Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.016
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4220, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839437

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by emotional hypermnesia on which preclinical studies focus so far. While this hypermnesia relates to salient traumatic cues, partial amnesia for the traumatic context can also be observed. Here, we show in mice that contextual amnesia is causally involved in PTSD-like memory formation, and that treating the amnesia by re-exposure to all trauma-related cues cures PTSD-like hypermnesia. These findings open a therapeutic perspective based on trauma contextualization and the underlying hippocampal mechanisms.


Assuntos
Amnésia/prevenção & controle , Amnésia/terapia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia
3.
Neurology ; 94(24): e2532-e2544, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We previously identified 4 empirically derived mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes via cluster analysis within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and demonstrated high correspondence between patterns of cortical thinning at baseline and each cognitive subtype. We aimed to determine whether our MCI subtypes demonstrate unique longitudinal atrophy patterns. METHODS: ADNI participants (295 with MCI and 134 cognitively normal [CN]) underwent annual structural MRI and neuropsychological assessments. General linear modeling compared vertex-wise differences in cortical atrophy rates between each MCI subtype and the CN group. Linear mixed models examined trajectories of cortical atrophy over 3 years within lobar regions of interest. RESULTS: Compared to the CN group, those with amnestic MCI (memory deficit) initially demonstrated greater atrophy rates within medial temporal lobe regions that became more widespread over time. Those with dysnomic/amnestic MCI (naming/memory deficits) showed greater atrophy rates largely localized to temporal lobe regions. The mixed MCI (impairment in all cognitive domains) group showed greater atrophy rates in widespread regions at all time points. The cluster-derived normal group, who had intact neuropsychological performance and normal cortical thickness at baseline despite their MCI diagnosis via conventional diagnostic criteria, continued to show normal cognition and minimal cortical atrophy over 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: ADNI's purported amnestic MCI sample produced more refined cognitive subtypes with unique longitudinal cortical atrophy rates. These novel MCI subtypes reliably reflect underlying atrophy, reduce false-positive diagnostic errors, and improve prediction of clinical course. Such improvements have implications for the selection of participants for clinical trials and for providing more precise risk assessment for individuals diagnosed with MCI.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amnésia/etiologia , Amnésia/psicologia , Atrofia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
5.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(4): 352-6, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electronic moxibustion on memory function in the patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: A total of 59 aMCI patients were randomized into an electronic moxibustion group (30 cases) and a placebo moxibustion group (29 cases). In the electronic moxibustion group, the electronic moxibustion was applied to Baihui (GV 20), Dazhui (GV 14), Mingmen (GV 4) and Taixi (KI 3), 45 ℃ in temperature, 20 min each time. The treatment was given once a day, 5 times a week. The treatment for 4 weeks was as one course and 2 courses were required totally. In the placebo moxibustion group, the moxa-free patch was used, 38 ℃ in temperature. The acupoint selection and the treatment frequency were same as the electronic moxibustion group. Before and after treatment, Rivermead behavior memory test (RBMT) was adopted to evaluate the global memory function of the patients in the two groups and the N-back task test was adopted to evaluate working memory function separately. Additionally, the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and its immediate memory, Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and its delay recall were adopted to evaluate the global cognitive function and memory function. RESULTS: In the electronic moxibustion group, after treatment, RBMT score, N-back accuracy rates, MMSE and MoCA scores and the scores of immediate memory and delay recall were improved significantly as compared with those before treatment (P<0.01). In the placebo moxibustion group, the accuracy rates of 1-back and 2-back task and the scores of immediate memory and delay recall were improved obviously as compared with those before treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01). After treatment, the improvements of RBMT score, the accuracy rates of N-back task and MMSE and MoCA scores in the electronic moxibustion group were higher than those in the placebo moxibustion group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Electronic moxibustion improves memory function in the patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Amnésia/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Memória , Moxibustão/métodos , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
7.
Gene ; 742: 144601, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198124

RESUMO

Morphine is a natural alkaloid which derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Many studies have reported the effect of morphine on learning, memory and gene expression. CART (cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript)is an important neuropeptide which has a critical role in physiological processes including drug dependence and antioxidant activity. ΔfosB is a transcription factor which modulates synaptic plasticity and affects learning and memory. TFAM (the mitochondrial transcription factor A) and PGC-1α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α) are critically involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant pathways. NeuroAid is a Chinese medicine that induces neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects. In this research, we aimed to investigate the effect of NeuroAid on morphine-induced amnesia with respect to the expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, ΔfosB and CART in the rat's hippocampus. In this study, Morphine sulfate (at increasing doses), Naloxone hydrochloride (2.5 mg/kg) and NeuroAid (2.5 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneal and real-time PCR reactions were done to assess gene expression. The results showed, morphine impaired memory of step-through passive avoidance, while NeuroAid had no effect. NeuroAid attenuated (but not reversed) morphine-induced memory impairment in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine increased the expression of PGC-1α and decreased the expression of CART. However, NeuroAid increased the expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, ΔfosB and CART. NeuroAid restored the effect of morphine on the expression of CART and PGC-1α. In conclusion, morphine impaired memory of step-through passive avoidance and NeuroAid attenuated this effect. The effect of NeuroAid on morphine-induced memory impairment/gene expression may be related to its anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Morfina/toxicidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Amnésia/diagnóstico , Amnésia/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1382, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170133

RESUMO

In contextual fear conditioning, experimental subjects learn to associate a neutral context with an aversive stimulus and display fear responses to a context that predicts danger. Although the hippocampal-amygdala pathway has been implicated in the retrieval of contextual fear memory, the mechanism by which fear memory is encoded in this circuit has not been investigated. Here, we show that activity in the ventral CA1 (vCA1) hippocampal projections to the basal amygdala (BA), paired with aversive stimuli, contributes to encoding conditioned fear memory. Contextual fear conditioning induced selective strengthening of a subset of vCA1-BA synapses, which was prevented under anisomycin-induced retrograde amnesia. Moreover, a subpopulation of BA neurons receives stronger monosynaptic inputs from context-responding vCA1 neurons, whose activity was required for contextual fear learning and synaptic potentiation in the vCA1-BA pathway. Our study suggests that synaptic strengthening of vCA1 inputs conveying contextual information to a subset of BA neurons contributes to encoding adaptive fear memory for the threat-predictive context.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Amnésia/metabolismo , Amnésia/patologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Vias Neurais/citologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 317: 108959, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001261

RESUMO

The isoquinoline 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI) has been studied due to its multitarget properties, such as modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. This study investigated the contribution of oxidative stress, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase (HO-1) signaling, and the cholinergic system to the anti-amnesic action of FDPI in mice. Adult male Swiss mice received FDPI for 5 days (5-25 mg/kg, i.g.); the animals received scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p) from day 3-5. The vehicle-control group was carried out. Afterward, mice performed object recognition tests (ORTs). Scopolamine induced amnesia and cholinergic dysfunction by increasing the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and content, decreasing the muscarinic M1 receptor levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mice. This study reveals that scopolamine altered oxidative stress parameters differently in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mice. Whereas the prefrontal cortex was susceptible to oxidative stress, none of the parameters evaluated was altered in the hippocampus of scopolamine-treated mice. FDPI at doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg had an anti-amnesic effect in the ORT tests. FDPI 10 mg/kg reversed the increase in the AChE activity and content, oxidative stress parameters, and modulated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in the prefrontal cortex of scopolamine-exposed mice. Pearson's correlation analyses reinforced the contribution of the prefrontal cortical cholinergic system, oxidative stress as well as Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in the anti-amnesic effect of FDPI. Considering FDPI effects on the hippocampus, it was effective against the cholinergic dysfunction, AChE activity and content, and M1 receptor levels, which collectively could contribute to its anti-amnesic effect.


Assuntos
Amnésia/prevenção & controle , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Escopolamina/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Neurology ; 94(8): e861-e873, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To distinguish between patients with amyloid-positive (A+) and -negative (A-) amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) by simultaneously investigating navigation performance, visual exploration behavior, and brain activations during a real-space navigation paradigm. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with aMCI were grouped into A+ (n = 11) and A- cases by amyloid-PET imaging and amyloid CSF levels and compared to 15 healthy controls. Neuropsychological deficits were quantified by use of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-plus cognitive battery. All participants performed a navigation task in which they had to find items in a realistic spatial environment and had to apply egocentric and allocentric route planning strategies. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose was injected at the start to detect navigation-induced brain activations. Subjects wore a gaze-controlled, head-fixed camera that recorded their visual exploration behavior. RESULTS: A+ patients performed worse during egocentric and allocentric navigation compared to A- patients and controls (p < 0.001). Both aMCI subgroups used fewer shortcuts, moved more slowly, and stayed longer at crossings. Word-list learning, figural learning, and Trail-Making tests did not differ in the A+ and A- subgroups. A+ patients showed a reduced activation of the right hippocampus, retrosplenial, and parietal cortex during navigation compared to A- patients (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: A+ patients with aMCI perform worse than A- patients with aMCI in egocentric and allocentric route planning because of a more widespread impairment of their cerebral navigation network. Navigation testing in real space is a promising approach to identify patients with aMCI with underlying Alzheimer pathology.


Assuntos
Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Amiloide/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Amnésia/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Amnésia/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Neuroimagem Funcional , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 72: 43-49, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956086

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been associated with the phenomenon of accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the effect of surgery on the ALF phenomena thus contributing to potential explanation of the causal mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 51 patients with TLE related to hippocampal sclerosis who had amygdalohippocampectomy and had remained seizure-free after surgery. A control group consisted of 24 healthy individuals. All were given a verbal learning test assessing recall after 30 min, 1 week and 6 weeks. RESULTS: In our study, the Left-TLE (L-TLE) group showed a statistically significant reduction in the performance at all assessment intervals from 30 min to 1 week compared to the Right-TLE and control groups regarding verbal learning memory test (VLMT) as well as for logical memory. The forgetting rates in the VLMT from 30 min to 1 week were not statistically significantly different between all 3 groups. The logical memory test results equally showed no statistically significant difference in the forgetting rates for the 3 groups between 30 min and 1 week. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: These results may support ongoing debates assuming the initial low performance in the memory of L-TLE patients to be directly related with left hippocampal-temporal tissue loss irrespective of epileptic activity. The discovery of the ALF phenomenon explains that standard memory tests are unable to detect memory loss in some patients who are experiencing a significant level of problems with forgetfulness in their daily lives.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Epilepsia/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Adulto , Amnésia , Feminino , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Temporal , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neurology ; 94(7): e699-e704, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with aphasic rather than amnestic dementias in certain circumstances related in part to perturbations in different networks. METHODS: Three groups were investigated: 14 participants suspected of having the neuropathology of AD based on clinically diagnosed amnestic dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), 26 individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) with either a positive 18F-florbetapir amyloid PET scan or confirmed AD at autopsy, and 26 neurologically intact controls. The groups were compared using rs-fMRI. Seeds included the left hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the language network, the left hippocampus for the episodic memory network, and the left posterior cingulate for the default mode network (DMN). RESULTS: Greater connectivity perturbations were found from the hippocampus for the DAT group and from the IFG for the PPA group. Furthermore, connectivity alterations in the PPA group were more asymmetric and favored the language-dominant left hemisphere. Loss of connectivity from the DMN seed was of a similar magnitude in the PPA and DAT groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the presumptive common underlying neuropathology of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the 2 groups displayed 2 different patterns of network perturbation, each concordant with the clinical presentation and the anatomy of neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Amnésia/diagnóstico por imagem , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Compostos de Anilina , Afasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Afasia/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Etilenoglicóis , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Descanso
13.
World Neurosurg ; 135: 113-117, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three group of perforation branches are described coming out from the anterior communicating artery (AcoA): the hypothalamic branches, chiasmatic branches, and subcallosal artery (ScA). Bilateral anterior fornix infarction with sudden anterograde amnesia after ScA ischemic stroke has been previously described. Although only a few cases are reported in the literature, ScA occlusion has been well described for both noniatrogenic and iatrogenic causes. Several cases of iatrogenic injuries have been reported after AcoA aneurysm clipping or, less frequently, after embolization. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old man was admitted for a subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to the rupture of a right high-flow anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm related to a right frontobasal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The aneurysm was treated early by endovascular embolization. At discharge, the patient was Glasgow Outcome Scale score 1. Five months later, the AVM was treated endovascularly in 3 sessions. The last session was performed through a median branch of the right A2 segment of the ACA, allowing an 80% AVM exclusion. However, the patient woke up with anterograde memory impairment and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging showed infarction of both anterior columns of the fornix. The clinical condition of the patient 3 years after stroke has improved. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral anterior fornix infarction leading to amnestic syndrome is encountered in ScA stroke. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior fornix infarction secondary to an AVM embolization supplied by the ACA, not an anatomic region that provides blood supply of the anterior columns of the fornix.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/terapia , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Embolização Terapêutica , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/terapia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia , Adulto , Amnésia/etiologia , Aneurisma Roto/complicações , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Fórnice/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Neuropsychology ; 34(1): 15-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to test whether differences in the ability of amnesic and healthy participants to detect alternative sources of fluency can account for differences observed in the use of fluency as a cue for memory. METHOD: Patients with severe memory deficits and matched controls were presented with 3 forced-choice recognition tests. In each test, an external source of fluency was provided by manipulating the perceptual quality of the studied items during the test phase. The detectability of the perceptual manipulation varied in each test (i.e., a 10%, 20%, or 30% contrast reductions were given). RESULTS: The results indicated that all participants were able to rely on fluency when making recognition decisions as long as the perceptual manipulation remained unnoticed. It is interesting that our data also revealed that the level of contrast reduction at which the alternative source is detected differs between healthy controls and amnesic patients. Specifically, patients with amnesia appeared to disqualify fluency as a cue for memory even when the contrast reduction was moderate, whereas healthy participants disqualified fluency only when the contrast reduction was clearly visible. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results seem to suggest that the ability to use fluency is probably not impaired in amnesia but undergoes metacognitive changes resulting in the implementation of explicit or implicit strategies aiming at tracking alternative sources in order to reduce memory errors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Amnésia/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Adulto , Amnésia/etiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Metacognição , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurology ; 94(6): e607-e612, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the proportion of APOE ε4 genotype carriers in aphasic vs amnestic variants of Alzheimer disease (AD). METHOD: The proportion of APOE ε4 carriers was compared among the following 3 groups: (1) 42 patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and AD pathology (PPA/AD) enrolled in the Northwestern Alzheimer Disease Center Clinical Core; (2) 1,418 patients with autopsy-confirmed AD and amnestic dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT/AD); and (3) 2,608 cognitively normal controls (NC). The latter 2 groups were compiled from the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center database. Logistic regression models analyzed the relationship between groups and APOE ε4 carrier status, adjusting for age at onset and sex as needed. RESULTS: Using NC as the reference and adjusting for sex and age, the DAT/AD group was 3.97 times more likely to be APOE ε4 carriers. Adjusting for sex and age at symptom onset, the DAT/AD group was 2.46 times as likely to be carriers compared to PPA/AD. There was no significant difference in the proportion of APOE ε4 carriers for PPA/AD compared to NC. PPA subtypes included 24 logopenic, 10 agrammatic nonfluent, and 8 either mixed (n = 5) or too severe (n = 3) to subtype. The proportion of carriers and noncarriers was similar for logopenic and agrammatic subtypes, both having fewer carriers. CONCLUSION: The proportion of APOE ε4 carriers was elevated in amnestic but not aphasic manifestations of AD. These results suggest that APOE ε4 is an anatomically selective risk factor that preferentially increases the vulnerability to AD pathology of memory-related medial temporal areas rather than language-related neocortices.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Amnésia/genética , Afasia Primária Progressiva/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Amnésia/complicações , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/complicações , Afasia Primária Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(12)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831515

RESUMO

A 40-year-old man presented with generalised dissociative amnesia. At 2 weeks after onset, N-isopropyl-[123I] p-iodoamphetamine-single-photon emission CT imaging of the brain revealed hypoperfusion in the right medial temporal area. Organic brain damage was ruled out. His inability to recall information was attributed to psychological stress related to his employment. Consistent with this diagnosis, his generalised dissociative amnesia lasted 6 years and 10 months; however, he recovered from amnesia naturally on starting a new job. Perfusion of his right medial temporal area also returned to normal levels. Longitudinal reports for generalised dissociative amnesia with natural recovery are exceedingly rare. It is important to confirm whether dissociative amnesia and cerebral blood flow recover in parallel, even in cases where dissociative amnesia is long-lasting.


Assuntos
Amnésia/psicologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Adulto , Amnésia/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Remissão Espontânea , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia
19.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 168(2): 247-249, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776948

RESUMO

Emopag, a new drug, preventively administered in doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg/day over 4 days produced a pronounced neuroprotective effect in the model of brain ischemia caused by gravitational overload and reduced animal mortality from 17 to 0%. The preparation more effectively corrected neurological deficit than the reference drugs Mexidol (in considerably larger doses of 30 and 90 mg/kg/day) and antihypoxic drug amtizol (30 mg/kg/day). Moreover, Emopag exhibited considerable antiamnestic activity comparable to that of Mexidol (in 3-fold higher doses); in a dose of 30 mg/kg/day Emopag was more effective than Mexidol and amtizol in the same dose. Thus, Emopag showed marked neuroprotective and antiamnestic effects in the model of gravitational overload in rats.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Amnésia/prevenção & controle , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Picolinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(11)2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712229

RESUMO

Two 68-year-old men presented to the behavioral neurology clinic with memory complaints. The clinical picture was complicated by bilingualism and psychiatric comorbidities. Based on a combination of cognitive and language testing, 5-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, both cases were initially diagnosed as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI). At follow-up, however, both cases' language profiles and neuroimaging had evolved to clearly indicate primary progressive aphasia (PPA) as the underlying condition rather than MCI. These cases underscore the importance of careful observation of clinical and neuroimaging data over time to reach an accurate diagnosis.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico , Multilinguismo , Idoso , Amnésia/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA