicity, sex, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. RESULTS: Among 1308 subjects, 1245 (95%) were defined as stroke by the old definition and 63 additional cases (5%) according to the new. There were 12 cases of parenchymal hematoma (PH1 or PH2) that were reclassified from ischemic stroke to ICH. Overall, incidence of ischemic stroke was slightly higher under the new compared to the old definition (RR 1.07; 95% CI 0.99-1.16); similarly higher in both Mexican Americans (RR 1.06; 95% CI 1.00-1.12) and Non Hispanic whites (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.22), p(ethnic difference)=0.36. Overall, incidence of ICH was higher under the new definition compared to old definition (RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05-1.29), similarly higher among both Mexican Americans (RR 1.14; 95% CI 1.06-1.23) and Non Hispanic whites (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.39), p(ethnic difference)=0.25. CONCLUSION: Modest increases in ischemic stroke and ICH incidence occurred using the new compared with old stroke definition. There were no differences between Mexican Americans and non Hispanic whites. These estimates provide stroke burden estimates for public health planning.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , AVC Hemorrágico/etnologia , AVC Isquêmico/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos , Terminologia como Assunto , Idoso , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , AVC Hemorrágico/classificação , AVC Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , AVC Isquêmico/classificação , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores Raciais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(7): e2775-e2788, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570562

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as diagnostic tools of obesity do not reflect the same level of fat mass and whether obesity leads to various effects on cardiometabolic risk factors among different racial/ethnic population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to address the multicollinearity between BMI and WC by using the residual model approach and to assess and compare the effects of obesity metrics on cardiometabolic risk factors among different races/ethnicities. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from a nationally representative sample of mainland Chinese adults collected in 2010 and data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey 2005-2016 were used. By conducting a regression analysis between WC and BMI, the variation of BMI was removed from WC measures and residual of WC was obtained. The associations between obesity metrics and cardiometabolic risk factors were compared among different races/ethnicities by sex. RESULTS: The residual WC was significantly associated with all the cardiometabolic risk factors in mainland Chinese, and most of the factors in non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults, but not in the other races/ethnicities. The standardized regression coefficients of the associations between obesity metrics and cardiometabolic factors showed that the obesity metrics had greater impact on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride in Chinese adults than those of other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese adults are more susceptible to the effects of overall obesity and fat distribution on cardiometabolic risk factors than the other racial/ethnic population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , China/etnologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Análise de Regressão , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura/etnologia
13.
Nurs Open ; 8(2): 709-720, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570300

RESUMO

AIMS: To test a model of psychosocial/cultural/biological risk factors for poor birth outcomes in Latina pregnant women. DESIGN: An observational study measuring acculturation, progesterone, cortisol, cotinine, age, marital status, income, stress, depressive symptoms and coping. We tested a structural equation model to predict risk. METHODS: We obtained a convenience sample (N = 515) of low medical risk pregnant Mexican American Hispanic women at 22-24 weeks of gestation. Bilingual research nurses collected data from blood, urine and questionnaires. Self-report measures were the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II and the Brief Cope. We measured progesterone and cortisol in plasma and cotinine levels in urine by enzyme-linked immunoassays. RESULTS: A PLS-SEM model revealed that Mexican American Hispanic pregnant women who were younger, single, lower income, more acculturated and who had greater negative coping, stress and depression were most at risk for having earlier and smaller babies.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos , Americanos Mexicanos , Complicações na Gravidez , Aculturação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gestantes , Fatores de Risco
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2435, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510184

RESUMO

Sedentary life styles coupled with high-calorie diets and unhealthy social habits such as smoking, have put an ever-increasing number of people at risk of cardiovascular disorders (CVD), worldwide. A concomitant increase in the prevalence of type 2-diabetes (hyperglycemia), a risk factor for CVD, has further contributed towards escalating CVD-related mortalities. The increase in number of cases of type 2-diabetes underscores the importance of early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in those with diabetes. In this work, we have evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of dyslipidemia and proinflammatory cytokines to be used as biomarkers for predicting the risk of CVD in those with diabetes. We hypothesize that interplay between dyslipidemia and diabetes-induced low-grade inflammation in those with type 2-diabetes increases the risk of CVD. A total of 215 participants were randomly recruited from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC). Of these, 99% were Mexican Americans living on Texas-Mexico border. Levels of cytokines, adipokines and lipid profile were measured. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) for this study was defined as prior diagnosis of heart attack, angina and stroke, while diabetes was defined by fasting blood glucose (FBG) of > 100 mg/dL and HbA1c of > 6.5, in accordance with American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. Depending on type and distribution of data, various statistical tests were performed. Our results demonstrated higher rates of heart attack (14% vs 11.8%) and stroke (19.8% vs 10%) in those with diabetes as compared to non-diabetes. The odds of having a heart attack were eight times higher in the presence of elevated triglycerides and pro-inflammatory markers (TNFα and IL6) as compared to presence of pro-inflammatory markers only. The odds for heart attack among those with diabetes, increased by 20 fold in presence of high levels of triglycerides, TNFα, and IL6 when coupled with low levels of high-density lipid cholesterol (HDL-C). Lastly, our analysis showed that poorly controlled diabetes, characterized by HbA1c values of > 6.5 increases the odds of stroke by more than three fold. The study quantifies the role of lipid profile and pro-inflammatory markers in combination with standard risk factors towards predicting the risk of CVD in those with type 2-diabetes. The findings from the study can be directly translated for use in early diagnosis of heart disease and guiding interventions leading to a reduction in CVD-associated mortality in those with type 2-diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Americanos Mexicanos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Risco , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 871, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441626

RESUMO

High concentrations of carotenoids are protective against cardiometabolic risk traits (CMTs) in adults and children. We recently showed in non-diabetic Mexican American (MA) children that serum α-carotene and ß-carotene are inversely correlated with obesity measures and triglycerides and positively with HDL cholesterol and that they were under strong genetic influences. Additionally, we previously described a Pediatric Metabolic Index (PMI) that helps in the identification of children who are at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. Here, we quantified serum lycopene and ß-cryptoxanthin concentrations in approximately 580 children from MA families using an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array and determined their heritabilities and correlations with CMTs. Using response surface methodology (RSM), we determined two-way interactions of carotenoids and PMI on Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI). The concentrations of lycopene and ß-cryptoxanthin were highly heritable [h2 = 0.98, P = 7 × 10-18 and h2 = 0.58, P = 1 × 10-7]. We found significant (P ≤ 0.05) negative phenotypic correlations between ß-cryptoxanthin and five CMTs: body mass index (- 0.22), waist circumference (- 0.25), triglycerides (- 0.18), fat mass (- 0.23), fasting glucose (- 0.09), and positive correlations with HDL cholesterol (0.29). In contrast, lycopene only showed a significant negative correlation with fasting glucose (- 0.08) and a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol (0.18). Importantly, we found that common genetic influences significantly contributed to the observed phenotypic correlations. RSM showed that increased serum concentrations of α- and ß-carotenoids rather than that of ß-cryptoxanthin or lycopene had maximal effects on ISI. In summary, our findings suggest that the serum carotenoids are under strong additive genetic influences and may have differential effects on susceptibility to CMTs in children.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/etnologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Americanos Mexicanos , Adolescente , beta-Criptoxantina/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Licopeno/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Texas , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1932, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479282

RESUMO

Insulin is an essential hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis and metabolism. Insulin resistance (IR) arises when tissues fail to respond to insulin, and it leads to serious health problems including Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Obesity is a major contributor to the development of IR and T2D. We previously showed that gene expression of alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) was inversely correlated with obesity and IR in subcutaneous adipose tissue of Mexican Americans. In the current study, a meta-analysis of the relationship between ADH1B expression and BMI in Mexican Americans, African Americans, Europeans, and Pima Indians verified that BMI was increased with decreased ADH1B expression. Using established human subcutaneous pre-adipocyte cell lines derived from lean (BMI < 30 kg m-2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg m-2) donors, we found that ADH1B protein expression increased substantially during differentiation, and overexpression of ADH1B inhibited fatty acid binding protein expression. Mature adipocytes from lean donors expressed ADH1B at higher levels than obese donors. Insulin further induced ADH1B protein expression as well as enzyme activity. Knockdown of ADH1B expression decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Our findings suggest that ADH1B is involved in the proper development and metabolic activity of adipose tissues and this function is suppressed by obesity.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
17.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(9): 2549-2555, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are common in older adults and predict functional dependency. AIMS: To examine the ability of depressive symptoms to predict low physical performance over 20 years of follow-up among older Mexican Americans who scored moderate to high in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test and were non-disabled at baseline. METHODS: Data were from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. Our sample included 1545 community-dwelling Mexican American men and women aged 65 and older. Measures included socio-demographics, depressive symptoms, SPPB, handgrip strength, activities of daily living, body mass index (BMI), mini-mental state examination, and self-reports of various medical conditions. General Equation Estimation was used to estimate the odds ratio of developing low physical performance over time as a function of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The mean SPPB score at baseline was 8.6 ± 1.4 for those with depressive symptoms and 9.1 ± 1.4 for those without depressive symptoms. The odds ratio of developing low physical performance over time was 1.53 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.27-1.84) for those with depressive symptoms compared with those without depressive symptoms, after controlling for all covariates. CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms were a predictor of low physical performance in older Mexican Americans over a 20-year follow-up period. Interventions aimed at preventing decline in physical performance in older adults should address management of their depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Americanos Mexicanos , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Físico Funcional
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(3): 299-309, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462738

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Among healthy postmenopausal women, levels of CA125 and CA15.3 are influenced by demographic and reproductive factors, including race/ethnicity. In this study, we sought to examine the interaction between race/ethnicity and other correlates of these biomarkers and whether the racial differences observed are simply determined by other correlates with racial differences. METHODS: In archived sera from 946 postmenopausal women who participated in the 2001-2002 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we measured CA125 and CA15.3 and examined their associations with health survey and examination data available in this cohort. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the association between CA125 and CA15.3 and race/ethnicity. We then calculated geometric means of these markers by demographic and reproductive factors stratified by race/ethnicity and used likelihood ratio tests to evaluate heterogeneity. RESULTS: Non-white race was associated with lower CA125, with Non-Hispanic Black women being associated with - 29.0% (95% CI - 42.5%, - 12.2%) difference and Mexican American women being associated with - 6.4% (95% CI - 18.1%, 6.9%) difference on average compared to Non-Hispanic White women. Associations between CA125 and age and parity varied by race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic Black women were associated with higher CA15.3 compared to Non-Hispanic White women, with 17.3% (95% CI - 0.5%, 38.3%) differences on average. Associations between CA15.3 and age, number of births, and age at natural menopause varied by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Among postmenopausal women, Non-Hispanic Black women were associated with lower CA125 and higher CA15.3 levels compared to Non-Hispanic White women. Our results support that race/ethnicity should be considered when assigning thresholds for these biomarkers being tested for diagnostic or screening purposes.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mucina-1/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Paridade , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
19.
Sleep Med ; 77: 325-329, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbance and depression are common in stroke patients, however, little is known about the role of sleep in post-stroke depression. This study examined the association between pre-stroke sleep duration and depression at 90 days post-stroke in a population-based bi-ethnic sample. METHODS: The study included 1369 stroke patients from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project who survived 90 days post-stroke. Depression at 90 days post-stroke was assessed by the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and pre-stroke sleep duration was self-reported shortly after stroke in reference to the pre-stroke state. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting were used to deal with missing data and attrition. Weighted logistic regression models were fit to examine the association between pre-stroke sleep duration and post-stroke depression. RESULTS: The mean age was 68.2 years, and 63.6% were Mexican American. The prevalence of post-stroke depression was highest among participants reporting less than 6 hours of sleep before stroke (52.4%, 95% confidence interval = 45.7%-59.0%). Compared with participants reporting 7-8 hours of sleep before stroke, those with short sleep duration had significantly increased odds for post-stroke depression (odds ratio = 1.96; 95% confidence interval = 1.38-2.79), after adjustment for sociodemographic, stroke and pre-stroke characteristics including pre-stroke depression. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-stroke short sleep duration may be an independent risk factor for post-stroke depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
20.
Gerontologist ; 61(3): 374-382, 2021 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the next few decades, the number of Mexican American older adults with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders will increase dramatically. Given that this population underutilizes formal care services, the degree of care responsibilities in Mexican American families is likely to increase at the same time. However, little is known about the changing need for assistance with instrumental day-to-day activities and emotional support by long-term patterns of cognitive impairment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We use 7 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (1992/1993-2010/2011) and trajectory modeling to describe long-term patterns of perceived emotional and instrumental support, and dementia. RESULTS: Results revealed 2 latent classes of both emotional and instrumental support trajectories: low and high support. Specifically, those living alone were more likely to belong to the group with low support than to that with high support. Three latent classes for likely dementia were also revealed: likely dementia, increasing impairment, and no impairment. Those living alone were more likely to belong to the increasing impairment and likely dementia groups. The dual trajectory of emotional and instrumental support with likely dementia revealed that the probability of belonging to the low-support group was highest for those with increasing impairment. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings highlight the risk and vulnerability of those who live alone concerning perceived social support and dementia. Implications of the findings for the potential dependency burden on Latino caregivers are discussed.


Assuntos
Demência , Apoio Social , Idoso , Cuidadores , Demência/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...