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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361796

RESUMO

Meat is a rich source of energy that provides high-value animal protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of carbohydrates. Globally, different types of meats are consumed to fulfill nutritional requirements. However, the increasing burden on the livestock industry has triggered the mixing of high-price meat species with low-quality/-price meat. This work aimed to differentiate different meat samples on the basis of metabolites. The metabolic difference between various meat samples was investigated through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis approaches like principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In total, 37 metabolites were identified in the gluteal muscle tissues of cow, goat, donkey and chicken using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. PCA was found unable to completely differentiate between meat types, whereas OPLS-DA showed an apparent separation and successfully differentiated samples from all four types of meat. Lactate, creatine, choline, acetate, leucine, isoleucine, valine, formate, carnitine, glutamate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and α-mannose were found as the major discriminating metabolites between white (chicken) and red meat (chevon, beef and donkey). However, inosine, lactate, uracil, carnosine, format, pyruvate, carnitine, creatine and acetate were found responsible for differentiating chevon, beef and donkey meat. The relative quantification of differentiating metabolites was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Our results showed that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool for the identification of novel signatures (potential biomarkers) to characterize meats from different sources and could potentially be used for quality control purposes in order to differentiate different meat types.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Colina/análise , Creatina/análise , Equidae , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Manose/análise , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299600

RESUMO

Amino acids present ergogenic action, helping to increase, protect, and restore the muscular system of young athletes. Moreover, the encapsulation of five relevant amino acids in chocolate pellet form will appeal to them, facilitating their daily consumption. A reliable HPLC fluorimetric method was developed to detect and quantitatively determine L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-Histidine, L-Valine, and ß-Alanine in chocolate using aniline as an internal standard. Experimental design methodology was used to investigate and optimize the clean-up procedure of the samples. Therefore, three extraction techniques (solid-phase extraction (by two different SPE cartridges) and liquid-solid extraction (LSE)) were compared and evaluated. The LOQ values in chocolate varied from 24 to 118 ng/g (recovery 89.7-95.6%, %RSD < 2.5). Amino acids were pre-column derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), while derivatization parameters were thoroughly investigated by experimental design methodology. The analysis was performed by HPLC-fluorescence (emission: λ = 455 nm, excitation: λ = 340 nm) method using a C18 column and a mixture of phosphate buffer (pH = 2.8; 20 mM)-methanol as a mobile phase in gradient elution. The method was validated (r2 > 0.999, %RSD < 2, LOD: 10 ng mL-1 for histidine and leucine, 2 ng mL-1 for alanine and valine, and 4 ng mL-1 for Isoleucine) according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Chocolate/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200908

RESUMO

Free amino acids (FAAs) are important regulators of key pathways necessary for growth, development, and immunity. Data on FAAs in human milk (HM) and their roles in infant development are limited. We investigated the levels of FAAs and total amino acids (TAA, i.e., the sum of conjugated amino acids and FAAs) in HM in relation to infant and maternal characteristics and immunological conditions. FAA and TAA levels in HM sampled at 6 weeks (n = 671) and 6 months (n = 441) of lactation were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Child growth was ascertained at 4-5 weeks and at 6-7 months of age. Child allergy and lower respiratory tract infections were assessed in the first years of life. Associations of amino acid (AA) levels in HM with child growth and health outcomes were determined by Spearman correlation and modified Poisson regression, respectively. Free glutamine, glutamate, and serine in 6-week HM positively correlated with infant weight gain in the first 4-5 weeks of age. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) were negatively correlated with free glutamine and asparagine in 6-week and 6-month HM and positively correlated with the sum of TAAs in 6-month HM, but significance was lost following confounder adjustment. Free glutamine was lower in 6-month HM of mothers with an allergy (either active or non-active). No consistent associations were found between FAAs in HM and child health outcomes. However, potential negative associations were observed between specific FAAs and the risk of food allergy. These results suggest that specific FAAs play a role in infant growth. Moreover, these findings warrant further investigations into the relation of FAAs in HM with infant health outcomes and maternal allergy.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Saúde do Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206490

RESUMO

Dietary content during pregnancy is important because it is necessary for the growth of the fetus. With the assumption that the nutritional status of the fetus can be monitored by measuring amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid, we investigated whether the habitual dietary intake of pregnant women affected the composition of the amniotic fluid and the significance of performing amniotic fluid analysis. The subjects were 34 mothers who delivered full-term babies by cesarean section. Three biological samples were collected from the mothers: blood, cord blood, and amniotic fluid. At the same time, the mothers' prenatal nutritional intake information was also recorded. When the amino acid contents of the samples were compared with the mothers' nutrient intake, many amino acids in the amniotic fluid were positively correlated with lipid intake, but not with protein intake. There was a negative correlation between lipid intake and carbohydrate intake, and the amino acid contents of the amniotic fluid were also negatively correlated with carbohydrate intake. The results of this study were consistent with those found in animal models, suggesting that the analysis of amniotic fluid may be a useful method to investigate the effects of habitual diet during human pregnancy on the fetus.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Líquido Amniótico/química , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/química , Adulto , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Avaliação Nutricional , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201703

RESUMO

Global protein consumption has been increasing for decades due to changes in demographics and consumer shifts towards higher protein intake to gain health benefits in performance nutrition and appetite regulation. Plant-derived proteins may provide a more environmentally sustainable alternative to animal-derived proteins. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate, for the first time, the acute effects on glycaemic indices, gut hormones, and subjective appetite ratings of two high-quality, plant-derived protein isolates (potato and rice), in comparison to a whey protein isolate in a single-blind, triple-crossover design study with nine male participants (30.8 ± 9.3 yrs). Following a 12 h overnight fast, participants consumed an equal volume of the three isocaloric protein shakes on different days, with at least a one-week washout period. Glycaemic indices and gut hormones were measured at baseline, then at 30, 60, 120, 180 min at each visit. Subjective palatability and appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) over the 3 h, at each visit. This data showed significant differences in insulin secretion with an increase in whey (+141.8 ± 35.1 pmol/L; p = 0.011) and rice (-64.4 ± 20.9 pmol/L; p = 0.046) at 30 min compared to potato protein. A significantly larger total incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was observed with whey versus potato and rice with p < 0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively. There was no significant difference observed in average appetite perception between the different proteins. In conclusion, this study suggests that both plant-derived proteins had a lower insulinaemic response and improved glucose maintenance compared to whey protein.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Adulto , Aminoácidos/análise , Apetite , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/sangue , Saciação , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
6.
Se Pu ; 39(5): 472-477, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227331

RESUMO

In recent years, goat milk powder and camel milk powder have gained popularity among consumers. Due to their potential low allergenicity, these milk powders have become a substitute for breast milk, especially for infants, and for people with lactose intolerance. In this paper, a method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 18 amino acids (AAs), histidine (His), serine (Ser), arginine (Arg), glycine (Gly), aspartic acid (Asp) combined with asparagine (Asn), glutamic (Glu), glutamine (Gln), threonine (Thr), alanine (Ala), proline (Pro), lysine (Lys), tyrosine (Tyr), methionine (Met), valine (Val), isoleucine (Iso), leucine (Leu), and dimer of cysteine (Cys) combined with cysteine (L-Cys-Cys), phenylalanine (Phe), taurine (Tau) in milk, goat milk, and camel milk power. The aim of the research was to compare the three kinds of milk powder from the perspective of the constituent amino acids. Therefore, the amino acid compositions and contents were compared. Thus, 2.0 g of the sample was accurately weighed, added to 16 mL H2O, and mixed thoroughly. Then, 200 mg of the sample was weighed in a glass tube with a stream of nitrogen to displace oxygen. The samples were hydrolyzed in HCl for 24 h at 110 ℃. Then, the amino acids were pre-column derivatized by 6-aminoquinoline-n-hydroxysuccinimide carbamate (AQC). In precolumn derivatization combined with reverse-phase chromatography, both 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) can react with primary amines and secondary amines. However, the derivatization time is approximately 1 h. In contrast, the derivatization time of AQC was greatly shortened. Derivatization led to the conversion of free amino acids into highly stable derivatives, which were separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with UV detection at 260 nm and quantified by the external standard method. The samples were separated on a BEH C18 column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The calibration curves showed good linearity, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the 18 amino acids were 1.3-2.5 (mg/100 g) and 3.9-7.5 (mg/100 g), respectively. Quality control samples of SRM 1849a were used as the reference material. The results were in accordance with the content range. The RSDs ranged from 2.04% to 3.65%. Furthermore, the developed method was successfully applied to determine the types and concentrations of amino acids in 11 samples purchased from local markets in Shanghai and online shops. Abundant amino acids were detected in the three types of milk powder. While all the milk powder samples contained 18 types of amino acids, Tau was not detected in some of the goat and camel milk powder samples. Total essential amino acids (TEAA) in total amino acids (TAA) of milk powder was the highest of all. The TEAA values of TAA in the goat and camel milk powders were similar. The developed method requires only 22 min for the separation of 18 amino acids. This method is suitable for the large-scale analysis of milk powder samples, and it demonstrates high sensitivity and accuracy for the determination and confirmation of the 18 amino acids in different types of milk powders.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Leite , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Leite/química , Pós
7.
Food Chem ; 362: 130257, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118510

RESUMO

The sensory features of white peony teas (WPTs) significantly change with storage age; however, their comprehensive associations with composition are still unclear. This study aimed to clarify the sensory quality-related chemical changes in WPTs during storage. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on widely targeted metabolomics analysis was performed on WPTs of 1-13 years storage ages. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to correlate metabolites with sensory traits including color difference values and taste attributes. 323 sensory trait-related metabolites were obtained from six key modules via WGCNA, verified by multiple factor analysis. The decline and transformation of abundant flavonoids, tannins and amino acids were related to the reduced astringency, umami and increased browning of tea infusions. In contrast, the total contents of phenolic acids and organic acids increased with storage. This study provides a high-throughput method for the association of chemical compounds with various sensory traits of foods.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Paeonia/química , Paladar , Chá/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Adstringentes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Tempo
8.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3046-3060, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146413

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the biological properties of peptide fractions isolated from dried fermented dairy products (jameed) as influenced by processing. Peptide fractions were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) from salted (Sa) and unsalted (Us) cow milk jameed after drying the fermented curd by sun drying (Sd) or freeze-drying (Fd) and were characterized for their antioxidant capacity and inhibitory activity toward angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and α-amylase. Sd samples showed more numerous peptide peaks in RP-HPLC chromatograms than Fd samples, regardless of the salt content. High antioxidant activity was evidenced in several peptide fractions from FdUs jameed (including fractions 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10), SdUs jameed (1, 2, 5, 7, and 9), and FdSa jameed (2, 5, 6, and 9). By contrast, peptide fractions from SdSa (1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 9), SdUs (4, 5, and 10), and FdUs (5, 6, and 8) jameed displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity. Similarly, the highest inhibition of α-amylase was obtained with fractions from SdSa (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9), SdUs (2 and 6), and FdUs (1, 7 and 9) jameed. A significant negative correlation was evidenced between antioxidant activity and anti-α-amylase activity of peptide fractions from SdSa jameed. These findings demonstrate that cow milk jameed is a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant, anti-ACE, and anti-α-amylase properties in vitro, which can be tailored by adjusting the salt content and the drying conditions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study shows that cow milk jameed, a staple fermented food in several Mediterranean countries, can serve as a useful source of multifunctional bioactive peptides with potential antioxidant, hypotensive, and hypoglycemic effects, which may help prevent and manage chronic health conditions such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. The bioactivities of certain peptide fractions were enhanced by lowering the salt content of jameed or by the drying method. The relatively simple RP-HPLC method described in this study can be used to isolate the peptide fractions of interest for further characterization and use as functional ingredients.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Leite/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Bovinos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1651: 462336, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153732

RESUMO

The development and optimization of cell culture media for biotech applications is a fundamental step of process development. The composition of cell culture media requires an ideal blend of amino acids, vitamins, nucleosides, lipids, carbohydrates, trace elements and other components. The ability to monitor these constituents is required to ensure that cells receive sufficient nutrients to facilitate growth, viability and productivity. Analysis of cell culture media is challenging due to the range and diversity of compounds contained in this matrix and normally requires time consuming methods. A rapid, simple and sensitive microfluidic chip CE-MS method is described to monitor amino acids in chemically defined cell culture media from a Chinese hamster ovary cell line cultured over a period of 10 days. The described platform enabled the separation of 16 amino acids in less than 2 minutes and without the requirement for extensive sample preparation. The analytical parameters evaluated were precision, linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The majority of essential amino acids were present in cell culture growth in high concentrations compared to non-essential amino acids. Over the course of the 10 days cell culture the concentration of certain amino acids declined by up to 100%. Microfluidic chip based CE-MS methods can be used effectively to obtain the consumption rates of amino acids in cell culture media during cell growth and to perform at-line monitoring and screening of cell culture status.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Meios de Cultura/química , Eletroforese Capilar , Espectrometria de Massas , Microfluídica/métodos , Animais , Células CHO , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Microfluídica/instrumentação
10.
Food Chem ; 362: 130192, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090042

RESUMO

Seven enzyme groups were applied to hydrolyze broken fruiting bodies of morel mushroom (Morchella sextelata) to extract umami substances. Physical-chemical properties, as well as compositions and concentrations of quintessential umami compounds of morel hydrolysates were analyzed. Electronic tongue and electronic nose were used to evaluate the sensory characteristics. The results suggested that peptides below 3 kDa showed the highest correlation with umami taste. Morel hydrolysate obtained from Neutrase-Flavourzyme (NF) combination contained the most contents of small peptides (<3 kDa), free amino acids (224.83 ± 0.87 mg/g), as well as flavor 5'-nucleotides (4.84 ± 0.32 mg/g), giving the best overall flavor properties. The reaction conditions of NF were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was up to 36.64%. An enzymatic hydrolysis approach was established to develop novel flavor products with high umami and low bitter taste from morel mushroom.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Enzimas/química , Aromatizantes/química , Paladar , Aminoácidos/análise , Nariz Eletrônico , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Hidrólise , Nucleotídeos/análise , Nucleotídeos/química , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química
11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(5): 1121-1134, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181071

RESUMO

Codon usage bias influences the genetic features prevalent in genomes of all the organisms. It also plays a crucial role in establishing the host-pathogen relationship. The present study elucidates the role of codon usage pattern regarding the predilection of fungal pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides towards host plant Zingiber officinale. We found a similar trend of codon usage pattern operative in plant and fungal pathogens. This concurrence might be attributed for the colonization of fungal pathogens in Z. officinale. The transcriptome of both plant and pathogens showed bias towards GC-ending codons. Natural selection and mutational pressure seem to be accountable for shaping the codon usage pattern of host and pathogen. We also identified some distinctive preferred codons in A. flavus, F. oxysporum and Z. officinale that could be regarded as signature codons for the identification of these organisms. Knowledge of favored, avoided and unique codons will help to devise strategies for reducing spice losses due to fungal pathogens.


Assuntos
Uso do Códon , Gengibre/genética , Gengibre/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Aminoácidos/análise , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/patogenicidade , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/patogenicidade , Colletotrichum/genética , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Mutação , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Seleção Genética
12.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071973

RESUMO

Recommendations towards increased consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables are well supported by epidemiological and clinical trials. However, in some specific cases, it is difficult to follow these recommendations and the use of nutraceuticals or, in the present work, a freeze-dried fruits mixture can be recommended in order to afford the optimal consumption of dietary polyphenols naturally present in fruits and vegetables. In this work we have carefully characterized a red-berry mixture in terms of polyphenol composition, encountering mainly anthocyanins, which account for a total of 2.8 mg/g as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents. Additionally, we have assayed the red-berry blend in a cell model of neurological damage by differentiating the cells and measuring the effect of red-berry polyphenols on cell viability and redox state by flow cytometry. The berry-fruit extract showed an inhibitory effect on differentiated SH-SY5Y ROS formation at a concentration as low as 250 µg/mL (33% inhibition). The results show the potential of this berry-fruit blend for its nutraceutical use in the prevention of the neurodegeneration associated with age or environmental agents.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Neurônios/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonóis/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
13.
Anal Chem ; 93(27): 9647-9655, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184887

RESUMO

The in situ search for chemical signatures of life on extraterrestrial worlds requires automated hardware capable of performing detailed compositional analysis during robotic missions of exploration. The use of electrophoretic separations in this search is particularly powerful, enabling analysis of a wide range of soluble organic compounds potentially indicative of life, as well as inorganic compounds that can serve as indicators of habitability. However, to detect this broad range of compounds with a single electrophoresis instrument, a combination of different detection modes is required. For detection of any ionizable species, including organic compounds that do not participate in terrestrial biology (i.e., "unknown unknowns"), mass spectrometry (MS) is essential. Inorganic ions, or any dissolved charged species present, can be analyzed using capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D). Additionally, for the trace analysis of compounds of key interest to astrobiology (particularly, amino acids), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection holds unique promise, due to the fact that it has the highest demonstrated sensitivity of any form of detection. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated, portable capillary electrophoresis analyzer that is capable of all these modes of detection. The prototype system developed here addresses the three most significant challenges for doing electrophoretic separations: precise sample injection, HV isolation, and automation of all operational steps. These key challenges were successfully addressed with the use of custom-designed rotor-stator valves with optimized operational sequences incorporating gas purging steps, rinses, and HV application.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar , Voo Espacial , Aminoácidos/análise , Automação , Espectrometria de Massas
14.
Food Chem ; 361: 130160, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062457

RESUMO

The quality of crustaceans' flesh has direct impact on consumers' purchase choices, with water environment and dietary nutrition being effective ways to regulate flesh quality. The aim of present study was to investigate the impacts of water salinity (low, 4 and medium, 23) and dietary lipid source (fish oil and soybean oil) on nutritional values, texture, taste and odor of flesh of mud crab. While water salinity had no significant influence on nutritional values of crab flesh, crabs fed soybean oil displayed significantly lower contents of amino acids and n-3 PUFAs in muscle. However, crabs reared at low salinity showed reduced flesh hardness, chewiness and gumminess likely related to altered myofiber structure, that impacted muscle texture. Furthermore, low salinity and dietary soybean oil weakened umami taste and aroma characteristics of crab flesh associated with decreased contents of free amino acids, flavor nucleotides, inorganic ions and odor active compounds in flesh.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Aquicultura/métodos , Braquiúros/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Salinidade , Proteínas de Frutos do Mar/análise , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073737

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the fastest growing type of diabetes, affecting between 2 to 38% of pregnancies worldwide, varying considerably depending on diagnostic criteria used and sample population studied. Adverse obstetric outcomes include an increased risk of macrosomia, and higher rates of stillbirth, instrumental delivery, and birth trauma. Metabolomics, which is a platform used to analyse and characterise a large number of metabolites, is increasingly used to explore the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic conditions such as GDM. This review aims to summarise metabolomics studies in GDM (from inception to January 2021) in order to highlight prospective biomarkers for diagnosis, and to better understand the dysfunctional metabolic pathways underlying the condition. We found that the most commonly deranged pathways in GDM include amino acids (glutathione, alanine, valine, and serine), carbohydrates (2-hydroxybutyrate and 1,5-anhydroglucitol), and lipids (phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines). We also highlight the possibility of using certain metabolites as predictive markers for developing GDM, with the use of highly stratified modelling techniques. Limitations for metabolomic research are evaluated, and future directions for the field are suggested to aid in the integration of these findings into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Aminoácidos/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Gravidez
16.
Food Chem ; 361: 129997, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029911

RESUMO

The contribution of free amino acids and thiamine to the production of potent meat aroma compounds in nitrite-reduced, dry-fermented sausages inoculated with a D. hansenii strain was the objective of this study. For this, three different sausage formulations were manufactured; a control and two formulations reduced by half in nitrate and nitrite and one of them inoculated with D. hansenii. Free amino acids, thiamine content and savoury volatile compounds were analysed. Eleven savoury volatile compounds were quantitated. Among them, the most potent compounds above their odour thresholds were 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, methional, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl-2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide. Their generation was affected by D. hansenii inoculation as shown by the decrease in methional and methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide content, and the increase of methionol. Nitrate and nitrite reduction did not significantly affect amino acid and thiamine contents.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Debaryomyces , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Odorantes/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Tiamina/análise , Fermento Seco
17.
Food Chem ; 361: 130061, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023689

RESUMO

Two collagens were made from giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) skin by using acid and pepsin extraction methods. The yields of acid-soluble and pepsin-soluble collagens were 26.9 and 58.7%, respectively. The results of spectrum, electrophoresis and amino acid analysis showed that they were type 1 collagen with two α and one ß peptides and high imino acid content. They had low solubility at a pH above 6 or salt concentration over 5%. The pepsin-soluble collagen had a better emulsion activity index. The odorants in raw skin and collagens were identified and evaluated using gas-chromatography mass-spectrometer and olfactometry methods and sensory analysis. The fishy and fatty off-odors in skin were not perceivable in the collagens. Sour, ammonia-like, and acrid off-odors were found in the collagens due to acid and enzymatic hydrolysis and protein degradation. The off-odor intensity of pepsin-soluble collagen was low. It could be considered a good and safe collagen material.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Colágeno Tipo I/química , Urodelos/metabolismo , Ácidos , Animais , Colágeno Tipo I/isolamento & purificação , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Iminoácidos/análise , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Proteólise , Pele/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2264-2275, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948957

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to identify and characterize the chemical compounds that exhibited monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like taste in the hydrolyzed bone meal produced by using flavourzyme. The free amino acids and peptides in the bone meal hydrolysate were analyzed. The results showed that the glutamic acid and the aspartic acid in the bone meal increased by 13.1 times and 14.2 times, respectively, after the flavourzyme hydrolysis. The peptides' isolation identified six MSG-like peptides in the hydrolysate, including APGPVGPAG, DAINWPTPGEIAH, FLGDEETVR, GVDEATIIEILTK, PAGPVGPVG, and VAPEEHPTL, which should contribute to the taste. The human sensory evaluation results indicated that the six peptides showed MSG-like taste, and the electronic tongue analysis indicated that the six peptides showed sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and astringency. The findings of this study demonstrated that the MSG-like taste of the bone meal hydrolysate should be attributed to the generation of MSG-like amino acids and peptides from the flavourzyme hydrolysis. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The manuscript describes the umami compounds in the bone meal hydrolysate. The findings from this study should further confirm the feasibility of using bone meal to prepare meat-flavor essence and provide a better understanding of preparing bio-source flavoring peptides, which is very important to the artificial meat development and gene breeding.


Assuntos
Minerais/química , Peptídeos/química , Paladar , Aminoácidos/análise , Produtos Biológicos/química , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Hidrólise , Carne/análise , Glutamato de Sódio/química
19.
Food Chem ; 358: 129749, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933978

RESUMO

Red lentils (Lens culinaris) present an attractive raw material for meat mimics due to its red-coloured proteins, abundance, high protein and low cost. However, data on its functional properties at various pH remain scarce. In this study, the physicochemical and functional properties of red lentil proteins (RLP) from three origins (USA, Nepal and Turkey), isolated by isoelectric precipitation, were evaluated. Amino acid profiles, water holding (ranging from 3.1 to 3.5 g/g) and oil absorption (ranging from 5.8 to 7.3 g/g) capacities of RLP samples were significantly different (p < 0.05). RLP consisted of legumin and vicilin, and comprised predominantly glutamine/glutamic acid (ranging from 8.72 to 10.55 g/100 g). Surface charge, protein solubility, foaming and emulsifying properties were the lowest and poorest at pH 5.2 (isoelectric point). Overall, good functional properties of RLP under high acidity and alkalinity conditions make it a promising protein for mimicking a wide range of meats.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta)/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Cor , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ponto Isoelétrico , Nepal , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/análise , Solubilidade , Turquia , Estados Unidos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991824

RESUMO

This work reports the development of a fast and reliable amperometric sensor for the detection of amino acids. The detector was constructed using copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) supported on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (CuNPs-RGO/GCE) and based on the application of high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Under optimized isocratic HPAEC-PAD conditions (using 40 mmol L-1 NaOH as mobile phase, flow rate of 0.30 mL min-1 and detection potential of 0.45 V vs. Pd/PdO), the linear dynamic ranges of the concentration of amino acids obtained were 0.50-50 µmol L-1 for lysine, 1.0-100 µmol L-1 for alanine, glycine and serine, and 5.0-100 µmol L-1 for leucine. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) obtained ranged from 0.10 (for lysine and leucine) to 0.50 µmol L-1 (for alanine, glycine and serine) and sensitivity varied from 6.1 (for leucine) to 21.5 nA µmol-1 L (for serine). The average recovery percentages ranged from 97% (for glycine) to 102% (for leucine and serine). The results obtained showed that the CuNPs-RGO/GCE has good long-term stability, repeatability and reproducibility; this makes the device suitable for application as an electrochemical detector. The successful application of the proposed method for the analysis of sugarcane vinasse demonstrates its suitability for separation and determination of amino acids in complex matrices.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Eletrodos , Grafite/química , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saccharum/química
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