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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4639-4657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636623

RESUMO

Background: ß-Glucosidase (ß-Glu) can activate amygdalin to kill prostate cancer cells, but the poor specificity of this killing effect may cause severe general toxicity in vivo, limiting the practical clinical application of this approach. Materials and Methods: In this study, starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were successively conjugated with ß-Glu and polyethylene glycol (PEG) by chemical coupling methods. Cell experiments were used to confirm the effects of immobilized ß-Glu on amygdalin-mediated prostate cancer cell death in vitro. Subcutaneous xenograft models were used to carry out the targeting experiment and magnetically directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (MDEPT) experiment in vivo. Results: Immobilized ß-Glu activated amygdalin-mediated prostate cancer cell death. Tumor-targeting studies showed that PEG modification increased the accumulation of ß-Glu-loaded nanoparticles in targeted tumor tissue subjected to an external magnetic field and decreased the accumulation of the nanoparticles in the liver and spleen. Based on an enzyme activity of up to 134.89 ± 14.18mU/g tissue in the targeted tumor tissue, PEG-ß-Glu-MNP/amygdalin combination therapy achieved targeted activation of amygdalin and tumor growth inhibition in C57BL/6 mice bearing RM1 xenografts. Safety evaluations showed that this strategy had some impact on liver and heart function but did not cause obvious organ damage. Conclusion: All findings indicate that this magnetically directed enzyme/prodrug therapy strategy has the potential to become a promising new approach for targeted therapy of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Amigdalina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Humanos , Campos Magnéticos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Amido/química , beta-Glucosidase/química
2.
Food Chem ; 333: 127537, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683265

RESUMO

Antifungal bioplastic films were developed based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blends as PLA60/PBAT40 (PLA/PBAT) and PBAT60/PLA40 (PBAT/PLA) with incorporated trans-cinnamaldehyde using cast-extrusion. Trans-cinnamaldehyde was more compatible in PLA which exhibited plasticization that increased molecular mobility, crystallinity, permeability but limited volatile release and reduced film strength. Interaction of trans-cinnamaldehyde modified CO functional groups of PLA and PBAT. Phase separation was higher in PBAT/PLA films due to less surface adhesion in PBAT networks. Higher release of trans-cinnamaldehyde enhanced bread crystallinity but gave lower rate of hardness increase due to plasticization of starch and protein and reduced lipid crystallinity. Increased bread hardness correlated with decreased water activity that was effectively prevented by higher release of trans-cinnamaldehyde. Films containing trans-cinnamaldehyde (2-10%) showed high antifungal efficacy against Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger but low effective against Rhizopus sp. Trans-cinnamaldehyde reduced bacterial and fungal growth in breads, extending shelf-life for 21 days.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Adipatos/química , Alcenos/química , Pão , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Poliésteres/química , Acroleína/química , Antifúngicos/química , Pão/microbiologia , Permeabilidade , Amido/química
3.
Food Chem ; 333: 127425, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683254

RESUMO

Zero-salted yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) were immersed in solutions of resistant starch HYLON™ VII (HC) or fruit coating Semperfresh™ (SC) containing a range of salt (NaCl) between 10 and 30% (w/v). The objective was to evaluate the effect of salt-coatings on the textural, handling, cooking, and sensory properties of YAN. Increasing salt in the coatings caused a reduction in optimum cooking time, cooking loss and increase in cooking yield. The mechanical and textural parameters, sensory hardness, springiness and overall sensory acceptability of the salt-coated noodles however decreased with increasing salt application. HC-Na10 and SC-Na10 showed the highest textural and mechanical parameters, sensory hardness and springiness. The differences in the parameters were attributed mainly to the water absorption properties of starch that was affected by salt application. Thus, the quality of salt-coated noodles was dependent mainly on the amounts of salt applied in the coatings rather than on the types of coatings used.


Assuntos
Ar , Culinária , Dessecação/métodos , Farinha/análise , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Paladar , Cor , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Dureza , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Amido/química
4.
Food Chem ; 331: 127314, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590264

RESUMO

The formation of short-lived and stable radicals was investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and compared with hydroperoxides and hexanal in complex starch-protein-lipid model systems, as well as in corn extrudates. Stable radicals were detected directly in ground samples. Short-lived lipid radicals were measured ex situ in ethyl acetate extracts of model systems and extrudates by the use of the spin trap PBN. Significant adduct formation was found after 30 min at 50 °C. During storage, lipid radicals (PBN adducts) increased in model systems. Simulation of EPR spectra from bulk oil demonstrated that mainly alkoxyl radical adducts were detected, to which rapidly decomposing peroxyl radical adducts also contributed. Stable radicals in extrudates were attributed to protein radicals based on g-value of 2.00467 compared with 2.00474 found in model system prepared with zein. The signal intensity of the stable radical remained constant during storage, but increased during extrusion.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Radicais Livres/química , Lipídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Amido/química , Zea mays/química
5.
Food Chem ; 331: 127315, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593039

RESUMO

The effects of frying temperature on the properties of wheat starch were investigated, including the microstructure, weight-average molar mass (Mw), crystalline properties, functional groups, in vitro digestibility, static rheological properties, swelling power and solubility. SEM micrographs showed that the disc-shaped starch granules ruptured after being fried, and formed a continuous and dense gel structure. With the increasing frying temperature, the starch molecules underwent violent degradation, and the Mw decreased from 3.04 × 107 g/mol to 0.80 × 107 g/mol. The XRD and FTIR data indicated the formation of starch-lipid complexes during the frying process. In vitro digestion analysis revealed that the digestion rate of starch decreased, while the content of resistant starch (RS) increased after being fried. Besides, the shear stability of fried starch increased, whereas its swelling power and solubility decreased. These significant variations in physicochemical properties of starch could provide scientific basis for further improving the quality of instant noodles.


Assuntos
Culinária , Digestão , Reologia , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Lipídeos/química , Peso Molecular , Solubilidade , Amido/metabolismo , Temperatura
6.
Food Chem ; 330: 127242, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540530

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment and UV irradiation on structural and physicochemical properties of octenyl succinate (OS) maize starches differing in content of OS groups (0.76%-2.38%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy were used to estimate structural characteristics of octenyl succinate starches and their physically treated counterparts. Starch functional properties were also determined. XRD spectra and hydrodynamic volume distribution revealed that growth of octenyl succinate groups' content resulted in stabilization of starch structure, which was confirmed by processes of radical formation, stimulated by thermal and UV treatments. It was found, on the basis of measurements of water binding capacity, water solubility and intrinsic viscosity, that OSA addition changed physicochemical properties of starch and influenced the course of physical modifications. It was established that temperature affected starch properties to a greater extent than UV.


Assuntos
Amido/química , Succinatos/química , Zea mays/química , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Viscosidade , Difração de Raios X
7.
Food Chem ; 329: 127196, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516712

RESUMO

Pigeon pea is rich in proteins but has low protein digestibility like other legumes. This work investigated the effects of processing, including soaking, grinding, ultrasound and microwave, on the protein digestibility of pigeon pea flour. Only microwave treatment significantly increased in vitro protein digestibility from 54.4 ± 2.5% to 71.6 ± 4.2%. SDS-PAGE showed that the most abundant proteins in all samples were the 7S vicilin subunits. After microwave treatment, the starch granular structures of pigeon pea flour changed to clusters, and protein secondary structures lost 5% ß-sheet and gained 5% random coil, which contributed to the increased protein digestibility. Microwave decreased protein water solubility from 94.4 ± 0.8% to 48.1 ± 6.5% and increased the disulfide bond content by 42%. The increased protein digestibility is attributable to the relatively reduced particle size (166.6 ± 38.6 nm) and increased zeta potential (-35.2 ± 2.6 mV) of the microwave-treated sample. Therefore, microwave is a promising approach for increasing pigeon pea flour protein quality and utilisation.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Micro-Ondas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Dissulfetos/química , Hidrólise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/química , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Amido/química
8.
Food Chem ; 330: 127313, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569932

RESUMO

Starch granule-surface proteins (SGSPs) and granule-channel proteins (SGCPs) are granule-associated proteins (SGAPs), which have been found to be distributed on the surface and channels of starch granules, respectively. To investigate the impacts of SGAPs on α-amylase hydrolysis of starch, SGCPs or SGAPs of waxy, low and high amylose rice starches were removed. Removal of SGAPs or SGCPs greatly increased hydrolysis rate of rice starches. Meanwhile, these granules incurred a greater number and size of pores on their surfaces during hydrolysis. Compared to low and high amylose starches, waxy starch before and after removing SGAPs exhibited a higher hydrolysis rate. Rice starch hydrolysis began with enlargement of cavity and channels both horizontally and vertically. XRD analysis revealed that removal of SGAPs decreased relative crystallinity (RC) of starch and advanced changes in RC during hydrolysis process. This study provides new information about the role of SGAPs in the mechanisms of α-amylase hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Amilose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Amido/farmacocinética , Difração de Raios X , alfa-Amilases/química
9.
Food Chem ; 330: 127318, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569935

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the biophysical properties of buckwheat (BW) endosperm and their influences on detachment of intact cells, starch gelatinization and digestibility. The intact cells were isolated from BW kernels by dry milling and sieving. The microscopy and texture analysis showed intact endosperm cells could be detached easily due to the fragile structure and low hardness of BW endosperm. More than 70% intact cells were found in commercial light flour. The starch granules entrapped in intact cells exhibited a delay gelatinization and restricted swelling behavior (2-3 â„ƒ higher onset gelatinization temperature than isolated starch). Starch in BW flour had a markedly lower extent of digestion compared to the broken cells and isolated starch. This study provided a new mechanistic understanding of low glycemic index of BW food, and could guide the processing of BW flour to retain slow digestion properties.


Assuntos
Endosperma/citologia , Fagopyrum/citologia , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Farinha , Amido/farmacocinética , Culinária , Digestão , Endosperma/química , Endosperma/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/química , Farinha/análise , Gelatina , Índice Glicêmico , Tamanho da Partícula , Células Vegetais/química , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Amido/química , Temperatura
10.
Food Chem ; 330: 127328, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569940

RESUMO

Granular protein is an important structural feature in determining starch digestibility. High-amylose wheat starch (HAWS) with >80% amylose content contains more granular protein than wild-type starch. As analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, granular-bound starch synthase (GBSS) is the major granular protein in isolated starch materials. GBSS content increases with amylose content (Spearman's correlation, p < 0.05), whereas the abundance relative to other proteins is similar among starches. Multiple amylase inhibitors were also identified. From Michaelis-Menten analysis, HAWS has a similar Km (Michaelis constant) as wild type, suggesting initial enzymatic binding is similar. After the pre-digestion of proteins, wild type had a greater change in starch digestibility than HAWS, probably due to the latter having 'thicker' granular-protein layers and higher enzymatic resistance of substrate per se. Overall, the study suggests that the greater granular protein content in HAWS is a factor that contributes to slower amylolysis compared to wild type.


Assuntos
Amilose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Amilose/análise , Amilose/química , Digestão , Hidrólise , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Sintase do Amido/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
11.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 148, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436061

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a cross-linked pregelatinized potato starch (PREGEFLO® PI10) as matrix former for controlled release tablets. Different types of tablets loaded with diprophylline, diltiazem HCl or theophylline were prepared by direct compression of binary drug/polymer blends. The drug content was varied from 20 to 50%. Two hydroxypropyl methylcellulose grades (HPMC K100LV and K100M) were studied as alternative matrix formers. Drug release was measured in a variety of release media using different types of experimental set-ups. This includes 0.1 N HCl, phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and water, optionally containing different amounts of NaCl, sucrose, ethanol or pancreatin, fasted state simulated gastric fluid, fed state simulated gastric fluid, fasted state simulated intestinal fluid, fed state simulated intestinal fluid as well as media simulating the conditions in the colon of healthy subjects and patients suffering from Crohn's disease. The USP apparatuses I/II/III were used under a range of operating conditions and optionally coupled with the simulation of additional mechanical stress. Importantly, the drug release kinetics was not substantially affected by the investigated environmental conditions from tablets based on the cross-linked pregelatinized potato starch, similar to HPMC tablets. However, in contrast to the latter, the starch-based tablets roughly kept their shape upon exposure to the release media (they "only" increased in size) during the observation period, and the water penetration into the systems was much less pronounced. Thus, the investigated cross-linked pregelatinized potato starch offers an interesting potential as matrix former in controlled release tablets.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Diltiazem/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Gelatina/química , Humanos , Derivados da Hipromelose/química , Comprimidos/química , Teofilina/química
12.
Food Chem ; 327: 127048, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454285

RESUMO

In our previous study, a novel LMW-GS designated as LMW-N13 with a unique molecular structure was identified from Aegilops uniaristata. LMW-N13 has been characterized as the largest LMW-GS, so far, and possesses an extra cysteine residue compared with typical LMW-GS. In order to analyze the contribution of LMW-N13 to dough quality, in this work, three transgenic wheat lines overexpressing LMW-N13 were generated. Compared with non-transformation (NT) lines, transgenic (TG) lines demonstrated superior dough properties. These superior dough properties were accompanied by the higher contents of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) and total protein. The microstructure of the dough was further investigated by scanning electron microscopy; starch granules in NT lines were smaller than those in transgenic lines. The protein matrix in NT lines was relatively loose and discontinuous. Conversely, the protein matrix in transgenic lines was more continuous and tight. The application of LMW-N13 in wheat breeding is also discussed.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Glutens/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Triticum/química , Aegilops/genética , Dissulfetos/química , Glutens/genética , Glutens/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peso Molecular , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Amido/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/química
13.
Food Chem ; 324: 126858, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353656

RESUMO

Wheat flour noodles are sometimes fortified with ß-glucan for nutritional value, but this can decrease eating quality. The contributions of ß-glucan and starch molecular fine structure to physicochemical properties of wholemeal oat flour and to the texture of oat-fortified white salted noodles were investigated here. Hardness of oat-fortified noodles was controlled by the longer amylopectin chains (DP ≥ 26) and amount of longer amylose chains (DP ≥ 1000). Higher levels of ß-glucan, in the range from 3.1 to 5.2%, result in increased noodle hardness. Pasting viscosities of wholemeal oat flour positively correlate with the hardness of oat-fortified noodles. The swelling power of oat flour is not correlated with either pasting viscosities of oat flour or noodle hardness. Longer amylopectin chains and the amount of longer amylose chains both control the pasting viscosities of oat flour, which in turn affect noodle texture. This provides new means, based on starch and ß-glucan molecular structure, to choose oats with optimal starch structure and ß-glucan content for targeted oat-fortified noodle quality.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , Amido/química , Triticum/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Farinha/análise , Dureza , Viscosidade
14.
Food Chem ; 324: 126863, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353657

RESUMO

In this study, 95 accessions of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) were characterized for starch physicochemical properties, including apparent amylose content (AAC), gel textural properties, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) pasting viscosity properties, thermal and retrogradation properties. Based on genotypic data, the genetic diversity and inter-relationship of these starch traits were analyzed. Diverse starch quality was found, for example, AAC ranged from 0 to 32.3%, gelatinization temperature (GT) varied from 71.5 to 79.0 ℃, and RVA profile showed distinct patterns among proso millet of different AAC types. Interestingly, high AAC proso millet usually had GT lower than that of low AAC proso millet, which is different from the findings in rice starch. Many starch traits were significantly correlated and most of the 18 tested traits could be classified as either AAC-related traits or GT-related traits. In summary, the information presented here will be useful for further development of proso millet products.


Assuntos
Panicum/química , Amido/química , Amilose/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Géis/química , Genótipo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Panicum/genética , Panicum/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Amido/análise , Temperatura , Viscosidade
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110771, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464443

RESUMO

Herein is presented a simple and sensible method to determine organic pollutants in water, based on the utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) loaded in Polyacrylamide (PAAm)/starch hybrid hydrogels combined with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The materials were characterized by swelling degree studies, UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PAAm/starch hydrogels showed variable swelling capacity, according to the synthetic molar composition. The most promising results were attributed to lower concentrations of starch and crosslink agent (N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide - MBA). Spectroscopic analysis confirmed the formation of AgNPs, by noticing the peak at around 420 nm, due to its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect. The results showed that AgNPs were stabilized by hydrogels networks. The average size of the AgNPs was smaller than 100 nm and the size and quantity of nanoparticles were influenced by the molar composition of the hydrogel matrix. The SERS substrate based on the AgNPs-PAAm/starch exhibited reproducibility, stability, and limit of detection (LOD) of phenol in water of 1 × 10-8 M. The average mass of AgNPs-PAAm/starch hydrogels used for each detection analysis was around 10 mg. The spectra with enhanced intensities were possible due to a large number of hot spots generated on the AgNPs-PAAm/starch hydrogel substrate, which leads to potential use for organic pollutant detection. In addition, there is also the possibility of reusing the hydrogel matrix substrate in other analyzes.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrogéis/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fenóis/análise , Prata/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espectral Raman , Amido/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Água , Difração de Raios X
16.
Food Chem ; 326: 126995, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413748

RESUMO

This study aimed at encapsulating pomegranate seed oil (PSO) by emulsification followed by spray drying using whey protein isolate (WPI) in its natural form, heated (Pickering), and combined with modified starch (WPI:Capsul®) as emulsifiers/wall materials. Emulsions were stable under different stress conditions. Pickering emulsions presented bigger droplet size (6.49-9.98 µm) when compared to WPI (1.88-4.62 µm) and WPI:Capsul® emulsions (1.68-5.62 µm). Sixteen fatty acids were identified in PSO. WPI treatment was considered the best formulation since it presented the highest fatty acid retention (68.51, 65.47, 47.27, 53.68, 52.95, and 52.28% for linoleic, oleic, punicic, α-eleostearic, catalpic, and ß-eleostearic acids after 30 days-storage, respectively) and protected the oil against volatile compound formation (heptanal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, (Z)-2-heptenal, octanal, pentanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, nonanal, (E)-2-decenal, and (E,E)-2,4-octadienal), which did not occur with free PSO. Overall, encapsulation protected PSO against oxidation over time, which may allow the development of new functional foods.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Amido/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Dessecação , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões , Temperatura Alta , Oxirredução , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/isolamento & purificação
17.
Food Chem ; 326: 127001, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416417

RESUMO

A new food packaging material was developed for beef jerky. The material consists of an esterified potato starch film with 3 different concentrations (2%, 4%, and 6%, w/w) of sea buckthorn pomace extract. The packaged beef jerky was kept in supermarket. The sea buckthorn pomace extract-esterified potato starch film (SPF) packaging significantly reduces the water loss, L*, a*, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) of beef jerky during storage (p < 0.05), demonstrating a protective effect to reduce the deterioration of the quality. However, a high content of sea buckthorn pomace extract in film (6%) also affects the smell of beef jerky. Moreover, SPF effectively inhibits the growth of common spoilage bacteria in beef jerky. These results demonstrated that SPF reduces the deterioration rate of the beef jerky and the decreases the spoilage by bacteria, which both gives SPE a high potential as a new packaging material.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Hippophae/química , Produtos da Carne , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Animais , Bovinos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Nitrogênio/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
18.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1717-1724, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406950

RESUMO

This study evaluated the influence of different fluidized-bed drying temperatures (20, 60, and 100 °C) on the cooking properties, in vitro starch digestibility, and phenolic bioaccessibility of black rice. The results indicated that the formation of fissures in the grains dried at or above 60 °C reduced the physical integrity of the grains after cooking, increasing the starch digestion and the rehydration ratio, and reduced the cooking time, the hardness and adhesiveness. Due to the higher digestibility of grains dried at higher temperatures, an increase in the bioaccessibility of ferulic acid, which was previously associated with the polysaccharides, was observed. Caffeic acid was the only phenolic compound whose levels decreased when the drying temperature increased. At high temperatures and in the gastric phase, cyanidin chalcones were formed due to the deglycosylation of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study provide information to the food industry about the effects of different fluidized-bed drying temperatures on the rice structure after cooking and that, consequently, affect the availability of bioactive compounds after digestion and the glycemic index of black rice.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Oryza/química , Fenóis/química , Amido/química , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Culinária , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Temperatura
19.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(3): 252-262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401746

RESUMO

To allow for tailored dosing and overcome swallowing difficulties, compounded liquid medication is often required in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of oral suspensions compounded with SyrSpend SF PH4 and the commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients azathioprine (powder) 50 mg/mL, azathioprine (from tablets) 50 mg/mL, clonidine hydrochloride (powder) 0.1 mg/mL, clopidogrel bisulfate (from tablets) 5 mg/mL, ethambutol hydrochloride (powder) 50 mg/mL, ethambutol hydrochloride (from tablets) 50 mg/mL, ethambutol hydrochloride (powder) 100 mg/mL, griseofulvin (powder) 25 mg/mL, hydralazine hydrochloride (powder) 4 mg/mL, nitrofurantoin (powder) 10 mg/mL, and thioguanine (powder) 2.5 mg/mL. Suspensions were compounded at the concentrations listed above and stored at controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Stability was assessed by measuring the percentage recovery at 0 day (baseline), and at 7 days, 14 days, 30 days, 60 days, and 90 days. Active pharmaceutical ingredients quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography, via a stability-indicating method. The following oral suspensions compounded using SyrSpend SF PH4 as the vehicle showed a beyond-use date of 90 days when stored both at room or refrigerated temperatures: clonidine hydrochloride 0.1 mg/mL, ethambutol hydrochloride 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL, griseofulvin 25 mg/mL, nitrofurantoin 10 mg/mL, and thioguanine 2.5 mg/mL, all compounded from the active pharmaceutical ingredients in powder form. Suspensions compounded using the active pharmaceutical ingredients from tablets presented a lower beyond-use date: 30 days for ethambutol hydrochloride 50 mg/mL and hydralazine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, stored at both temperatures, and for clopidogrel bisulfate 5 mg/mL when stored only at refrigerated temperature. Azathioprine suspensions showed a beyond-use date of 14 days when compounded using active pharmaceutical ingredients in powder form at both temperatures. This suggests that SyrSpend SF PH4 is suitable for compounding active pharmaceutical ingredients from different pharmacological classes.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/farmacologia , Clonidina , Griseofulvina/química , Tioguanina , Administração Oral , Azatioprina/química , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Clonidina/química , Clonidina/farmacologia , Clopidogrel/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Etambutol/química , Humanos , Hidralazina/química , Nitrofurantoína/química , Amido/química , Suspensões , Tioguanina/química , Tioguanina/farmacologia
20.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126901, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387904

RESUMO

Enhanced nitrate removal from the secondary effluent in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential for avoiding water eutrophication. To this end, a vertical baffled solid-phase denitrification reactor (VBSDR) was developed using a starch and polycaprolactone (PCL) blend plate (S-PCL) as a carbon source and biofilm carrier. In this study, we evaluated the denitrification performance and microbial diversity of the VBSDR. The results of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), carbon leaching experiment, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the S-PCL structure can be attached and degraded more rapidly. Furthermore, the denitrification performance under varied operational conditions, i.e., influent nitrate loading rate (NLR) and operating temperature, was also investigated. Herein, when treating low C/N ratio and low-strength wastewater, a high denitrification rate (DR) [0.33 gN/(L·d)] was achieved. The effect of temperature on DR can be described by the Arrhenius-type equation, which shows that low temperature has a negative influence on DR and nitrate removal efficiency. Furthermore, DR was simultaneously affected by the NLR and temperature. The microbial diversity and community structure were determined by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The special carbon source led to Acidovorax (denitrifying bacteria) and Flavobacterium (hydrolysis acidifying bacteria) being the VBSDR biofilm's most predominant functional bacteria at the genus level.


Assuntos
Poliésteres/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Carbono/química , Comamonadaceae , Desnitrificação , Nitratos/química , Nitrogênio/química , Amido/química , Temperatura , Águas Residuárias/química
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