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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1591-1603, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309372

RESUMO

The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of increased diet fermentability and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) with or without supplemental 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMTBa), isoacids (IA; isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate) or the combination of these on milk fat depression (MFD). Ten Holstein cows (194 ± 58 DIM, 691 ± 69 kg BW, 28 ± 5 kg milk yield) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Treatments included a high-forage control diet (HF-C), a low-forage control diet (LF-C) causing MFD by increasing starch and decreasing neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the LF-C diet supplemented with HMTBa at 0.11% (28 g/d), the LF-C diet supplemented with IA at 0.24% of dietary dry matter (60 g/d), and the LF-C diet supplemented with HMTBa and IA. Preplanned contrasts were used to compare HF-C versus LF-C and to examine the main effects of HMTBa or IA and their interactions within the LF diets. Dry matter intake was greater for LF-C versus HF-C, but milk yield remained unchanged. The LF-C diet decreased milk fat yield (0.87 vs. 0.98 kg/d) but increased protein yield compared with HF-C. As a result, energy-corrected milk was lower (28.5 vs. 29.6 kg/d) for LF-C versus HF-C. Although the concentration of total de novo synthesized FA in milk fat was not affected, some short- and medium-chain FA were lower for LF-C versus HF-C, but the concentrations of C18 trans-10 isomers were not different. Total-tract NDF apparent digestibility was numerically lower (42.4 vs. 45.6%) for LF-C versus HF-C. As the main effects, the decrease in milk fat yield observed in LF-C was alleviated by supplementation of HMTBa through increasing milk yield without altering milk fat content and by IA through increasing milk fat content without altering milk yield so that HMTBa or IA, as the main effects, increased milk fat yield within the LF diets. However, interactions for milk fat yield and ECM were observed between HMTBa and IA, suggesting no additive effect when used in combination. Minimal changes were found on milk FA profile when HMTBa was provided. However, de novo synthesized FA increased for IA supplementation. We detected no main effect of HMTBa, IA, and interaction between those on total-tract NDF digestibility. In conclusion, the addition of HMTBa and IA to a low-forage and high-starch diet alleviated moderate MFD. Although the mechanism by which MFD was alleviated was different between HMTBa and IA, no additive effects of the combination were observed on milk fat yield and ECM.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Glicoproteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Gotículas Lipídicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Leite/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Amido/administração & dosagem
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6135-6144, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307157

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of pellet type and feeding amount on feeding behavior, dry matter intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. An experimental diet was formulated to provide an adequate amount of nutrients to a 650-kg cow producing 40 kg of milk per day, with a portion of the diet removed as a high-fiber (33.2% neutral detergent fiber; F) or high-starch (56.8% starch; S) pellet. Pellets were fed at a low (1 kg; L) or high (3 kg; H) amount twice per day alongside a partial mixed ration (PMR). Four complementary PMR were formulated for each pellet treatment such that the overall diet (pellet + PMR) offered to the cows was the same among all treatments. Eight ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Cows were fed PMR once daily at 1200 h, and pellet twice daily at 0600 and 1800 h. Data and samples were collected on d 11 to 14 of each period. By design there was a difference in pellet intake between the H and L treatments (5.31 vs. 1.81 kg/d), and PMR intake was reduced when H pellet was fed (22.9 vs. 25.3 kg/d); however, feeding H tended to increase total dry matter intake. Feed disappearance, which was measured as the amount of PMR consumed every 3 h following PMR delivery, was affected by the nutrient composition of the PMR as cows fed S (with high-fiber PMR) consumed 28.6% of their PMR intake within 3 h of delivery, whereas cows fed F (with high-starch PMR) consumed 33.5%. Duration that pH was below 5.8 tended to be lower when cows were fed the S pellet (270 vs. 125 min/d) compared with F. In addition, feeding the S pellet (with high-fiber PMR) decreased plasma concentrations of glucose (66.0 vs. 70.0 mg/dL) and insulin (1.90 vs. 2.25 ng/mL) compared with F. These results suggest that the composition of the PMR dictates rumen fermentation to a greater extent than composition of pellets. The S pellet was fed alongside a high-fiber PMR, which was more filling in the rumen, less fermentable, and contained more neutral detergent fiber. Although no difference was observed in milk production among treatments, the fact that feed intake pattern and rumen fermentation are better explained by nutrient composition of the PMR should be considered when formulating diets for lactating cows fed pellet and PMR, such as those milked with automated milking systems.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Rúmen/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4378-4389, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197845

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of high-starch or high-fat diets formulated to be isoenergetic on energy and N partitioning and utilization of energy. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows (mean ± standard deviation; 192 ± 11 d in milk; 467 ± 47 kg) in a crossover design with 28-d periods (24-d adaptation and 4-d collection) were used to compare 2 treatment diets. Treatments were high starch (HS; 30.8% starch, 31.8% neutral detergent fiber, and 1.9% fatty acids) or high fat (HF; 16.8% starch, 41.7% neutral detergent fiber, and 4.1% fatty acids). Diets were formulated to have net energy for lactation (NEL) content of 1.55 Mcal/kg of dry matter according to the National Research Council (2001) dairy model. Nutrient composition was varied primarily by replacing corn grain in HS with a rumen-inert fat source and cottonseed hulls in HF. Gross energy content was lower for HS (4.43 vs. 4.54 ± 0.01 Mcal/kg of dry matter), whereas digestible (2.93 vs. 2.74 ± 0.035 Mcal/kg of dry matter) and metabolizable energy (2.60 vs. 2.41 ± 0.030 Mcal/kg of dry matter), and NEL (1.83 vs. 1.67 ± 0.036 Mcal/kg of dry matter) content were all greater than for HF. Tissue energy deposited as body fat tended to be greater for HS (4.70 vs. 2.14 ± 1.01 Mcal/d). For N partitioning, HS increased milk N secretion (141 vs. 131 ± 10.5 g/d) and decreased urinary N excretion (123 vs. 150 ± 6.4 g/d). Compared with HF, HS increased apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter (66.7 vs. 61.7 ± 1.06%), organic matter (68.5 vs. 63.2 ± 0.98%), energy (66.0 vs. 60.4 ± 0.92%), and 18-carbon fatty acids (67.9 vs. 61.2 ± 1.60%). However, apparent total-tract digestibility of starch decreased for HS from 97.0 to 94.5 ± 0.48%. Compared with HF, HS tended to increase milk yield (19.7 vs. 18.9 ± 1.38 kg/d), milk protein content (4.03 vs. 3.93 ± 0.10%), milk protein yield (0.791 vs. 0.740 ± 0.050 kg/d), and milk lactose yield (0.897 vs. 0.864 ± 0.067 kg/d). In addition, HS decreased milk fat content (5.93 vs. 6.37 ± 0.15%) but did not affect milk fat yield (average of 1.19 ± 0.09 kg/d) or energy-corrected milk yield (average of 27.2 ± 1.99 kg/d). Results of the current study suggest that the HS diet had a greater metabolizable energy and NEL content, increased partitioning of N toward milk secretion and away from urinary excretion, and may have increased partitioning of energy toward tissue energy deposited as fat.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/veterinária , Dieta Hiperlipídica/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Lactação , Distribuição Aleatória , Amido/administração & dosagem
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 97: 602-607, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899355

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of bile acids (BAs) on the growth, liver function and immunity of the largemouth bass fed high-starch diet. The experiment set three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified diets, LS: low-starch diet (5%), HS: high-starch diet (19%) and SB: high-starch diet with BAs (350 mg/kg diet). An 8-week feeding trial was conducted in largemouth bass of initial weight 23.69 ± 0.13 g. The results indicated that the weight gain (WG) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish fed LS and SB were significantly higher than HS treatment. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of SB group were significantly increased, while malondialdehyde (MDA) content significantly reduced in liver compared with HS group. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose contents in plasma of SB group were significantly lower than HS treatment, whereas the content of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) in plasma were significantly higher than HS treatment. Additionally, the plasma immunoglobulin count, lysozyme activity and the blood leukocyte count (WBC) in SB group were significantly higher than HS group. The results of paraffin section of liver showed the histopathological alterations were significantly reduced in the SB group compared to HS group. All in all, this study revealed that bile acids supplement could significantly improve growth performance, enhance liver function and immune ability, and alleviate stress responses of M. salmoides fed high-starch diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bass/imunologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/fisiologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/imunologia , Fígado/imunologia
5.
Animal ; 14(6): 1139-1146, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964450

RESUMO

Feed form is well recognized to improve broiler performance, specially by increasing feed intake (FI). However, when different diet energy levels are used, the results differ in the literature. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of feed form and dietary metabolizable energy (ME) levels on broiler performance, carcass yield and on the digestibility of DM, CP, starch and gross energy. In total, 1152 male Cobb 500 broilers were evaluated between 35 and 47 days. The birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement, consisting of two feed forms (mash or pellet) and four ME levels (12.73, 13.06, 13.40 or 13.73 MJ/kg), totaling eight treatments with eight replicates of 18 birds. Broilers fed the lowest ME level presented the lowest weight gain (WG) and worst feed per unit gain (P < 0.01). Metabolizable energy intake increased (P < 0.01) with progressive increments of ME, which, however, did not affect caloric conversion (CC, P > 0.05). Pelleted diets promoted higher FI, WG, ME intake (P < 0.01) and better feed per unit gain and CC (P < 0.05) compared with mash. In mash diets, increasing dietary ME levels promoted a linear increase in WG (P < 0.01) and reduced feed per unit gain (P ≤ 0.05), but did not affect FI (P > 0.05). In pelleted diets, on the other hand, increasing ME levels linearly reduced FI (P < 0.05) and feed per unit gain (P < 0.01). Broilers fed pelleted diets presented higher abdominal fat deposition than those fed mash (P < 0.05). Increasing ME levels reduced the coefficients of ileal apparent digestibility of DM (P < 0.01) and total starch (P < 0.05) but did not affect the digestibility of other evaluated nutrients. The digestibility of all nutrients was lower when pelleted diets were fed compared with mash. Increasing inert material inclusion in the diets at the expense of soybean oil to reduce dietary ME levels promoted higher pellet durability index values (P < 0.05) and the percentage of fines (P < 0.01). Overall, the results suggest that pelleted diets promote better broiler performance because they increase FI, since the digestibility of dietary fractions is reduced. Chickens consuming low-energy pelleted diets may increase FI to compensate for energy deficit. In contrast, broilers fed mash diets may have reached their maximum intake capacity and did not regulate FI by changing feed energy density. When feeding pelleted diets, dietary energy reduction should be considered to reduce feed costs and to improve the carcass quality of broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Amido/administração & dosagem , Ganho de Peso
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2324-2332, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954575

RESUMO

Young, weaned calves are commonly offered ad libitum forage with limited amounts of starter, in contrast to the suggested amount of approximately 5% forage in the diet due to the limited capacity of the rumen, as well as limited ability to digest high fiber feeds. The objective of this research was to compare 2 types of starters (low starch, pelleted vs. high starch, textured), both fed either ad libitum with 5% chopped hay, or fed at restricted rates with ad libitum long grass hay to calves between 2 and 4 mo of age. In trial 1, 48 calves were housed in group pens (68.4 ± 3.37 kg of initial body weight ± standard deviation; 3 pens of 4 calves/pen) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets: (1) low starch pelleted starter (8% starch) blended with 5% chopped hay fed free choice; (2) high starch textured starter (45% starch) blended with 5% chopped hay fed free choice; (3) low starch pelleted starter (8% starch) fed at a rate up to 2.3 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, with free-choice long grass hay; or (4) high starch textured starter (45% starch) fed at a rate up to 2.3 kg of DM/d, with free-choice long grass hay. Trial 1 was analyzed as a completely randomized design using a 2 × 2 arrangement of treatments. Repeated measures were used as appropriate. Pen was the experimental unit. In trial 2, 48 calves (76.4 ± 1.55 kg of initial body weight; 6 pens of 4 calves/pen) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets: (1) ad libitum access to a blend of 95% high starch textured starter (42% starch) and 5% chopped grass hay; or (2) high starch textured starter fed up to 2.7 kg of DM/d with free-choice long grass hay. Trial 2 was analyzed as for trial 1, without factorial arrangement. Trials were 56 d long. In trial 1, feed efficiency, average daily gain (ADG), and change in hip width were greater for calves fed high versus low starch diet. Final hip width, ADG, DM intake, and change in hip width were greater for calves fed limited chopped versus free-choice long hay diets. In trial 2, intake, feed efficiency, and all growth measurements were greater in calves fed the ad libitum mixed diet compared with those limit-fed starter up to 2.7 kg as fed with ad libitum hay. Ad libitum hay intake was highly variable among pens and differed up to 2.5-fold by the last week of the trials. In both trials, restricted feeding of starter with ad libitum long grass hay reduced total DM intake by 13 to 17%, ADG by 20%, and hip width change by 10 to 23% compared with a blend of 95% starter and 5% chopped grass hay fed ad libitum.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Amido/administração & dosagem , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
7.
Meat Sci ; 161: 107974, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704474

RESUMO

Beef burgers (22% fat) were formulated to contain 5% of pea starch (PS), pea fibre (PF) or their combinations (PS:PF; 75:25, 50:50, 25:75). Wheat crumb treatment served as control. Incorporation of pea fractions into burgers did not affect (P > .05) the colour of fresh burgers or the colour stability over 5 days of storage. All burger treatments containing pea fibre had lower (P < .05) cook loss than those formulated with wheat crumb or pea starch. Wheat crumb burgers were significantly (P < .05) softer, less cohesive and chewy than treatments with pea starch and fibre fractions. While panelist feedback suggest that 50:50 blend resulted in optimal firmness and juiciness characteristics, the acceptability mean scores of all pea starch and pea fibre blends were equivalent to wheat crumb control for all attributes which suggests that all combinations of pea starch and fibre can be utilized as gluten free alternatives to wheat crumb for meat binder applications without any detrimental impact on consumer acceptability.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ervilhas , Carne Vermelha/análise , Amido/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Culinária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triticum , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 352-367, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733858

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the effects of diet starch concentration and starch fermentability on inflammatory response markers and oxidant status during the early postpartum (PP) period and its carryover effects. Fifty-two multiparous Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized block design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were starch concentration and starch fermentability of diets; diets were formulated to 22% (low starch, LS) or 28% (high starch, HS) starch with dry-ground corn (DGC) or high-moisture corn (HMC) as the primary starch source. Treatments were fed from 1 to 23 d PP and then switched to a common diet until 72 d PP to measure carryover (CO) effects. Treatment period (TP) diets were formulated to 22% forage neutral detergent fiber and 17% crude protein. The diet for the CO period was formulated to 20% forage neutral detergent fiber, 17% crude protein, and 29% starch. Coccygeal blood was collected once a week during the TP and every second week during the CO period. Liver and adipose tissue biopsies were performed within 2 d PP and at 20 ± 3 d PP. Blood plasma was analyzed for concentrations of albumin, haptoglobin, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), and antioxidant potential (AOP), with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and TNFα evaluated during the TP only. Oxidative stress index (OSi) was calculated as RONS/AOP. Abundance of mRNA from genes involved in inflammation and glucose metabolism in liver and genes involved in lipogenesis in adipose tissue were determined. Data were analyzed separately for the TP and CO periods. During the TP, treatments interacted to affect concentrations of TNFα, haptoglobin, and LBP, with HMC increasing their concentrations for HS (9.38 vs. 7.45 pg/mL, 0.45 vs. 0.37 mg/mL, and 5.94 vs. 4.48 µg/mL, respectively) and decreasing their concentrations for LS (4.76 vs. 12.9 pg/mL, 0.27 vs. 0.41 mg/mL, and 4.30 vs. 5.87 µg/mL, respectively) compared with DGC. Effects of treatments diminished over time for LBP and haptoglobin with no differences by the end of the TP and no main CO effects of treatment for haptoglobin. The opposite treatment interaction was observed for albumin, with HMC tending to decrease its concentration for HS (3.24 vs. 3.34 g/dL) and increase its concentration for LS (3.35 vs. 3.29 g/dL) compared with DGC, with no carryover effect. Feeding DGC increased the OSi during the first week of the TP compared with HMC, with this effect diminishing over time; during the CO period HMC increased OSi for HS and decreased it for LS compared with DGC, with this effect diminishing toward the end of CO. Feeding HMC increased the abundance of genes associated with inflammation and gluconeogenesis in liver for HS and decreased it for LS compared with DGC. Feeding HS increased the mRNA abundance of genes associated with adipose tissue lipogenesis compared with LS. Results during the TP suggest that feeding LS-DGC and HS-HMC elicited a more pronounced inflammatory response and induced an upregulation of genes associated with inflammation and gluconeogenesis in liver, without effects on OSi, but effects on plasma markers of inflammation diminished during the CO period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Amido/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/veterinária , Bovinos/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Leite/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(3): 405-413, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768638

RESUMO

Glycogen storage disease type VI (GSD-VI; also known as Hers disease, liver phosphorylase deficiency) is caused by mutations in the gene coding for glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL) leading to a defect in the degradation of glycogen. Since there are only about 40 patients described in literature, our knowledge about the course of the disease is limited. In order to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients with GSD-VI, an observational retrospective case study of six patients was performed at the University Children's Hospital Zurich. The introduction of small, frequent meals as well as cornstarch has led to normal growth in all patients and to normalization of liver transaminases in most patients. After starting the dietary regimen, there were no signs of hypoglycemia. However, three of six patients showed persistent elevation of triglycerides. Further, we identified four novel pathogenic PYGL mutations and describe here their highly variable impact on phosphorylase function.Conclusions: After establishing the diagnosis, dietary treatment led to metabolic stability and to prevention of hypoglycemia. Molecular genetics added important information for the understanding of the clinical variability in this disease. While outcome was overall excellent in all patients, half of the patients showed persistent hypertriglyceridemia even after initiating treatment.What is Known:• Glycogen storage disease type VI (GSD-VI) is a metabolic disorder causing a defect in glycogen degradation. Dietary treatment normally leads to metabolic stability and prevention of hypoglycemia.• However, our knowledge about the natural course of patients with GSD-VI is limited.What is New:• While outcome was overall excellent in all patients, half of the patients showed persistent hypertriglyceridemia even after initiating treatment.• Molecular genetics added important information for the understanding of the clinical variability in this disease.


Assuntos
Glicogênio Fosforilase Hepática/genética , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo VI/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glicogênio Fosforilase Hepática/sangue , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo VI/complicações , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo VI/dietoterapia , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Amido/administração & dosagem
10.
Meat Sci ; 161: 107964, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683223

RESUMO

Thirty-two crossbred Merino branco male lambs were randomly allocated to eight diets, combining two forms of alfalfa presentation (chopped or ground), with four barley grain levels (0%, 11.2%, 21.3% and 33% dry matter (DM)), balanced by low starch agro-industrial by-products (LSBP). The diets were supplemented with 6% soybean oil and included 40% of alfalfa in DM. The lambs were individually housed and the trial lasted six weeks. Intake of DM, average daily weight gain (ADG) and carcass weight were higher with ground alfalfa (P < 0.01). Replacing barley grain by LSBP reduced linearly DM intake and ADG (P < 0.001) but increased meat tenderness (P = 0.046). Regardless of the treatments, meat showed a healthy biohydrogenation fatty acid (FA) profile, with high proportions of t11-18:1, c9,t11-18:2 and a t10-18:1/t11-18:1 ratio clearly below 1. The reduction of barley in diet had a moderate positive impact on meat FA composition, decreasing t10-18:1, which was enhanced by the increase of forage particle size.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Medicago sativa/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Rúmen/fisiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Masculino , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos
11.
Br J Nutr ; 123(2): 172-181, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495347

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) was recently approved to exert a powerful influence on gut health, but the effect of RS on the caecal barrier function in meat ducks has not been well defined. Thus, the effect of raw potato starch (RPS), a widely adopted RS material, on microbial composition and barrier function of caecum for meat ducks was determined. A total of 360 Cherry Valley male ducks of 1-d-old were randomly divided and fed diets with 0 (control), 12, or 24 % RPS for 35 d. Diets supplemented with RPS significantly elevated villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio in the caecum. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the diet with 12 % RPS had a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and the butyrate-producing bacteria Faecalibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Erysipelatoclostridium were enriched in all diets. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly increased in the 24 % RPS diet v. the control diet. When compared with the control diet, the diet with 12 % RPS was also found to notably increase acetate, propionate and butyrate contents and up-regulated barrier-related genes including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1, mucin-2 and proglucagon in the caecum. Furthermore, the addition of 12 % RPS significantly reduced plasma TNF-α, IL-1ß and endotoxin concentrations. These data revealed that diets supplemented with 12 % RPS partially improved caecal barrier function in meat ducks by enhancing intestinal morphology and barrier markers expression, modulating the microbiota composition and attenuating inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/microbiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2762-2772, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882217

RESUMO

The objectives were to nutritionally induce or blunt ruminal acidosis in young calves and to compare indicators of rumen and systemic health. Ten bull calves (n = 5/diet) were ruminally cannulated at 3 wk of age and received milk replacer and 1 of 2 calf starter diets that were designed to cause (AC; pelleted, 42.7% starch, 15.1% neutral detergent fiber, 57.8% nonfiber carbohydrates) or blunt (BL; texturized, 35.3% starch, 25.3% neutral detergent fiber, 48.1% nonfiber carbohydrates) ruminal acidosis. Mean birth weight was 38.7 ± 1.3 kg. Body weight and calf starter intake were measured weekly. Rumen contents were sampled at -8, -4, 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h relative to starter feeding during wk 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of age. Blood was collected from the jugular vein during the same weeks for complete blood cell count, blood pH, and partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Rate of starter consumption was assessed during wk 16. Marker systems were used to estimate liquid passage and volatile fatty acid absorption rates. Calves were slaughtered at 17 wk, and rumen tissue was collected and assessed for papillae length, width, and degree of tissue degradation. Mean ruminal pH ± standard error was 5.37 ± 0.24 and 5.63 ± 0.24 for AC and BL calves, respectively. Lowest pH values were observed the week after weaning. Total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations were 131.5 and 124.8 ± 2.4 mM in AC and BL calves, respectively, and increased with age and time after feeding. Dry matter intake was lower in AC calves at wk 4 and remained lower through wk 16. Rate of starter consumption was also lower in AC calves at wk 16. Body weight also was also lower for AC calves from wk 5 through 16. Blood hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower in AC calves, but other blood characteristics were not different. Rumen volume increased with age and tended to be greater in BL calves. Passage rate and papillae length and width were not different between diets, but AC calves experienced a greater degree of tissue degradation. Ruminal acidosis symptoms in calves appear similar to those in adult cattle, and the etiology of the disease seems to follow similar mechanisms. It is clear from this study that symptoms can be moderated by diet, but further research is needed to determine whether symptoms can be nutritionally prevented or whether calves that experience ruminal acidosis are more susceptible to the disease as adults.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Amido/administração & dosagem , Acidose/fisiopatologia , Acidose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Dieta/veterinária , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Substitutos do Leite/metabolismo , Rúmen/fisiopatologia , Desmame
14.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 43(3): 402-410, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705244

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evalutate safety and efficacy of degradable starch microspheres (DSM) as embolic agent in transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) of unresectable, locally extensive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 37 patients with intermediate to advanced HCC treated with ≥ 3 chemoembolisations with doxorubicin/epirubicin and DSM were analysed. Patients were treated with three consecutive chemoembolisations in 4-weekly intervals. Clinical parameters and laboratory findings were obtained from patient records before and after each intervention. Tumour response was assessed after every 3 embolisations by CT/MRI according to modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumours. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with HCC were treated with 177 DSM-TACEs (3-12/patient, mean 4.8). Disease stages according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system were: 27 × B, 9 × C, 1 × D. Five patients had uninodular, 32 multinodular (23 bilobar) disease. Three patients had portal vein invasion. Apart from one possibly procedure-related grade 3 complication, only grade 1 adverse events occurred. These were pain reacting to analgesics (23%), transient nausea (11%), vomiting (3%) and post-embolisation syndrome (4%). Transient laboratory changes were bone marrow toxicity (29%) and increase in INR (14%), creatinine (8%) or bilirubin (38%). Tumour response was objective response rate 49%, disease control rate 83%. Median survival was 19 months: 22 months for BCLC stage B and 6.7 months for BCLC stages C + D. Responders had a significantly better prognosis than non-responders. CONCLUSION: DSM-TACE of HCC is safe even in patients with advanced disease stages. Tumour response and survival rates were encouraging in our series of patients with locally extensive disease.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Epirubicina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Prognóstico , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 235-243, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870873

RESUMO

Modification of chestnut starch with amylosucrase from Deinococcus geothermalis (DGAS) increases the proportion of resistant starch. DGAS-modified chestnut starch (DMCS) attenuates obesity in diet-induced obese mice via a receptor of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), G-protein-coupled receptor 43. SCFAs are gut microbial metabolites produced by fermenting resistant starch and have key roles in the obesity-ameliorating effects of DMCS. Here, we evaluated the mechanical links among DMCS-induced changes in the gut microbiota, consequent production of microbial metabolites, and host genetic responses. Supplementation with DMCS altered the proportions of cecal microbiota, such as Ruminococcaceae and Bacteroides; microbial metabolites, such as acetic acid; and some carbohydrate metabolites. DMCS also induced changes in the expression of some genes in cecal epithelial cells, including genes involved in energy production, the cell cycle, and cellular junctions. Changes in the gut microbiota, microbial metabolites, and host gene expression were found to be significantly correlated. Our findings demonstrated the integrated and incorporated association among the gut microbiota, their beneficial metabolites, and the host transcriptome, which contributed to clarifying the anti-obesity effects of DMCS as a prebiotic. Therefore, fortifying resistant starch by modification of chestnut starch using DGAS may be a good strategy in the functional food industry.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bacteroides/classificação , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridiales/classificação , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Deinococcus/química , Deinococcus/enzimologia , Dieta/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Glucosiltransferases/química , Glucosiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Prebióticos/análise , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Amido/química , Transcriptoma
16.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 784-791, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small intestinal starch digestion in ruminants is potentially limited by inadequate production of carbohydrases. Previous research has demonstrated that small intestinal starch digestion can be improved by postruminal supply of casein or glutamic acid. However, the mechanisms by which casein and glutamic acid increase starch digestion are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of duodenal infusions of starch with casein or glutamic acid on postruminal carbohydrase activities in cattle. METHODS: Twenty-two steers [mean body weight (BW) = 179 ± 4.23 kg] were surgically fitted with duodenal and ileal cannulas and limit-fed a soybean hull-based diet containing small amounts of starch. Raw cornstarch (1.61 ± 0.0869 kg/d) was infused into the duodenum alone (control), or with 118 ± 7.21 g glutamic acid/d, or 428 ± 19.4 g casein/d. Treatments were infused continuously for 58 d and then steers were killed for tissue collection. Activities of pancreatic (α-amylase) and intestinal (maltase, isomaltase, glucoamylase, sucrase) carbohydrases were determined. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block (replicate group) design using the GLM procedure of SAS to determine effects of infusion treatment. RESULTS: Duodenal casein infusion increased (P < 0.05) pancreatic α-amylase activity by 290%. Duodenal glutamic acid infusion increased (P < 0.03) duodenal maltase activity by 233%. Duodenal casein infusion increased jejunal maltase (P = 0.02) and glucoamylase (P = 0.03) activity per gram protein by 62.9% and 97.4%, respectively. Duodenal casein infusion tended to increase (P = 0.10) isomaltase activity per gram jejunum by 38.5% in the jejunum. Sucrase activity was not detected in any segment of the small intestine. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that small intestinal starch digestion can be improved in cattle with increased small intestinal flow of casein through increases in postruminal carbohydrase activities.


Assuntos
Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Amido/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/fisiologia , Duodeno/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Masculino , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/enzimologia
17.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 205, 2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistant starch (RS) is a starch that can be fermented by the microbial flora within gut lumen. Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathophysiological condition related to diabetes and obesity. RS could reduce blood glucose and ameliorate IR in animals, but its effect in human population is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate the effect of RS diet supplement on ameliorating IR in patients with T2DM and simple obesity. METHODS: Databases that supplemented with RS in ameliorating IR in T2DM and simple obesity were queried for studies on or before August 15, 2018. Parameters including fasting insulin, fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) etc. were extracted from studies to systemically evaluate effects of RS. RESULTS: The database search yielded 14 parallel or crossover studies that met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the amelioration of BMI, HOMA-%S and HOMA-%B in T2DM patients between RS and the non-RS supplementation. However, the fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in T2DM with obesity who supplemented RS were lower than control group, and the subgroup analysis according to the dose of RS supplementation was inconsistency. There was no significant difference between RS and non-RS supplements in patients with simple obesity. CONCLUSION: RS supplementation can ameliorate IR in T2DM, especially for the patients of T2DM with obesity, but not in simple obesity.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Biotransformação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Amido/sangue
18.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717368

RESUMO

(1) High-fat (HF) diet leads to gut microbiota dysbiosis which is associated with systemic inflammation. Bacterial-driven inflammation is sufficient to alter vagally mediated satiety and induce hyperphagia. Promoting bacterial fermentation improves gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial barrier function and reduces inflammation. Resistant starch escape digestion and can be fermented by bacteria in the distal gut. Therefore, we hypothesized that potato RS supplementation in HF-fed rats would lead to compositional changes in microbiota composition associated with improved inflammatory status and vagal signaling. (2) Male Wistar rats (n = 8/group) were fed a low-fat chow (LF, 13% fat), HF (45% fat), or an isocaloric HF supplemented with 12% potato RS (HFRS) diet. (3) The HFRS-fed rats consumed significantly less energy than HF animals throughout the experiment. Systemic inflammation and glucose homeostasis were improved in the HFRS compared to HF rats. Cholecystokinin-induced satiety was abolished in HF-fed rats and restored in HFRS rats. HF feeding led to a significant decrease in positive c fiber staining in the brainstem which was averted by RS supplementation. (4) The RS supplementation prevented dysbiosis and systemic inflammation. Additionally, microbiota manipulation via dietary potato RS prevented HF-diet-induced reorganization of vagal afferent fibers, loss in CCK-induced satiety, and hyperphagia.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/inervação , Intestinos/microbiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Solanum tuberosum , Amido/administração & dosagem , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar , Fermentação , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/microbiologia , Hiperfagia/fisiopatologia , Hiperfagia/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Raízes de Plantas , Ratos Wistar , Resposta de Saciedade , Amido/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
19.
Int J Med Sci ; 16(10): 1350-1355, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692813

RESUMO

Adhesion barriers can be based on numerous substances. In the rat Optimized Peritoneal Adhesion Model (OPAM) the starch-based hemostats 4DryField and Arista were tested for their capability to act in a preventive manner against adhesion formation (applied as a powder that was mixed in situ with saline solution to form a barrier gel). Adhesions were scored using the established scoring systems by Lauder and Hoffmann, as well as histopathologically using the score by Zühlke. Animals receiving saline solution were used as controls. As previously published, 4DryField reduced peritoneal adhesions significantly. However, Arista did not lead to a statistically significant reduction of adhesion formation. When comparing 4DryField and Arista applied in the same manner, only 4DryField was significantly effective in preventing peritoneal adhesions. Histopathological evaluations confirmed the results of the macroscopic investigation, leading to the conclusion that starch-based hemostats do not generally have the capability to function as effective adhesion prevention devices.


Assuntos
Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Peritoneais/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Amido/administração & dosagem , Aderências Teciduais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Peritoneais/etiologia , Doenças Peritoneais/patologia , Peritônio/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritônio/patologia , Peritônio/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Pós , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Aderências Teciduais/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 938, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial therapy with embolics is established for the treatment of malignancies of the liver. However, there are no studies comparing the different effects of various embolics used in clinical practice. Herein, we analyzed the effect of 3 different embolics on tumor growth in a rat model of colorectal liver metastases. METHODS: Eight days after subcapsular implantation of 5 × 105 colorectal cancer cells (CC531) in the left liver lobe of WAG/Rij rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 8) and underwent intra-arterial hepatic therapy. Animals received either EmboCept S®, DC Bead® or Lipiodol® Ultra-Fluid. Animals of the control group received a comparable amount of saline. Tumor growth was measured on day 8 and 11 using a three-dimensional 40 MHz ultrasound device. On day 11 tumor and liver tissue were removed for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: On day 11 animals of the control group showed a tumor growth of ~ 60% compared to day 8. Application of Lipiodol Ultra-Fluid® did not significantly influence tumor growth (~ 40%). In contrast, treatment with EmboCept S® or DC Bead® completely inhibited tumor growth. Of interest, application of EmboCept S® did not only completely inhibit tumor growth but even decreased tumor size. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase of necrotic areas within the tumors after application of EmboCept S® and DC Bead® compared to Lipiodol® Ultra-Fluid. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that an intra-arterial therapy with EmboCept S® and DC Bead®, but not Lipiodol® Ultra-Fluid, results in a complete inhibition of rat colorectal liver metastatic growth.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Infusões Intra-Arteriais/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Microesferas , Álcool de Polivinil/uso terapêutico , Amido/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo Etiodado/administração & dosagem , Óleo Etiodado/efeitos adversos , Óleo Etiodado/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Artéria Hepática , Xenoenxertos , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Necrose/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Álcool de Polivinil/administração & dosagem , Álcool de Polivinil/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
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