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2.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 81(19): 1015-1027, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230971

RESUMO

An increased risk for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID) was reported in the population of Libby, Montana, where extensive exposure to asbestiform amphiboles occurred through mining and use of asbestiform fiber-laden vermiculite. High frequencies of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) were detected in individuals and mice exposed to Libby Asbestiform Amphiboles (LAA). Among the 6603 individuals who have undergone health screening at the Center for Asbestos Related Diseases (CARD, Libby MT), the frequencies of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, and systemic sclerosis are significantly higher than expected prevalence in the United States. While these data support the hypothesis that LAA can trigger autoimmune responses, evidence suggests that chrysotile asbestos does not. Serological testing was therefore performed in subjects exposed to LAA or predominantly chrysotile (New York steamfitters) using multiplexed array technologies. Analyses were performed in order to determine a) autoantibody profiles in each cohort, and b) whether the two populations could be distinguished through predictive modeling. Analysis using perMANOVA testing confirmed a significant difference between autoantibody profiles suggesting differential pathways leading to autoantibody formation. ANA were more frequent in the LAA cohort. Specific autoantibodies more highly expressed with LAA-exposure were to histone, ribosomal P protein, Sm/Ribonucleoproteins, and Jo-1 (histidyl tRNA synthetase). Myositis autoantibodies more highly expressed in the LAA cohort were Jo-1, PM100, NXP2, and Mi2a. Predictive modeling demonstrated that anti-histone antibodies were most predictive for LAA exposure, and anti-Sm was predictive for the steamfitters' exposure. This emphasizes the need to consider fiber types when evaluating risk of SAID with asbestos exposure.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos Serpentinas/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Montana , New York , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(3)2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immunohistochemical expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in asbestos-related malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is emerging as a useful prognostic indicator of improved survival. A significantly increased incidence of MPM in a small town in southern Italy was ascribed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a naturally occurring asbestos fiber. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of AQP1 in patients affected by FE-related MPM; taking into consideration its suggested independent prognostic role, its possible correlation with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome was also evaluated. METHODS: Ten patients were selected for this study, as neoplastic tissue blocks, clinical and follow-up data were available. The immunohistochemical overexpression of AQP1 was defined as ≥50% of tumor cells showing membranous staining. RESULTS: Six cases showed AQP1 expression in ≥50% of tumor cells; in this group, a significant association of AQP1 overexpression with an increased median overall survival (OS) of 26.3 months was observed. By contrast, four patients exhibited an AQP1 score of <50% of stained cells, with a shorter median OS of 8.9 months. CONCLUSIONS: The present study represents further confirmation of the hypothesized prognostic role of AQP1, which seems a reliable prognostic indicator.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 1/metabolismo , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aquaporina 1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
4.
J Occup Environ Med ; 60(2): 167-173, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29200190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article describes radiologic and pulmonary function findings among miners exposed to Libby amphibole. Computed tomography (CT) permits the detection of the characteristic thin, lamellar pleural thickening (LPT). METHODS: Individuals who worked at the mine for a minimum of 6 months had chest CT and pulmonary function tests. RESULTS: Pleural thickening was noted in 223 (87%) of the 256 miners, parenchymal abnormalities in 49 (19%). LPT, found in 151 (68%), was associated with low values of forced vital capacity and diffusion capacity and significantly lower values in all pulmonary function tests when associated with parenchymal abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Eighty-seven percent of miners exposed to Libby Amphibole had pleural abnormalities on CT. LPT alone, and more so with parenchymal abnormalities, resulted in decreased pulmonary function. The importance of this easily missed LPT is demonstrated by its high frequency and significant functional effects.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Mineração , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico por imagem , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pleura/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Silicatos de Alumínio , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Montana , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Doenças Pleurais/fisiopatologia , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Capacidade Vital
5.
J Immunotoxicol ; 15(1): 24-28, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241379

RESUMO

Fluoro-edenite (FE) is an asbestiform mineral fiber spotted in the lava rocks excavated from a stone quarry in Biancavilla (Italy). The derived material had been employed locally for building purposes. Previous studies found evidence that exposure to asbestos may induce autoimmunity, with frequency of anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA). The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between FE exposure and autoimmune responses in an exposed population. For the study, 60 subjects living in the area of Biancavilla and 60 subjects as control group were randomly invited to participate. A free medical check, including spirometry and a high-resolution computer tomography chest scan, was given to all participants. ANA were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. On medical check, no subject showed any sign and/or symptoms of illness. Prevalence for samples positive to ANA were 70% (n = 42) and 25% (n = 15), respectively, for exposed and non-exposed subjects (p < 0.05). The presence of pleural plaques (PP) was found in 21 (30%) of the exposed subjects and in 2 (3%) of the non-exposed participants. PP subjects were always ANAs positive. In conclusion, as already it was observed with exposure to asbestos fibers, levels of ANA seemed to significantly increase in subjects who had been exposed to FE. Furthermore, all subjects showing PP were also ANA-positive. This first finding in subjects exposed to FE should encourage researchers to further investigate associations between autoimmune unbalance and environmental exposure to asbestiform fibers.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Materiais de Construção/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/imunologia , Doenças Pleurais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Doenças Pleurais/imunologia , Prevalência , Espirometria
6.
Future Oncol ; 12(23s): 59-62, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27669761

RESUMO

Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a natural mineral asbestos-like fibrous species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. In order to clarify potential involvement of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of FE-induced chest abnormalities, we analyzed IL-18 serum levels in FE-exposed workers (FEEW) and correlated them with pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. A total of 21 FEEWs, residing in Biancavilla for >30 years, with a working seniority of 17 ± 6.1 years were examined. High-resolution computed tomography scans revealed low grade of fibrosis in 8 (38%) FEEWs, and pleural plaques (PPs) in 13 (62%) FEEWs. The mean IL-18 level was 203.13 ± 90.43 pg/ml. Pearson correlation showed a significant association (p < 0.0001) between IL-18 and PPs and parenchymal abnormality scores. Data suggest a potential role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of these diseases.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-18/sangue , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/sangue , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pleurais/sangue , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pleurais/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral
7.
Future Oncol ; 12(23s): 63-65, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27624550

RESUMO

Fluoro-edenite is a natural mineral species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily, used for construction of houses and roads, with health effects allegedly the same as those of asbestos. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the risks of pleural plaques and parenchymal abnormalities in women living in Biancavilla through a retrospective cross-sectional study. The evaluation pointed out a relative risk of pleural plaques of 39.67 (95% CI: 11.33-138.82) and 27.67 (95% CI: 5.43-141.00) for parenchymal abnormalities as well. These findings have prompted urge to extend the screening on the possible abnormalities of the respiratory tract to all Biancavilla's population, particularly in those aged more than 30 years.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pleurais/epidemiologia , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Sicília/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Physiol Rep ; 4(15)2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519611

RESUMO

Lamellar pleural thickening (LPT) is a fibrotic disease induced by exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) asbestos that causes widespread scarring around the lung, resulting in deterioration of pulmonary function. Investigating the effects of autoantibodies to mesothelial cells (MCAA) present in the study populations has been a major part of the effort to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis. It has been shown in vitro that human mesothelial cells (Met5a) exposed to MCAA increase collagen deposition into the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we sought to further elucidate how MCAA drive increased collagen deposition by identifying the protein targets bound by MCAA on the cellular surface using biotinylation to label and isolate surface proteins. Isolated surface protein fractions were identified as containing MCAA targets using ELISA The fractions that demonstrated binding by MCAA were then analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and MASCOT analysis. The most promising result from the MASCOT analysis, plasminogen (PLG), was tested for MCAA binding using purified human PLG in an ELISA We report that serum containing MCAA bound at an optical density (OD) 3 times greater than that of controls, and LA-exposed subjects had a high frequency of positive tests for anti-PLG autoantibodies. This work implicates the involvement of the plasminogen/plasmin system in the mechanism of excess collagen deposition in Met5a cells exposed to MCAA Elucidating this mechanism could contribute to the understanding of LPT.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/metabolismo , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Colágeno/imunologia , Epitélio/imunologia , Plasminogênio/imunologia , Idoso , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
9.
Med Lav ; 107(2): 141-7, 2016 Mar 24.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27015029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma cases among primary school teachers are usually linked with asbestos exposure due to the mineral contained in the building structure. Among the approximately 12,000 cases of mesothelioma described in the fourth report of the National Mesothelioma Register, 11 cases of primary school teachers are reported, in spite of the fact that the "catalogue of asbestos use" does not describe circumstances of asbestos exposure other than or different to that due to asbestos contained in the buildings. Four cases in the Brescia Provincial Mesothelioma Register are identified as teachers, without this circumstance of exposure. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the asbestos concentration and fibre type retained in the lungs of a teacher reported as a new mesothelioma case and preliminarily classified as of unknown asbestos exposure. METHODS: The mesothelioma case presented here was diagnosed at age 78 and malignant mesothelioma was confirmed at autopsy; the patient was interviewed directly for occupational history. Samples of lung parenchyma from necropsies were collected, stored and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and samples of DAS paste were analyzed by SEM to detect asbestos fibre content. RESULTS: It was possible to confirm past exposure to DAS paste in forming and finishing dry items and toys during school recreational activity almost every day from the mid-60s to about the mid-70s. Subsequent SEM analysis showed: i) chrysotile fibres were found in an old and unused pack of DAS paste; ii) a lung burden of 1,400 asbestos bodies, 310.000 total asbestos fibres (33% chrysotile, 67% amphibole) and 210.000 talc fibre per gr/dry lung tissue was detected from necropsies performed on the subject. These results seem to be in agreement with an occupational exposure to asbestos due to past use of DAS paste. After the investigation, this case was reclassified from "unknowun" to " sure" occupational asbestos exposure. The occupational origin of the tumour was recognized by the Italian Workers' Compensation Authority (INAIL). CONCLUSION: This case suggests i) the need to carry out any possible detailed studies of the circumstances and exposure sources whenever any mesothelioma case is classified as "asbestos exposure unknown", according to the guidelines of the National Mesothelioma Register, ii) handling of DAS paste can be considered as sure asbestos exposure and iii) it should be borne in mind that mesothelioma cases can occur even after cumulative low, occupational exposure, even only to chrysotile.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/complicações , Docentes , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Idoso , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/patologia , Autopsia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia
10.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 26(1): 63-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26242170

RESUMO

This study describes fibre size and type-specific airborne asbestos exposures in an asbestos product factory. Forty-four membrane filter samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy to determine the size distribution of asbestos fibres, by workshop. Fibre frequencies of bivariate (length by width) categories were calculated and differences between workshops were tested by analysis of variance. Data were recorded for 13,435 chrysotile and 1075 tremolite fibres. The proportions between size metrics traditionally measured and potentially biologically important size metrics were found to vary in this study from proportions reported in other cohort studies. One, common size distribution was generated for each asbestos type over the entire factory because statistically significant differences in frequency between workshops were not detected. This study provides new information on asbestos fibre size and type distributions in an asbestos factory. The extent to which biologically relevant fibre size indices were captured or overlooked between studies can potentially reconcile currently unexplained differences in asbestos-related disease (ARD) risk between cohorts. The fibre distributions presented here, when combined with similar data from other sites, will contribute to the development of quantitative models for predicting risk and our understanding of the effects of fibre characteristics in the development of ARD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Amiantos Anfibólicos/análise , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Fibras Minerais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , China , Estudos de Coortes , Tamanho da Partícula
11.
Occup Environ Med ; 73(5): 290-9, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26715106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. METHODS: Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. RESULTS: Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). CONCLUSIONS: The approximate linearity of the dose-response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pleurais/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Amianto Amosita/efeitos adversos , Amianto Amosita/análise , Amiantos Anfibólicos/análise , Asbesto Crocidolita/efeitos adversos , Asbesto Crocidolita/análise , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Asbestose/complicações , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/química , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Fibras Minerais/análise , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Medição de Risco
12.
Future Oncol ; 11(24 Suppl): 35-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26638921

RESUMO

FBLN-3 has recently been proposed as a biomarker for malignant mesothelioma. A significantly increased standardized mortality rate from malignant mesothelioma has been reported in Biancavilla, Italy. Its cause has been identified in environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite. The aim of this study was to seek a correlation between plasma FBLN-3 concentration and pleural plaques in subjects exposed to fluoro-edenite and in a nonexposed control group. Pleural plaques was never detected in the control group, whereas it was found in 52% of exposed subjects. Median FBLN-3 concentrations were 12.96 and 5.29 ng/ml in the exposed and the control group, respectively (p < 0.001). FBLN-3 plasma levels exhibited a high predictive value for the presence of pleural plaques.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/sangue , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pleurais/sangue , Neoplasias Pleurais/induzido quimicamente , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
13.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 73(3): 780-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26524929

RESUMO

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed a quantitative exposure-response model for the non-cancer effects of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (LAA) (EPA, 2014). The model is based on the prevalence of localized pleural thickening (LPT) in workers exposed to LAA at a workplace in Marysville, Ohio (Lockey et al., 1984; Rohs et al., 2008). Recently, Lockey et al. (2015a) published a follow-up study of surviving Marysville workers. The data from this study increases the number of cases of LPT and extends the observation period for a number of workers, thereby providing a strengthened data set to define and constrain the optimal exposure-response model for non-cancer effects from inhalation exposure to LAA. The new data were combined with the previous data to update the exposure-response modeling for LPT. The results indicate that a bivariate model using cumulative exposure and time since first exposure is appropriate, and the benchmark concentration is similar to the findings previously reported by EPA (2014). In addition, the data were also used to develop initial exposure-response models for diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) and small interstitial opacities (SIO).


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pleura/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benchmarking , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Ohio , Pleura/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
14.
Toxicol Pathol ; 43(7): 1035-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26056144

RESUMO

Asbestosis is a chronic lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos, a fibrous mineral. It is one of the most severe diseases resulting from environmental contamination. We found asbestosis in a female Japanese macaque over 25 years of age that died from senility. Clear needle-like crystals were deposited throughout the lung lobes, particularly in the perivascular areas. Asbestos bodies were observed in some of these crystals. Fibrosis without inflammation was observed in the periarterial and peribronchiolar regions. The crystals were identified as tremolite, and a total of 16,633,968 asbestos bodies and 465,334,411 tremolite fibers were observed in 1 g of dry lung tissue. No tumors or pleural adhesions were seen. This is the first report of spontaneous asbestosis in a nonhuman animal.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/veterinária , Animais , Asbestose/patologia , Feminino , Macaca
15.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0118585, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25790222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest radiography (CXR) is inferior to Thin-section computed tomography in the detection of asbestos related interstitial and pleural abnormalities. It remains unclear, however, whether these limitations are large enough to impair CXR´s ability in detecting the expected reduction in the frequency of these asbestos-related abnormalities (ARA) as exposure decreases. METHODS: Clinical evaluation, CXR, Thin-section CT and spirometry were obtained in 1418 miners and millers who were exposed to progressively lower airborne concentrations of asbestos. They were separated into four groups according to the type, period and measurements of exposure and/or procedures for controlling exposure: Group I (1940-1966/tremolite and chrysotile, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group II (1967-1976/chrysotile only, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group III (1977-1980/chrysotile only, initiated measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure) and Group IV (after 1981/chrysotile only, implemented measurements of exposure and a comprehensive procedures for controlling exposure). RESULTS: In all groups, CXR suggested more frequently interstitial abnormalities and less frequently pleural plaques than observed on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). The odds for asbestosis in groups of decreasing exposure diminished to greater extent at Thin-section CT than on CXR. Lung function was reduced in subjects who had pleural plaques evident only on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). In a longitudinal evaluation of 301 subjects without interstitial and pleural abnormalities on CXR and Thin-section CT in a previous evaluation, only Thin-section CT indicated that these ARA reduced as exposure decreased. CONCLUSIONS: CXR compared to Thin-section CT was associated with false-positives for interstitial abnormalities and false-negatives for pleural plaques, regardless of the intensity of asbestos exposure. Also, CXR led to a substantial misinformation of the effects of the progressively lower asbestos concentrations in the occurrence of asbestos-related diseases in miners and millers.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Mineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Programas de Rastreamento , Microtomia , Radiografia Torácica/estatística & dados numéricos , Espirometria , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 25(1): 18-25, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24756101

RESUMO

Libby, MT, USA, was the home to workers at a historical vermiculite mining facility and served as the processing and distribution center for this industrial product that was contaminated with amphibole asbestos. Several pathways of environmental asbestos exposure to the general population have been identified. The local clinic and health screening program collects data from participants on past occupational and environmental exposures to vermiculite and asbestos. Health studies among this population have demonstrated associations between amphibole exposure and health outcomes, but critical questions regarding the nature and level of exposure associated with specific outcomes remain unanswered. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive exposure assessment approach that integrates information on individuals' contact frequency with multiple exposure pathways. For 3031 participants, we describe cumulative exposure metrics for environmental exposures, occupational exposures, and residents' contact with carry-home asbestos from household workers. As expected, cumulative exposures for all three occupational categories were higher among men compared with women, and cumulative exposures for household contact and environmental pathways were higher among women. The comprehensive exposure assessment strategies will advance health studies and risk assessment approaches in this population with a complex history of both occupational and environmental asbestos exposure.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Montana/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 25(1): 12-7, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24496219

RESUMO

Recent meta-analyses of occupational epidemiology studies identified two important exposure data quality factors in predicting summary effect measures for asbestos-associated lung cancer mortality risk: sufficiency of job history data and percent coverage of work history by measured exposures. The objective was to evaluate different exposure parameterizations suggested in the asbestos literature using the Libby, MT asbestos worker cohort and to evaluate influences of exposure measurement error caused by historically estimated exposure data on lung cancer risks. Focusing on workers hired after 1959, when job histories were well-known and occupational exposures were predominantly based on measured exposures (85% coverage), we found that cumulative exposure alone, and with allowance of exponential decay, fit lung cancer mortality data similarly. Residence-time-weighted metrics did not fit well. Compared with previous analyses based on the whole cohort of Libby workers hired after 1935, when job histories were less well-known and exposures less frequently measured (47% coverage), our analyses based on higher quality exposure data yielded an effect size as much as 3.6 times higher. Future occupational cohort studies should continue to refine retrospective exposure assessment methods, consider multiple exposure metrics, and explore new methods of maintaining statistical power while minimizing exposure measurement error.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Mineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Amiantos Anfibólicos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Montana/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 25(1): 4-11, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23695492

RESUMO

Residents of Libby, MT were exposed to amphibole asbestos through multiple environmental pathways. Previous exposure characterization has primarily relied on qualitative report of these exposure activities. The objectives of this study were to describe available data from the US EPA preremediation actions for Libby amphibole (LA) exposure in Libby, MT and develop an approach to characterize outdoor residential exposure to LA among children. Homes in Libby, MT included in the US EPA preremediation Contaminant Screening Survey (CSS) were categorized by the presence of interior and/or exterior visible vermiculite and concentrations of LA were measured in samples of dust and soil. Airborne exposure to LA while digging/gardening, raking, and mowing were estimated using US EPA activity-based sampling (ABS) results. Residential histories and frequency/duration of childhood activities were combined with ABS to demonstrate the approach for estimating potential exposure. A total of 3154 residential properties participated in the CSS and 44% of these had visible exterior vermiculite. Airborne concentrations of LA where there was visible vermiculite outdoors were 3-15 times higher during digging/gardening, raking, and mowing activities compared with homes without visible outdoor vermiculite. Digging and gardening activities represented the greatest contribution to estimated exposures and 73% of the participants reported this activity before the age of 6 years. This methodology demonstrated the use of historical preremediation data to estimate residential exposures of children for specific activities. Children younger than age 6 years may have been exposed to LA while digging/gardening, especially at homes where there is visible outdoor vermiculite. This approach may be extended to other activities and applied to the entire cohort to examine health outcomes.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Adolescente , Silicatos de Alumínio/análise , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração , Montana/epidemiologia , Solo/química , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Epidemiol Prev ; 38(2 Suppl 1): 29-124, 2014.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24986500

RESUMO

Of the 18 National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs) analysed in this Report, some have a single source of environmental contamination (such as fluoro-edenite in Biancavilla). In most cases, however, we are looking at multiple heterogeneous sources of contamination. In this respect, the a priori causal evaluation of the association between diseases and environmental exposures in NPCSs, based on epidemiological evidence, can help trace the health impact back to specific types of environmental exposure. There are several cases in which the project's findings have been consistent with a priori evidence: stomach cancer (both genders, excess cancer incidence) in the Fidenza NPCS; stomach cancer (women, excess mortality, cancer incidence and hospital discharges) in the Laguna di Grado e Marano NPCS; excess hospitalisation from respiratory diseases in Brescia-Caffaro, Milazzo and Terni Papigno NPCSs; excesses for non-Hodgkin lymphomas and melanoma (incidence and hospitalisation in men and women) and breast cancer (incidence and hospital discharges, women) in Brescia-Caffaro NPCS. In preorder to properly evaluate the population's health profile, we must also observe whether results remain consistent for all three health outcomes or in both genders. The first is the case of excess mortality, cancer incidence and hospital discharges for bladder cancer (men) in Porto Torres and diseases of the urinary tract in the Basso bacino del fiume Chienti NPCS). Gender consistency is observed, for instance, for all cancer in Bolzano, Porto Torres, Venice, Litorale Domizio Flegreo, Priolo, and Taranto, for all causes in Taranto, Litorale Domizio Flegreo and Trieste. The health impact in the various NPCSs needs to be considered carefully and used as a springboard for further analytical research that could confirm and explain causal links to specific environmental exposures. The observations can, however, already be considered as a basis for mandatory primary prevention measures.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
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