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1.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 42(6): 126017, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585749

RESUMO

Fifteen bifidobacterial strains were obtained from faeces of Rousettus aegyptiacus; after grouping them by RAPD PCR only eight were selected and characterized. Analysis of 16S rRNA and of five housekeeping (hsp60, rpoB, clpC, dnaJ, dna G) genes revealed that these eight strains were classified into five clusters: Cluster I (RST 8 and RST 16T), Cluster II (RST 9T and RST 27), Cluster III (RST 7 and RST 11), Cluster IV (RST 19), Cluster V (RST 17) were closest to Bifidobacterium avesanii DSM 100685T (96.3%), Bifidobacterium callitrichos DSM 23973T (99.2% and 99.7%), Bifidobacterium tissieri DSM 100201T (99.7 and 99.2%), Bifidobacterium reuteri DSM 23975 T (98.9%) and Bifidobacterium myosotis DSM 100196T (99.3%), respectively. Strains in Cluster I and strain RST 9 in Cluster II could not be placed within any recognized species while the other ones were identified as known species. The average nucleotide identity values between two novel strains, RST 16T and RST 9T and their closest relatives were lower than 79% and 89%, respectively. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization values for those closest relatives were 32.5 and 42.1%, respectively. Phenotypic and genotypic tests demonstrated that strains in Cluster I and RST 9T in Cluster II represent two novel species for which the names Bifidobacterium vespertilionis sp. nov. (RST 16T=BCRC 81138T=NBRC 113380T=DSM 106025T ; RST 8=BCRC 81135=NBRC 113377) and Bifidobacterium rousetti sp. nov. (RST 9T=BCRC 81136T=NBRC 113378T=DSM 106027T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/classificação , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Composição de Bases , Bifidobacterium/química , Bifidobacterium/genética , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Egito , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Genes Essenciais/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12313-12321, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618030

RESUMO

Soybean provides essential protein and amino acids for humans and animals, while sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA), including methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys), are very limited. In this study, we constructed a high-density bin-map with 3420 bin markers using 676 857 SNPs of a recombinant-inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Kefeng no. 1 and Nannong 1138-2. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was performed for Cys, Met, SAA, and the protein content using this high-density bin-map. Twenty-five QTLs linked to these four traits were identified, and four genomic regions located on chromosomes (Chr) 07, 08, 15, and 20 were overlapped by multiple QTLs. Among them, bin 115-124 located on Chr 15 was associated with all four traits and was a novel locus with a high LOD value. These findings will provide a basis for nutritional quality improvement using marker-assisted selection breeding and clarify the genetic mechanisms of SAA and protein in soybean.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/genética , Enxofre/análise , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Soja/química
3.
Se Pu ; 37(9): 996-1003, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642305

RESUMO

A method of gradient elution ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection for simultaneous determination of twenty amino acids and six carbohydrates in soy sauce was established. The effects of column temperature, pH value of solution, and standing time were studied, and then the suitable gradient elution conditions were found for the determination. In the conditions that the flow rate is 0.25 mL/min, pH value of solution is in the range of 5.2-6.7, temperature of column is 35℃, the linear relationships of the 26 components are good and the correlation coefficients are not less than 0.995. Except glutamine, leucine, isoleucine and methionine, the limits of detection (S/N=3) of the other 22 components are less than 0.03 mg/L. The recoveries of the 26 components in soy sauce are 84.2%-109% at the spiked levels of 0.20, 0.50, 2.00 mg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) are in the range of 2.7%-7.8%. The method is efficient, easy, sensitive, and accurate for simultaneous determination of amino acids and carbohydrates in soy sauce, and can provide an effective research technique for adulterated soy sauce.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica
4.
Adv Clin Chem ; 92: 59-103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472756

RESUMO

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are a large class of genetic disorders that result from defects in enzymes involved in energy production and metabolism of nutrients. For every metabolic pathway, there are defects that can occur and potentially result in an IEM. While some defects can go undetected in one's lifetime, some have moderate to severe clinical consequences. In the latter case, the biochemical defect leads to accumulation of metabolites and byproducts that are toxic or interfere with normal biological function. Disorders of amino acid metabolism, organic acid metabolism and the urea cycle comprise a large portion of IEMs. Two essential tools required for the diagnosis of these categories of disorders are amino acid and organic acid profiling. Most all clinical laboratories offering metabolic testing perform amino acid analysis, while organic acid profiling is restricted to more specialized pediatric hospitals and reference laboratories. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of various methodologies employed for amino acid and organic acid profiling as well as specific examples to demonstrate how these techniques are applied in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis of IEMs.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Humanos
5.
Life Sci ; 234: 116778, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430454

RESUMO

AIMS: To clarify the role of the gut-brain axis in depression. MAIN METHODS: We used the iTRAQ technique to identify differential proteins in the intestine of the rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression. Significant differential proteins were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotations and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Key proteins were validated at the mRNA and protein levels. The levels of cytokines in the intestine, serum and hypothalamus were examined by ELISA. HPLC-UV was used to detect the levels of amino acids. KEY FINDINGS: In the rat intestine, 349 differential proteins (209 downregulated, 140 upregulated) were identified. GO analysis indicated that "protein complex assembly" was the first-ranked biological process. SNARE complex components, including SNAP23, VAMP3 and VAMP8, were increased at the mRNA levels, while only VAMP3 and VAMP8 were also upregulated at the protein level. TNFα, IL6 and IL1ß were upregulated in the CUMS rat intestine, while TNFα was decreased in the serum and hypothalamus. IL1ß was decreased in the serum. "Protein digestion and absorption" was the most significantly enriched KEGG pathway, involving 5 differential proteins: SLC9A3, ANPEP, LAT1, ASCT2 and B0AT1. Glutamine, glycine and aspartic acid were perturbed in the CUMS rat intestine. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that CUMS enhances the adaptive immune response in the intestine through ER-phagosome pathway mediated by SNARE complex and disturb absorption of amino acids. It advances our understanding of the role of gut-brain axis in depression and provides a potential therapeutic target for the disease.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Citocinas/análise , Depressão/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Proteínas SNARE/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Absorção Intestinal , Masculino , Proteômica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas SNARE/genética , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
6.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(26): 6847-6856, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440782

RESUMO

During drug development, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry is used for visually elucidating the distribution of substances such as biomarkers, candidate compounds, and metabolites in the tissues. However, it is difficult to make relative comparisons between tissue sections and there are still many challenges. Here, we report a new method of "triple spray" for the comparison of analyte distribution in multiple tissue slices. This method targets amino acids and amines, and it incorporates the application of the internal standard in the on-tissue derivatization step. With further development, it has the potential to alleviate problems caused by the matrix effect. Initially, we measured three serial sections of rat brain to verify the efficacy of this method. In the hypothalamus, where gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is known to be present in high concentration, the GABA levels of the three serial section showed little variation (CV = 1.62%). Subsequently, we compared the GABA level in the brain between stroke-prone spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with three individuals each. It showed significant differences between these models at the pre-selected region of interest (p < 0.05). Our results show that the triple spray allows for relative comparison among multiple tissue slices with high reproducibility. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Química Encefálica , Neurotransmissores/análise , Animais , Indicadores e Reagentes , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Masculino , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108286, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400632

RESUMO

This study was designed to explore the temperature effects on bacterial communities and metabolites, as well as their relationships during the fermentation of sour meat, a traditional fermented meat product in the ethnic minority regions of China. Results showed that reduction of pH and increase of lactic acid and free amino acid contents occurred (p < 0.05) as the fermentation temperature and time increased, and the tendency was more apparent at higher temperature. During the fermentation, Lactobacillus gradually replaced other genera, and higher the temperature, more rapid was the process. Both the number and amount of volatile organic compounds increased at higher temperatures. Hexanal, benzaldehyde, nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol and octanal were identified as the key volatile organic compounds produced by Lactobacillus in sour meat as main contributors to odor as confirmed by variable importance in the projection analysis. Redundancy analysis and Pearson correlation showed positive correlation between Lactobacillus and desired product characteristics, such as higher content of lactic acid, free amino acids, volatile organic compounds, and lower pH and water activity values, which may represent a better quality and longer shelf life after fermentation at higher temperature. Therefore fermentation at 20 °C and 25 °C are proposed as optimum temperatures for sour meat production.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Aminoácidos/análise , China/etnologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 300: 125169, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336273

RESUMO

Red drupelet is a postharvest disorder of blackberries with several drupelets turning back to red. This affects visual quality and thus marketability and consumers' acceptance. However, the cause of this disorder as well as metabolite changes during color reversion have not been fully understood. Anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-dioxalylglucoside, and total anthocyanin, were significantly lower in red drupelets than in black drupelets after 7 days of storage. Sugars and organic acids, lipids, and free amino acids also changed with storage and by color reversion. The untargeted metabolomics analyses indicated that red drupelets were generally differentiated from berries at harvest or black drupelets at metabolite level. The results of this study help better understand the red drupelet disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating red drupelet disorder by comparing black and red drupelets at metabolite level.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Rubus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cor , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Rubus/química
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8476-8484, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298527

RESUMO

Cicada flowers, which are edible and medicinal mushrooms, are the fruiting bodies of Isaria cicadae, a fungus that is parasitic on the larvae of cicada pupae. We hypothesize that host factors might possess stimulatory activity on metabolite synthesis in Isaria cicadae. Here, we first compared the microbial community structures of different wild cicada flowers across geographical regions, compartments, and growth stages via high-throughput sequencing. Isaria cicadae TZC-3, an isolate of the most abundant operational taxonomic unit (OTU6782) in all the fungal communities, was isolated from wild cicada flowers. Furthermore, the effects of cicada pupae on metabolite synthesis in Isaria cicadae TZC-3 were studied in submerged culture. The contents of intercellular polysaccharides, adenosine, N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine, free amino acids, and hydrolyzed monosaccharides in the mycelia cultured with cicada pupa powder (4%) were significantly increased as compared with the contents in the control group. This indicates that a cicada pupa can act as an elicitor for metabolite synthesis in Isaria cicadae.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/metabolismo , Carpóforos/química , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Pupa/microbiologia , Adenosina/análise , Adenosina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Cordyceps/química , Cordyceps/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Hemípteros/química , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microbiota , Micélio/química , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/metabolismo , Pupa/química , Pupa/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8235-8242, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260295

RESUMO

This research aims to analyze the biosynthetic pathway of endogenous semicarbazide (SEM) in shrimps using Litopenaeus vannamei as the model target. To achieve this objective, the content of SEM in L. vannamei throughout the whole growth cycle was monitored under the strict control of external environmental interference. Experimental results showed that SEM was found in the shrimp shell at all stages, with its content decreasing first and then increasing, and no SEM was detected in the shrimp muscle of each growth stage. This indicated that endogenous SEM in L. vannamei was derived from the shrimp shell. At the same time, the content of amino acids in the shrimp shell and the corresponding substances involved in the urea cycle in the entire growth cycle of shrimp were monitored. The correlation analysis between them and the changes in the SEM content in shrimp showed that arginine had the largest correlation coefficient (0.952) with the changes in the SEM content. The main substances of the urea cycle may be related to the production of SEM. In combination with the water environmental test of high ammonia nitrogen, it was presumed that the formation of endogenous SEM was related to the amidine group of arginine and amide structure of citrulline and urea. Arginine, citrulline, and urea in the urea cycle of L. vannamei eventually produced SEM via an oxaziridine intermediate under the action of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia, and a standardized reaction test was conducted to verify the hypothesis and, thus, provided a new idea for future endogenous SEM research.


Assuntos
Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Semicarbazidas/análise , Semicarbazidas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Exoesqueleto/química , Exoesqueleto/metabolismo , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas , Penaeidae/química , Penaeidae/metabolismo
11.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(8): 4535-4546, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264415

RESUMO

Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin (ASR), a microbial photoactive protein featuring the retinal chromophore in two different conformations, exhibits a pH-dependent electronic absorption spectrum. Using the recently developed CpHMD-then-QM/MM multiscale protocol applied to ASR embedded in a membrane model, the pH-induced changes in its maximum absorption wavelength have been reproduced and analyzed. While the acidic tiny red-shift is essentially correlated with the deprotonation of an aspartic acid located on the ASR extracellular side, the larger blue-shift experimentally reported at pH values larger than 5 involves a cluster of titrating residues sitting on the cytoplasmic side. The ASR pH-dependent spectrum is the consequence of the competitive stabilization of retinal ground and excited states by the protein electrostatic potential.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Anabaena/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Nostoc/química , Rodopsinas Sensoriais/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Ácido Aspártico/análise , Ácido Aspártico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Prótons , Espectrofotometria , Eletricidade Estática
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7986-7994, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282158

RESUMO

Compositional analyses were performed on samples of rice grain, straw, and derived bran obtained from golden rice event GR2E and near-isogenic control PSBRc82 rice grown at four locations in the Philippines during 2015 and 2016. Grain samples were analyzed for key nutritional components, including proximates, fiber, polysaccharides, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and antinutrients. Samples of straw and bran were analyzed for proximates and minerals. The only biologically meaningful difference between GR2E and control rice was in levels of ß-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids in the grain. Except for ß-carotene and related carotenoids, the compositional parameters of GR2E rice were within the range of natural variability of those components in conventional rice varieties with a history of safe consumption. Mean provitamin A concentrations in milled rice of GR2E can contribute up to 89-113% and 57-99% of the estimated average requirement for vitamin A for preschool children in Bangladesh and the Philippines, respectively.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Sementes/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Engenharia Genética , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Filipinas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Provitaminas/análise , Provitaminas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitamina A/análise , Vitamina A/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 298: 124928, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272053

RESUMO

Sonication can significantly enhance amino acids (AAs) release to accelerate maturation during short-term and low-salt soy sauce fermentation. Here, sonication was applied at 68 kHz (60 W/L/10 min/8 circles) to determine its effects on the taste during long-term and high-salt soy sauce fermentation. The possible mechanisms were explored by analyzing differences in enzymes profile, proximate indices, molecular weight distribution of peptides, AAs composition and microstructures of sonicated moromis and their controls. Sonication greatly elevated levels of organic taste compounds ranging from 8.4% to 22.2%, but lowered levels of NaCl (6.0%), peptides ≤ 1 kDa (5.2%), histidine (20.5%) and glutamic acid (3.4%). Compared to its controls, sonicated raw soy sauces also had a more harmonious and palatable taste. Increased enzymes' activities and formation of more surface area and reaction sites in sonicated moromis might be the possible mechanisms for sonication to elevate levels of taste compounds and sensory quality of soy sauce.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fermentados , Sonicação/métodos , Alimentos de Soja , Paladar , Aminoácidos/análise , Enzimas/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/química , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 299: 125161, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323439

RESUMO

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) is an annual herbaceous flowering plant showing appropriate nutritional and functional properties due to its high quality protein with a wide amino acid spectrum, particularly rich in lysine. The mature quinoa seed predominantly consists of 11S-type globulin called chenopodin, comprising about 37% of the total protein, and also 2S albumin accounting for 35% of the seed protein both stabilized through disulfide bridges. Moreover, quinoa seed contains low concentration of prolamins (0.5-7% of total protein) making it suitable for patients with celiac disease. Different enzymatic, chemical and physical modification methods also can influence the structural and finally nutritional and functional properties of protein isolate. Consequently, considering appropriate nutritional and functional properties of quinoa protein, it can be considered as a good candidate to supply human food products.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dissulfetos/química , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Prolaminas/análise , Sementes/química
15.
Food Chem ; 297: 125016, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253287

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding concerning factors underlying carotenoid metabolism in banana pulp we investigated the carotenoid profile, metabolome, proteome and relative expression levels of carotegenesis-associated genes of fruit pulp in the two banana varieties ON and GN, with ON being characterized of high carotenoid accumulation. Results showed that high carotenoid content in banana pulp was well correlated with the relative expression of carotenogenesis-associated genes and the abundance of the corresponding proteins. An elevated accumulation of sugar metabolism-related compounds and a decreased amino acid accumulation were also observed in ON. Additionally proteins involved in the glycolytic pathway were more highly abundant in ON suggesting that this supports the higher accumulation of carotenoid in this genotype. We suggest that up-regulated expression of carotenogenesis-associated genes alongside elevated carbohydrate accumulation contribute to high carotenoid content in banana pulp, implying that a multi-target approach is necessary in order to improve carotenoid content in banana.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Musa/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicólise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Food Chem ; 293: 169-177, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151598

RESUMO

Antioxidant molecules in honey contributed to various biological effects, but antioxidant components markers in honey are required to be investigated further. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and free amino acids were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-FLD from 39 honey samples, in which fennel honey was firstly investigated. Based on the quantitative composition-activity relationship, the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay of various honeys is closely related with the interaction of some phenolic compounds (isoferulic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid), flavonoids (isosakuranetin, sakuranetin, pinocembrin, vitexin, taxifolin, galangin, luteolin, chrysin) and free amino acids (Tyr, Gly, Ile, Glu, Val, Phe, Leu, Asp, His, Pro, Ala). The results would be beneficial for the understanding of the nutritional values, exploitation and utilization of honeys with different floral origins, further contributable to the market development and consumption choice of honey.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Mel/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Food Chem ; 293: 561-570, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151648

RESUMO

Fish is a healthy food, rich in quality animal proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids especially the (ω)-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients. In addition, fish are more available and affordable than other sources of animal proteins in tropical countries. Aquaculture, which is one of the fastest growing food production sectors, could play a big role in eradicating hunger, malnutrition and nutrient-deprivation globally. However, nutritional information on fish is necessary for utilization of fish in achieving nutritional security and will be helpful in prioritizing species for aquaculture. In this context, we have studied the detailed nutritional composition of selected fishes from India and developed a database (http://www.cifri.res.in/nutrifishin/index.php) with the food data generated. This review explore the implications of such nutritional information in consumer guidance, dietary counselling, food-policy planning and prioritization of species for aquaculture to fight hunger, malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency; ultimately contributing to food and nutritional security.


Assuntos
Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Peixes , Análise de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Vitaminas/análise
18.
Se Pu ; 37(6): 597-604, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152509

RESUMO

To efficiently and quickly detect free amino acid components in tea, a method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. With the optimization of mass spectrometry, chromatographic conditions, and amino-acid extraction conditions, a total of 20 free amino acids were identified using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution containing 0.2% (v/v) formic acid and methanol as mobile phases for gradient elution and detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) and positive-ion scanning. The results showed that all calibration curves expressed good linearities. Theanine (Thea), Arg, Asn, and Asp were in the range of 50-500 µg/L. The other amino acids were in the range of 10-250 µg/L with all correlation coefficients ≥ 0.99. The average recoveries were between 92.3% and 109.2%. The relative standard deviation (RSDs) were between 2.00% and 9.88%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.001-0.011 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.010-0.053 mg/L. The method is sensitive, accurate, and has good repeatability and stability. The method can effectively detect 20 types of amino acids and amino components in tea leaves from the samples of green tea, white tea, and black tea.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Chá/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Food Chem ; 296: 69-77, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202308

RESUMO

Volatile compounds and non-phenolic metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, and sugars) of aqueous green tea extracts obtained by ultrasonic extraction (UE), agitation extraction (AE), hot water extraction (HWE), and conventional extraction (CE) were determined using SPME-GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) yields of volatiles and non-phenolic metabolites were obtained via UE and AE than via HWE and CE. UE, AE, HWE, and CE released 212, 201, 103, and 65 volatiles, respectively. Sum total of amino acid and organic acid in extracts was 54.57, 54.35, 27.11, and 12.67 (mg/100 g), and 5.96, 6.19, 3.81, and 1.68 (mg/100 g) for UE, AE, HWE, and CE, respectively. Volatiles except nitrogen-containing compounds had higher positive correlations with l-theanine, sucrose, malic acid, and catechins yields. Findings of the current study suggest that an efficient extraction technique may significantly increase volatile and non-phenolic metabolite yields in aqueous green tea extract.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Malatos/análise , Malatos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Sonicação , Açúcares/isolamento & purificação , Açúcares/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 296: 132-141, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202297

RESUMO

Spontaneous fermentation is a critical step in the processing of high-quality fish sauce. In this study, a comparative UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach combining equivalent-quantification and the taste activity value (TAV) was used, for the first time, to evaluate the taste qualities and characterize metabolite profiles in Chinese fish sauce during fermentation. A total of 22,816 metabolite ion features were extracted from fish sauce samples. Forty-six metabolites, including amino acids, small peptides, organic acids, amines, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, were identified as key chemical components of fish sauce. In addition, absolute quantification and TAV showed that aspartic acid and glutamic acid exert an important influence on the umami taste of fish sauce. Specific metabolites were primarily associated with amino acid metabolism, particularly alterations in arginine and proline metabolism. This study identifies chemical components and provides novel insights into the taste quality of fish sauce due to fermentation.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fermentados/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Paladar , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise de Componente Principal
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