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1.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205686, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359390

RESUMO

Biogenic amines modulate a range of social behaviours, including sociability and mechanisms of group cohesion, in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we tested if the biogenic amines modulate honey bee (Apis mellifera) sociability and nestmate affiliation. We examined the consequences of treatments with biogenic amines, agonists and antagonists on a bee's approach to, and subsequent social interactions with, conspecifics in both naturally hive-reared bees and isolated bees. We used two different treatment methods. Bees were first treated topically with compounds dissolved in the solvent dimethylformamide (dMF) applied to the dorsal thorax, but dMF had a significant effect on the locomotion and behaviour of the bees during the behavioural test that interfered with their social responses. Our second method used microinjection to deliver biogenic amines to the head capsule via the ocellar tract. Microinjection of dopamine and a dopamine antagonist had strong effects on bee sociability, likelihood of interaction with bees, and nestmate affiliation. Octopamine treatment reduced social interaction with other bees, and serotonin increased the likelihood of social interactions. HPLC measurements showed that isolation reduced brain levels of biogenic amines compared to hive-reared bees. Our findings suggest that dopamine is an important neurochemical component of social motivation in bees. This finding advances a comparative understanding of the processes of social evolution.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Abelhas/fisiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/administração & dosagem , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Química Encefálica/fisiologia , Microinjeções
2.
Neuron ; 97(4): 769-785, 2018 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470969

RESUMO

Attention is critical to high-level cognition and attention deficits are a hallmark of neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Although years of research indicates that distinct neuromodulators influence attentional control, a mechanistic account that traverses levels of analysis (cells, circuits, behavior) is missing. However, such an account is critical to guide the development of next-generation pharmacotherapies aimed at forestalling or remediating the global burden associated with disorders of attention. Here, we summarize current neuroscientific understanding of how attention affects single neurons and networks of neurons. We then review key results that have informed our understanding of how neuromodulation shapes these neuron and network properties and thereby enables the appropriate allocation of attention to relevant external or internal events. Finally, we highlight areas where we believe hypotheses can be formulated and tackled experimentally in the near future, thereby critically increasing our mechanistic understanding of how attention is implemented at the cellular and network levels.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/fisiologia , Animais , Dopamina/fisiologia , Humanos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/fisiologia , Serotonina/fisiologia
3.
Riv Psichiatr ; 52(5): 175-179, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105699

RESUMO

Background: Aggression is a behaviour with evolutionary origins, but in today's society it is often both destructive and maladaptive. Increase of aggressive behaviour has been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses, and it represents a clinical challenge for mental healthcare provider. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviours, including violence, thus representing a serious public health concern. Aggression is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Moreover, it has an effect on healthcare use and costs in terms of longer length of stay, more readmissions and higher drug use. Materials and methods: In this review, based on a selective search of 2010-2016 pertinent literature on PubMed, we analyze and summarize information from original articles, reviews, and book chapters about aggression and psychiatric disorders, discussing neurobiological basis and therapy of aggressive behaviour. Results: A great challenge has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately improve clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. The great heterogeneity of aggressive behaviour still hampers our understanding of its causal mechanisms. Still, over the past years, the identification of specific subtypes of aggression has released possibilities for new and individualized treatment approaches. Conclusions: Neuroimaging studies may help to further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behaviour. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. These combined approaches could improve treatment efficacy. As current pharmacological and therapeutic interventions are effective but imperfect, new insights into the neurobiology of aggression will reveal novel avenues for treatment of this destructive and costly behaviour.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Agressão/classificação , Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Induzidos por Álcool/fisiopatologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Monoaminoxidase/fisiologia , Neuroimagem , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Agitação Psicomotora/fisiopatologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27653804

RESUMO

Psychiatry faces fundamental challenges: based on a syndrome-based nosology, it presently lacks clinical tests to infer on disease processes that cause symptoms of individual patients and must resort to trial-and-error treatment strategies. These challenges have fueled the recent emergence of a novel field-computational psychiatry-that strives for mathematical models of disease processes at physiological and computational (information processing) levels. This review is motivated by one particular goal of computational psychiatry: the development of 'computational assays' that can be applied to behavioral or neuroimaging data from individual patients and support differential diagnosis and guiding patient-specific treatment. Because the majority of available pharmacotherapeutic approaches in psychiatry target neuromodulatory transmitters, models that infer (patho)physiological and (patho)computational actions of different neuromodulatory transmitters are of central interest for computational psychiatry. This article reviews the (many) outstanding questions on the computational roles of neuromodulators (dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, and noradrenaline), outlines available evidence, and discusses promises and pitfalls in translating these findings to clinical applications. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1420. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1420 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Acetilcolina/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dopamina/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Norepinefrina/fisiologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Serotonina/fisiologia
5.
Med Monatsschr Pharm ; 39(9): 371-6, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956511

RESUMO

Bipolar disorders are quite common (lifetime prevalence 1­2 %) and have a substantial genetic risk (total heritability about 80 %). However, the contribution of individual genes to the total genetic risk is very small. Accordingly, no specific genes are known which show a larger contribution. Nevertheless, many of the known genes involved encode for proteins important for neural plasticity, mitochondrial function, dopaminergic neurotransmission and calcium channels. Similarly, the few data about neurobiological alterations in the brains of bipolar patients also point into the same direction. However, these observations are not very specific. A possible exception might be mitochondrial dysfunction seen in bipolar patients, which could integrate several of the other findings into one concept. The pharmacology of the drugs used to treat bipolar disorders is also not pointing to one common mechanism of action. While the mechanisms of action of antidepressants and antipsychotics probably are not different from the mechanisms relevant to treat depression and schizophrenia, the mechanisms of the anticonvulsants used in bipolar disorders (valproic acid, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) are probably different from their mechanism of action as anticonvulsant drugs. More likely, these drugs improve neuronal plasticity similarly to lithium and antidepressants.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Canais de Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio/fisiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Compostos de Lítio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
6.
Neural Plast ; 2015: 658918, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26380118

RESUMO

The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Muscarínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Larva , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Odorantes , Receptores Muscarínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Muscarínicos/genética
7.
Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung ; 62(2): 93-108, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132831

RESUMO

The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena synthesize, store and secrete biogenic amines (histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, dopamine, melatonin) and also can take up amines from the milieu. It also has (G-protein-coupled) receptors (binding sites) for these amines as well, as second messengers. The factors infuencing the mentioned processes are shown. For certain amines the genes and the coded enzymes are demonstrated. The amines influence phagocytosis, cell division, ciliary regeneration, glucose metabolism and chemotaxis. There are interhormone actions between the amines, and between the amines and other hormones produced by Tetrahymena. The critical review discusses the role of amines in the early stages of evolution and compares this to their functions in mammals. It tries to give answer how and why biogenic amines were selected to hormones, and why new functions formed for them in higher ranked animals, preserving also the ancient ones.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Tetrahymena/fisiologia , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Cílios/fisiologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Dopamina/fisiologia , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Epinefrina/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Histamina/metabolismo , Histamina/fisiologia , Hormônios/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Melatonina/fisiologia , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Serotonina/fisiologia , Tetrahymena/genética , Tetrahymena/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Pharmacogenomics ; 16(5): 523-39, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25916523

RESUMO

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent syndromes, without evident underlying organic causes. Their pathogenesis is multifactorial in nature, with a combination of environmental and genetic factors contributing to their clinical manifestations, for which most of current treatments are not satisfactory. It is acknowledged that amine mediators (noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin) play pivotal regulatory actions on gut functions and visceral sensation. In addition, drugs of therapeutic interest for FGIDs act on these transmitter pathways. The present article reviews current knowledge on the impact of genetics and pharmacogenetics of aminergic pathways on FGID pathophysiology, clinical presentations, symptom severity and medical management, in an attempt of highlighting the most relevant evidence and point out issues that should be addressed in future investigations.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Neurotransmissores/genética , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Farmacogenética , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos
9.
Biol Lett ; 11(3)2015 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25808001

RESUMO

Anthropogenic accumulation of metals such as manganese is a well-established health risk factor for vertebrates. By contrast, the long-term impact of these contaminants on invertebrates is mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that manganese ingestion alters brain biogenic amine levels in honeybees and fruit flies. Furthermore, we show that manganese exposure negatively affects foraging behaviour in the honeybee, an economically important pollinator. Our findings indicate that in addition to its direct impact on human health, the common industrial contaminant manganese might also have indirect environmental and economical impacts via the modulation of neuronal and behavioural functions in economically important insects.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Manganês/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Química Encefálica/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
10.
Curr Pharm Des ; 20(31): 5046-59, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24345263

RESUMO

Attentional set-shifting tasks have been used as a measure of human fronto-executive function for over 60 years. The major contribution these tasks have made has been the quantification of cognitive deficits associated with human pathologies such as schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and dementias related to Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases. Thirteen years ago an intradimensional/extradimensional attentional set-shifting task was developed for rats. Since then, there have been over 70 publications detailing the effects of various manipulations on task performance in rats, and 17 publications describing adaptations of the task for mice. Much of this literature has focused on animal models of neuropathology and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia and other human conditions. Altogether, these results have elucidated the roles of multiple neurotransmitters in the manifestation of cognitive deficits, and their subsequent amelioration, including dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine and noradrenaline. However, the fundamental promise of the attentional set-shifting task, to measure cognitive flexibility in humans and rodents in a formally analogous way, has often been under investigated and over simplified. This review explores the research that led to the development of the rat attentional set-shifting task, and how subsequent use of the task has expanded our understanding of the psychological and neurological underpinnings of discrimination and reversal learning, as well as the formation, maintenance and shifting of attentional set.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Discriminação Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Reversão de Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Roedores , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Animais , Atenção/fisiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Reversão de Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Roedores/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
11.
Brain Behav Evol ; 82(4): 220-36, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24281765

RESUMO

The ecological dominance of ants has to a great extent been achieved through their collective action and complex social organization. Ants provide diverse model systems to examine the neural underpinnings of individual behavior and group action that contribute to their evolutionary success. Core elements of ant colony structure such as reproductive and ergonomic division of labor, task specialization, and social integration are beginning to be understood in terms of cellular neuroanatomy and neurochemistry. In this review we discuss the neuroethology of colony organization by focusing on the role of biogenic amines in the control of social behavior in ants. We examine the role of neuromodulation in significant sociobiological characteristics of ants, including reproductive hierarchies, colony foundation, social food flow, nestmate recognition, territoriality, and size- and age-related sensory perception and task performance as well as the involvement of monoamines in collective intelligence, the ultimate key to the global dominance of these remarkable superorganisms. We conclude by suggesting future directions for the analysis of the aminergic regulation of behavior and social complexity in ants.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Social
12.
Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol ; 49(2): 111-7, 2013.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23789396

RESUMO

In smooth muscles of mollusc Anodonta cygnea, hormones produce regulatory effects on the adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling system via receptors of the serpentine (biogenic amine, isoproterenol, glucagon) and of tyrosine kinase (insulin) types. Intracellular mechanisms of their action are interconnected. Use of hormones, their antagonists, and pertussis toxin at the combined action of insulin and biogenic amines or of glucagon on the AC activity allows revealing possible intersection points in mechanisms of their action. The combined effect of insulin and serotonin or of glucagon leads to a decrease of stimulation of AC by these hormones, whereas at action of insulin and isoproterenol the AC-stimulatory effect of insulin is blocked, while the AC-inhibitory effect of isoproterenol is preserved both in the presence and in the absence of the non-hydrolyzed GTP analog - guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp). Specific blocking of the AC-stimulatory serotonin effect by cyproheptadine - an antagonist of serotonin receptors - did not affect stimulation of AC by insulin. Beta-adrenoblockers (propranolol and alprenolol) interfered with inhibition of the AC activity by isoproterenol, but did not change the AC stimulation by insulin. Pertussis toxin blocked the AC-inhibitory effect of isoproterenol and attenuated the AC-stimulatory effect of insulin. Thus, in muscles of the mollusc Anodonta cygnea there have been revealed negative interrelations between the AC system, which are realized at the combined effect of insulin and serotonin or of glucagon, probably at the level of receptor of the serpentine type (serotonin, glucagon), while at action of insulin and isoproterenol - at the level of interaction of G1 protein and AC.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Anodonta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminas Biogênicas/farmacologia , Glucagon/farmacologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Adenilil Ciclases , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Animais , Anodonta/enzimologia , Anodonta/fisiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/administração & dosagem , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Glucagon/fisiologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/fisiologia , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
13.
J Insect Physiol ; 59(9): 974-82, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23321479

RESUMO

Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most significant biting fly pests affecting cattle. Two sperm staining techniques were adapted successfully to reveal the morphology of stable fly sperm, for the first time, and determine successful mating in females through the assessment of sperm transfer. This approach was also applied to assess sperm transfer by males treated with different doses of reserpine. Mating or sperm transfer did not occur in flies during the first 3 days after emergence. Thereafter, the percentage of females that mated increased with age. Reserpine treatment of males reduced sperm transfer in a dose-dependent manner. Older males were more sensitive to reserpine treatment than younger flies. Reserpine treatment of 5 days old females reduced the number of eggs laid, but had no effect on egg-hatching rates. Results of immunoreactivity (IR) experiments indicated that serotonin in the neuronal processes innervating male testes was completely depleted by reserpine within 5h after treatment. This effect was transient as the serotonin immunoreactive signal was recovered in 33.3% of the males at 1 day post-treatment and in 94.4% of the flies at 3 days post-treatment. The results of this study concur with previous findings in other insect species and extend our knowledge of the critical roles biogenic amines play in mating and oviposition behaviors of the stable fly. The work could provide a foundation to further characterize the specific roles of individual biogenic amines and their receptors in stable fly reproduction.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Muscidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Reserpina , Serotonina/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/citologia , Testículo/inervação
14.
Neuropharmacology ; 67: 25-31, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23142736

RESUMO

Fruit flies and humans display remarkably similar behavioral responses to ethanol intoxication. Here we report that loss-of-function mutations in the CG9894 gene (now named Bacchus or Bacc) attenuate ethanol sensitivity in flies. Bacc encodes a broadly expressed nuclear protein with a motif similar to ribosomal RNA-binding domains. The ethanol-related activity of Bacc was mapped to Tdc2-GAL4 neurons. Genetic and pharmacological analyses suggest that ethanol resistance of Bacc mutants is caused by increased tyramine ß-hydroxylase (tßh) activity that results in excessive conversion of tyramine (TA) to octopmaine (OA). Thus, tßh and its negative regulator Bacc define a novel biogenic amine-mediated signaling pathway that regulates fly ethanol sensitivity. Importantly, elevated tbh activity has been shown to promote fighting behavior, raising the possibility that the Bacc/tbh pathway may regulate complex traits in addition to acute ethanol response.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Tiramina/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Neurochem Int ; 62(1): 122-36, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23059446

RESUMO

Pesticides are substances that have been widely used throughout the world to kill, repel, or control organisms such as certain forms of plants or animals considered as pests. Depending on their type, dose, and persistence in the environment, they can have impact even on non-target species such as beneficial insects (honeybees) in different ways, including reduction in their survival rate and interference with their reproduction process. Honeybee Apis mellifera is a major pollinator and has substantial economical and ecological values. Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is a mysterious phenomenon in which adult honeybee workers suddenly abandon from their hives, leaving behind food, brood, and queen. It is lately drawing a lot of attention due to pollination crisis as well as global agriculture and medical demands. If the problem of CCD is not resolved soon enough, this could have a major impact on food industry affecting world's economy a big time. Causes of CCD are not known. In this overview, I discuss CCD, biogenic amines-based-pesticides (neonicotinoids and formamidines), and their disruptive effects on biogenic amine signaling causing olfactory dysfunction in honeybees. According to my hypothesis, chronic exposure of biogenic amines-based-pesticides to honeybee foragers in hives and agricultural fields can disrupt neural cholinergic and octopaminergic signaling. Abnormality in biogenic amines-mediated neuronal signaling impairs their olfactory learning and memory, therefore foragers do not return to their hive - a possible cause of CCD. This overview is an attempt to discuss a hypothetical link among biogenic amines-based pesticides, olfactory learning and memory, and CCD.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Colapso da Colônia/induzido quimicamente , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polinização , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Olfato/fisiologia
16.
Neurosci Lett ; 503(2): 120-4, 2011 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21875647

RESUMO

1-(7-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinolin-4-YL)-cyclohexanol is a novel putative trace amine receptor modulator hypothesized to be useful for treatment-resistant depression. In our previous study, we have demonstrated the antidepressant-like effect of this molecule in mouse forced swim and tail suspension tests and shown to act via modulating the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. The present study attempts to explore the involvement of l-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of 1-(7-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinolin-4-YL)-cyclohexanol in the mouse forced swim test. The antidepressant-like action of 1-(7-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinolin-4-YL)-cyclohexanol (8 mg/kg, i.p) was reversed by pretreatment with L-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p.), a nitric oxide precursor. In contrast, pretreatment with methylene blue (a soluble guanlyate cyclase inhibitor and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor) or 7-nitroindazole (a specific neuronal NOS inhibitor) potentiated the antidepressant-like effect of sub-effective dose of 1-(7-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinolin-4-YL)-cyclohexanol (2mg/kg, i.p.) in this test model. Furthermore, the antidepressant-like effect of this molecule (8 mg/kg, i.p.) was reversed by sildenafil (5mg/kg, i.p.), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In conclusion, the antidepressant-like action of 1-(7-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinolin-4-YL)-cyclohexanol involved L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophospate signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Arginina/fisiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , GMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Cicloexanóis/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Arginina/farmacologia , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Guanilato Ciclase/antagonistas & inibidores , Indazóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Citrato de Sildenafila , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Natação/psicologia
17.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 19(5): 1613-22, 2011 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21333543

RESUMO

This study examines the inactivation of the enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) by methylglyoxal (MG) and the eventual protection exerted by endogenous amines. To determine the protective effect of amines, the rate constant of the reaction of MG with the amino group of N-α-acetyl-lysine, carnosine, spermine and spermidine was measured at pH 7.4, and the behavior of endogenous amines was analyzed on the basis of quantum chemical reactivity descriptors. A 63% reduction in the enzyme activity was found upon incubation of G6PD with MG at pH 7.4. The inactivation of G6PD was even larger when the pH was increased to 9.4, revealing a weak protective effect by the amines. The results suggest that some basic residues of G6PD exhibit an anomalous reactivity, which likely reflects a shift in the standard pK(a) value due to the local environment in the enzyme. Under the experimental conditions used in the assays, this hypothesis was corroborated by mass spectrometry analysis, which points out that modification of Lys182 in the binding site is responsible for the inactivation of G6PD by MG. These results emphasize the need to search for more effective antiglycating agents, which can compete with basic amino acid residues possessing enhanced reactivity in proteins.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lisina/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/farmacologia , Aminas Biogênicas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Lisina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20836008

RESUMO

The scents of mammals are complex blends of natural products that reveal a wealth of individual information. Many mammals can decipher these scent codes to discern the gender, age, endocrine status, social status, and genotype of conspecifics using dedicated sensory receptors in their olfactory system. Among these social odors are pheromones, chemicals that trigger innate behaviors and physiological responses. Here, we review classes of mammal-derived natural products that influence behavior through activation of the olfactory system.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Condutos Olfatórios/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Androsterona/metabolismo , Androsterona/farmacologia , Androsterona/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/farmacologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Humanos , Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Odorantes , Condutos Olfatórios/metabolismo , Percepção Olfatória/genética , Feromônios/farmacologia , Feromônios/fisiologia , Olfato/genética
20.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21434400

RESUMO

The data concerning neurophysiological and neurotransmitter mechanisms of two principal kinds of inhibition of behavior is carried out: the inborn genetically determined inhibition and that developed in the course of training. On the basis of the experiments performed by the author and the literature on general neurophysiology the conclusion is made that development of inhibition of behavior during training (i.e. internal inhibition, including "latent inhibition") is determined by the relative strengthening of inhibitory hyperpolarization processes either locally (in a conditioned stimulus analyzer) or globally in the brain cortex and other brain structures during intensification of the inhibitory state (profound inhibition of a reflex and sleep). The main neurotransmitter in development of internal inhibition is gamma-aminobutyric acid. Inhibition of behavior without preliminary training arises either during the action of superstrong stimuli, (exceeding the maximum value inhibition) or during interaction of two and more active systems. A stronger one of these two systems suppresses another one (external inhibition, dominant inhibition, "freezing", "prepulse inhibition", etc.). These kinds of inhibition develop on the background of EEG activation, which suggests participation in their realization of reticular structures and corresponding neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, noradrenalin, dopamine and serotonin). Behavior pathology causes a break of the balanced interaction between the excitation and inhibition in the central nervous system. This affects both genetically determined forms of behavior inhibition and the learned internal inhibition.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Transtornos Mentais , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Inibição Neural/genética
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