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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(4): 233-238, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013691

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a relação custo-utilidade do tratamento inicial com laser ou medicamentos do glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (GPAA) no Brasil, considerando de um lado os custos totais e de outro lado o impacto na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Métodos: O estudo foi realizado com base em um modelo de Markov, onde uma coorte teórica de portadores de GPAA em estágio inicial foi gerada. Os parâmetros usados no modelo foram obtidos na literatura e incluíram: custos médicos diretos (consultas, exames, tratamento); custos não médicos diretos (gasto com hospedagem, transporte, alimentação, acompanhante); custos indiretos (relacionados à incapacidade para o trabalho); valores de utilidade (qualidade de vida medida em QALY - quality-adjusted life year); e probabilidade de transição entre os estágios de saúde. Três estratégias de tratamento foram testadas no modelo: (1) sem tratamento; (2) tratamento inicial com colírios; (3) tratamento inicial com trabeculoplastia a laser. A medida de desfecho foi a razão de custo-utilidade incremental (RCUI). A robustez do modelo foi testada através de análise de sensibilidade. Resultados: As estratégias (2) e (3) de tratamento inicial do GPAA geraram ganhos em qualidade de vida em relação à (1) no Brasil. Iniciar o tratamento com laser gerou ganho médio de 1 QALY, enquanto que com medicamentos propiciou um ganho de 2 QALYs em média. Dentre as três estratégias testadas, a estratégia (2) foi a custo-efetiva e foi dominante sobre as demais, pois foi ao mesmo tempo a mais barata e a mais efetiva. Conclusão: Tanto a trabeculoplastia a laser quanto os medicamentos como tratamentos primários do GPAA inicial geraram ganhos significativos de qualidade de vida. A estratégia de se iniciar o tratamento com medicações foi custo-efetiva, quando se considera os custos totais. A alternativa de tratamento inicial através de trabeculoplastia a laser não foi custo-efetiva.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the cost-utility relation of the initial treatment with laser or primary open-angle glaucoma medications (PLA) in Brazil, considering on the one hand the total costs and on the other side the impact on patients' quality of life. Methods: The study was performed based on a Markov model, where a theoretical cohort of early-stage GPAA carriers was generated. The parameters used in the model were obtained in the literature and included: direct medical costs (consultations, examinations, treatment); direct non-medical costs (accommodation, transportation, meals, companions); indirect costs (related to incapacity for work); utility values (quality of life measured in QALY - quality-adjusted life year); and probability of transition between stages of health. Three treatment strategies were tested in the model: (1) without treatment; (2) initial treatment with eye drops; (3) initial treatment with laser trabeculoplasty. The measure of outcome was the incremental cost-utility ratio (RCUI). The robustness of the model was tested through sensitivity analysis. Results: The strategies (2) and (3) of the initial treatment of POAG generated gains in quality of life in relation to (1) in Brazil. Initiating the laser treatment generated an average gain of 1 QALY, whereas with medication it gave a gain of 2 QALYs on average. Among the three strategies tested, strategy (2) was cost-effective and was dominant over the other strategies, since it was at the same time the cheapest and the most effective strategy. Conclusion: Both laser trabeculoplasty and medications as primary treatments of early-stage POAG have generated significant gains in quality of life. The strategy of starting treatment with medications was cost-effective, whereas laser trabeculoplasty strategy was not cost-effective, when non-medical costs (direct and indirect) are included.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Terapia a Laser , Brasil
2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 407-419, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends not performing transfusions in African children hospitalized for uncomplicated severe anemia (hemoglobin level of 4 to 6 g per deciliter and no signs of clinical severity). However, high mortality and readmission rates suggest that less restrictive transfusion strategies might improve outcomes. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with uncomplicated severe anemia to immediate transfusion with 20 ml or 30 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight, as determined in a second simultaneous randomization, or no immediate transfusion (control group), in which transfusion with 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram was triggered by new signs of clinical severity or a drop in hemoglobin to below 4 g per deciliter. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Three other randomizations investigated transfusion volume, postdischarge supplementation with micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. RESULTS: A total of 1565 children (median age, 26 months) underwent randomization, with 778 assigned to the immediate-transfusion group and 787 to the control group; 984 children (62.9%) had malaria. The children were followed for 180 days, and 71 (4.5%) were lost to follow-up. During the primary hospitalization, transfusion was performed in all the children in the immediate-transfusion group and in 386 (49.0%) in the control group (median time to transfusion, 1.3 hours vs. 24.9 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) total blood volume transfused per child was 314±228 ml in the immediate-transfusion group and 142±224 ml in the control group. Death had occurred by 28 days in 7 children (0.9%) in the immediate-transfusion group and in 13 (1.7%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 1.36; P = 0.19) and by 180 days in 35 (4.5%) and 47 (6.0%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.15), without evidence of interaction with other randomizations (P>0.20) or evidence of between-group differences in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. The mean length of hospital stay was 0.9 days longer in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of differences in clinical outcomes over 6 months between the children who received immediate transfusion and those who did not. The triggered-transfusion strategy in the control group resulted in lower blood use; however, the length of hospital stay was longer, and this strategy required clinical and hemoglobin monitoring. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Tempo para o Tratamento , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 420-431, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anemia (hemoglobin level, <6 g per deciliter) is a leading cause of hospital admission and death in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends transfusion of 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight for anemia, regardless of hemoglobin level. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label trial, we randomly assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with a hemoglobin level of less than 6 g per deciliter and severity features (e.g., respiratory distress or reduced consciousness) to receive immediate blood transfusion with 20 ml per kilogram or 30 ml per kilogram. Three other randomized analyses investigated immediate as compared with no immediate transfusion, the administration of postdischarge micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 3196 eligible children (median age, 37 months; 2050 [64.1%] with malaria) were assigned to receive a transfusion of 30 ml per kilogram (1598 children) or 20 ml per kilogram (1598 children) and were followed for 180 days. A total of 1592 children (99.6%) in the higher-volume group and 1596 (99.9%) in the lower-volume group started transfusion (median, 1.2 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) volume of total blood transfused per child was 475±385 ml and 353±348 ml, respectively; 197 children (12.3%) and 300 children (18.8%) in the respective groups received additional transfusions. Overall, 55 children (3.4%) in the higher-volume group and 72 (4.5%) in the lower-volume group died before 28 days (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 1.08; P = 0.12 by log-rank test). This finding masked significant heterogeneity in 28-day mortality according to the presence or absence of fever (>37.5°C) at screening (P=0.001 after Sidak correction). Among the 1943 children (60.8%) without fever, mortality was lower with a transfusion volume of 30 ml per kilogram than with a volume of 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.69). Among the 1253 children (39.2%) with fever, mortality was higher with 30 ml per kilogram than with 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.49). There was no evidence of differences between the randomized groups in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. CONCLUSIONS: Overall mortality did not differ between the two transfusion strategies. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development, United Kingdom; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
4.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 984-994, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362557

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the Scaphoid Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Trauma (SMaRT) trial was to evaluate the clinical and cost implications of using immediate MRI in the acute management of patients with a suspected fracture of the scaphoid with negative radiographs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with a suspected fracture of the scaphoid and negative radiographs were randomized to a control group, who did not undergo further imaging in the ED, or an intervention group, who had an MRI of the wrist as an additional test during the initial ED attendance. Most participants were male (52% control, 61% intervention), with a mean age of 36.2 years (18 to 73) in the control group and 38.2 years (20 to 71) in the intervention group. The primary outcome was total cost impact at three months post-recruitment. Secondary outcomes included total costs at six months, the assessment of clinical findings, diagnostic accuracy, and the participants' self-reported level of satisfaction. Differences in cost were estimated using generalized linear models with gamma errors. RESULTS: The mean cost up to three months post-recruitment per participant was £542.40 (sd £855.20, n = 65) for the control group and £368.40 (sd £338.60, n = 67) for the intervention group, leading to an estimated cost difference of £174 (95% confidence interval (CI) -£30 to £378; p = 0.094). The cost difference per participant increased to £266 (95% CI £3.30 to £528; p = 0.047) at six months. Overall, 6.2% of participants (4/65, control group) and 10.4% of participants (7/67, intervention group) had sustained a fracture of the scaphoid (p = 0.37). In addition, 7.7% of participants (5/65, control group) and 22.4% of participants (15/67, intervention group) had other fractures diagnosed (p = 0.019). The use of MRI was associated with higher diagnostic accuracy both in the diagnosis of a fracture of the scaphoid (100.0% vs 93.8%) and of any other fracture (98.5% vs 84.6%). CONCLUSION: The use of immediate MRI in the management of participants with a suspected fracture of the scaphoid and negative radiographs led to cost savings while improving the pathway's diagnostic accuracy and patient satisfaction. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:984-994.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/economia , Osso Escafoide/lesões , Traumatismos do Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas Ósseas/economia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Osso Escafoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Reino Unido , Traumatismos do Punho/economia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384341

RESUMO

Introduction: approximately eighty million people around the world are living with hepatitis C, and 700,000 people die every year, due to hepatitis C related complications. In Seychelles, a total of 777 cases of hepatitis C were reported from 2002 to 2016, but up to mid of 2016, the cases were not being treated. Treatment with Harvoni, a combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), is now being offered on the condition that the patient does not, or has stopped, injecting drugs. This paper is the first to establish the cost effectiveness of treating all cases of hepatitis C in Seychelles with Harvoni, as compared to no treatment. Methods: data extracted from literature was used to populate an economic model to calculate cost-effectiveness from Seychelles' government perspective. The model structure was also informed by the systematic review and an accompanying grading of economic models using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standard (CHEERS) checklist. A Markov model was developed, employing a lifetime horizon and costs and benefits were analysed from a payer's perspective and combined into incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results: the direct-acting antiviral (DAA), Harvoni, was found to be cost-saving in Seychelles hepatitis C virus (HCV) cohort, as compared to no treatment, with an ICER of € 753.65/QALY. The treatment was also cost-saving when stratified by gender, with the ICER of male and female being € 783.74/QALY and € 635.20/QALY, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained from acceptability curves showed that treating patients with Harvoni is the most cost-effective option, even for low thresholds. Conclusion: treating hepatitis C cases in Seychelles is cost-saving. It is worth developing a treatment programme to include all cases of hepatitis C, regardless of status of drug injection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/economia , Benzimidazóis/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Fluorenos/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Seicheles , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/economia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16813, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393412

RESUMO

Dolutegravir (DTG) has shown effectiveness in combination with rilpivirine in with experience of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and with 3TC in naïve patients (GEMINI trial). The main objectives of this real-life study were to analyze the effectiveness and safety of 3TC plus DTG in virologically suppressed HIV-1 patients and to conduct a pharmacoeconomic analysis.We conducted an observational, retrospective and multicenter study of HIV+ patients pretreated for at least 6 months with ART that was then simplified to 3TC + DTG for any reason. We gathered data on viral loads (VLs) during exposure to the DT, calculating the rate with VL < 50 copies/mL at week 48, and on associated adverse effects.The 177 HIV+ patients were collected, 77.4% male, with average age of 48.5 years and mean count of 252.2cell/µL CD4+ nadir lymphocytes; 96.6% had VL < 50 copies/mL and 674 cells/µL CD4+ lymphocytes. Median time since HIV diagnosis was 15 years, and median ART duration was 13 years, and 34.5% of patients were on mono- or dual-therapy before the switch. At week 48, 82.4% of patients had VL < 50 cop/µL using an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, 89.6% according to mITT, and 96.7% according to Per-Protocol analysis. 3.3% patients had virological failure (VF). These effectiveness data and costs were compared with those for 2 reference triple therapies (DTG/ABC/3TC and EVG/cobi/FTC/TAF) in a cost minimization analysis, showing cost savings with administration of DTG+3TC (2741 &OV0556;/year vs DTG/ABC/3TC and 4164 &OV0556;/year vs EVG/cobi/FTC/TAF) and in a cost-effectiveness analysis, finding the DT to be the most cost-effective approach (ICER = -548 vs DTG/ABC/3TC and ICER = -4,627&OV0556; vs EVG/cobi/FTC/TAF)The combination of 3TC with DTG appears to be a safe and effective option for the simplification of ART in pretreated and virologically stable HIV-positive patients, being cost-effective and offering the same effectiveness as the triple therapy it replaces.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Farmacoeconomia , Honorários Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , HIV-1 , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/economia , Humanos , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Lamivudina/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16843, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was, from the Chinese healthcare perspective, to assess the cost-effectiveness of positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) in preoperation staging for nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with resected monometastatic disease based on a retrospective study. This study was conducted from January 2017 to February 2019 at an academic hospital. METHODS: A Markov model and 3 decision-tree models were designed to calculate the long-term medical costs, outcomes, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of the 2 diagnostic strategies (PET-CT and conventional CT). Model robustness was assessed in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: For the base-case analysis, preoperative PET-CT evaluation for NSCLC with resected monometastatic disease provided an additional 1.475, 2.129, and 2.412 life-years (LYs), in the time horizon of 10-, 20-, and 30-year, respectively, and the ICERs for the PET-CT group compared with the conventional CT group were $1153, $1393, and $1430 per LY, separately. The acceptability curves demonstrated that when the willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds ranged from $500 to $3000/LY, the probability of cost-effectiveness changed varied dramatically, and at WTP > $3000, the probability that the PET-CT group achieved cost-effectiveness was 100%. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the models we designed were robust. CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional CT scan, preoperative F-FDG PET-CT evaluation for patients with resected monometastatic NSCLC is cost-effective from the Chinese healthcare perspective. Preoperative F-FDG PET-CT evaluation should be popularized for patients with resected monometastatic NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/economia , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cadeias de Markov , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/instrumentação , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/economia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 512-515, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437976

RESUMO

Medicine has evolved considerably in recent decades in part thanks to information and communication technologies in health (ICTs). However, face-to-face consultations continue to be the predominant model, since alternatives such as telemedicine are still the subject of debate. On the other hand, in some very specific specialties, centralization is relevant, mainly due to the low frequency and prevalence of diseases, as well as the need to have highly specialized professionals, causing problems in terms of accessibility and costs for the health system. In this study we have analyzed the first consultations to an orthopedics oncology service at a tertiary institution and performed an analysis of economic costs was carried out between 2 possible scenarios: face-to-face consultations versus telemedicine. Analyzing the 2 scenarios, there would be a cost-benefit in the use of telemedicine leading to a decrease in healthcare cost between 12.2% and 72%.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Telemedicina , Comunicação , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ortopedia
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 532019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of alternatives for rehabilitation treatment of mandibular edentulism in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (implant-supported total dental prosthesis versus conventional total dental prosthesis). METHODS: A Markov model was developed to capture long-term clinical and economic outcomes. The model's population was comprised of a hypothetical cohort of 1,000,000 patients, aged 55 years, with total mandibular edentulism and without medical contraindications for performing surgical procedures. The adopted analysis perspective was that of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Based on the proposed model, we calculated cost - in BRL, and effectiveness - measured by quality-adjusted prosthesis year (QAPY). The time horizon of the analysis was 20 years. RESULTS: Considering a 5% discount in costs and effects, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of implant-supported total dental prostheses compared to conventional total dental prosthesis (BRL 464.22/QAPY) was lower than the willingness to pay threshold adopted in the model (BRL 3,050.00/QAPY). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this economic analysis showed that the rehabilitation of mandibular edentulous patients by implant-supported total prosthesis is very cost-effective when compared to conventional complete prosthesis, considering the cost-effectiveness limits employed.


Assuntos
Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante/economia , Prótese Parcial Fixa/economia , Boca Edêntula/economia , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Implantes Dentários/economia , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca Edêntula/reabilitação , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
10.
JAMA ; 322(6): 582-583, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408128
11.
JAMA ; 322(6): 582-583, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408133
12.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 995-1001, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362556

RESUMO

AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of the early fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cost analysis was conducted within a randomized controlled trial comparing conservative management (n = 92) versus early plate fixation (n = 86) of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to express the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The Six-Dimension Short-Form Health Survey (SF-6D) score was used as the preference-based health index to calculate the cost per QALY at 12 months after the injury. RESULTS: The mean 12-month SF-6D was 0.9522 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9355 to 0.9689) following conservative management and 0.9607 (95% CI 0.9447 to 0.9767) following fixation, giving an advantage for fixation of 0.0085, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.46). The mean cost per patient was £1322.69 for conservative management and £5405.32 for early fixation. This gave an ICER of £480 309.41 per QALY. For a threshold of £20 000 per QALY, the benefit of fixation would need to be present for 24 years to be cost-effective compared with conservative treatment. Linear regression analysis identified nonunion as the only factor to adversely influence the SF-6D at 12 months (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Routine plate fixation of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures is not cost-effective. Nonunion following conservative management has an increased morbidity with comparable expense to early fixation. This may suggest that a targeted approach of fixation in patients who are at higher risk of nonunion would be more cost-effective than the routine fixation of all displaced fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:995-1001.


Assuntos
Clavícula/lesões , Tratamento Conservador/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/economia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Placas Ósseas , Clavícula/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1470-1471, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438186

RESUMO

Clinical trials are key and essential processes for researchers to develop new treatments as well as evaluate their effectiveness and safety, whilst more than half of all clinical trials experience delays, which leads to a considerable amount of cost. In this paper, we present a cost-effective framework to reduce the time and monetary cost in the stage of recruiting and screening eligible clinical trial participants. By leveraging patients' observed conditions and the cost of medical examinations, the proposed framework uses collaborative filtering techniques to predict the utilized cost for the to-do medical examinations and then rank patients and medical examinations. The preliminary experiment results indicate that the framework is promising to reduce the cost spent on medical examinations by three quarters or even more and accelerate the recruitment process in the screening stage.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Programas de Rastreamento , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Pesquisadores
16.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eGS4621, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To calculate the cost and assess the results on implementing technological resources that can prevent medication errors. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive-exploratory, quantitative study (2007-2015), in the model of case study at a hospital in the Brazilian Southeastern Region. The direct cost of each technology was calculated in the drug chain. Technological efficacy was observed from the reported series of the indicator incidence of medication errors. RESULTS: Thirteen technologies were identified to prevent medication errors. The average cost of these technologies per year in the prescription stage was R$ 3.251.757,00; in dispensing, R$ 2.979.397,10; and in administration, R$ 4.028.351,00. The indicator of medication error incidence decreased by 97.5%, gradually between 2007 to 2015, ranging from 2.4% to 0.06%. CONCLUSION: The average cost per year of the organization to implement preventive technologies in the drug chain totaled up R$ 10.259.505,10. There was an average investment/year of R$ 55,72 per patient and its association with smaller indicator of incidence of medication errors confirms a satisfactory result in this reported series regarding such investment.


Assuntos
Erros de Medicação/economia , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Medicação no Hospital/economia , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente/economia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tecnologia
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312305

RESUMO

Due to the enormous amount spent on histology of adenoid and tonsillar samples from children with adeno-tonsillectomy with no confirmed result of malignancy, it has become expedient to reconsider sending such tissues for histologyThe objective of this study was to determine the necessity of sending tissues of adenoid and tonsils for histology by means of ascertaining the prevalence of malignancy among children with adeno-tonsillectomy. This was a retrospective study done in three private hospitals that provide care for children in Enugu. Data was obtained from the medical records of 72 patients who had undergone tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy from September 2011 to May 2018. All the surgical cases done had their samples sent immediately for histology. A total of 72 adeno-tonsillar tissues were taken for histology of which all showed lymphoid hyperplasia with none showing any form of malignancy. Age group ranged from 6 months-18 years with 57 males and 15 females. Histology of the adeno-tonsillar tissue specimen was done among all the children with each costing 9000 Naira (26 US dollars). There were 3 tonsillectomies, 1 adenectomy and 68 adeno-tonsillectomies done. Indications for surgery were mainly upper airway obstruction for 69 cases and recurrent tonsillectomy for 3 cases. Histology revealed lymphoid hyperplasia for all cases. None of the patients in our study had histologic evidence of malignancy. Routine histopathologic examination in adeno-tonsillectomy specimens among children may be dispensable as it showed a negative cost-benefit ratio.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea/patologia , Técnicas Histológicas/economia , Tonsila Palatina/patologia , Adenoidectomia/métodos , Tonsila Faríngea/cirurgia , Adolescente , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/patologia , Lactente , Masculino , Nigéria , Tonsila Palatina/cirurgia , Patologia/economia , Patologia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tonsilectomia/métodos
19.
Ceska Slov Farm ; 68(2): 43-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331174

RESUMO

Targeted therapy is a significant benefit in the treatment of cancer patients. Bevacizumab improves overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The clinical effectiveness of bevacizumab is similar to its efficacy in randomised controlled trials. However, the costs of bevacizumab treatment as well as other agents of targeted treatment are discussed between the health care payers, the regulatory authorities and the members of professional societies. Biomarkers of bevacizumab treatment helpful in the selection of eligible groups of patients are still missing. This review focuses on current bevacizumab therapy of mCRC from the pharmacoeconomic perspective. The cost per a 14-day bevacizumab treatment cycle is approximately 31,000 CZK in the Czech Republic. External published pharmacoeconomics analyses have no clear conclusions. Their results are usually expressed as the cost per QALY gained in comparison with a comparator. They differ according to the economic situation of the particular countries. The pharmacoeconomic results have to be confirmed in the real clinical practice, and then the decision should be reassessed by using the uniform methodology, e.g. the Health Technology Assessment (HTA).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , República Tcheca , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
20.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 22(2): 71-79, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth mental health interventions aimed at reducing substance use and delinquency in adolescents compete with other types of interventions for reimbursement from public funding. Within the youth mental health domain, delinquent acts impose high costs on society. These costs should be included in economic evaluations conducted from a societal perspective. Although the relevance of these costs is recognized, they are often left out because the unit costs of delinquent acts are unknown. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aims to provide a method for estimating the unit costs per perpetrator of 14 delinquent acts common in the Netherlands and included in self reported delinquency questionnaires: robbery/theft with violence, simple theft/pickpocketing, receiving stolen goods, destruction/vandalism of private or public property, disorderly conduct/discrimination, arson, cybercrime, simple and aggravated assault, threat, forced sexual contact, unauthorised driving, driving under the influence, dealing in soft drugs, and dealing in hard drugs. METHODS: Information on government expenditures and the incidence of crimes, number of perpetrators, and the percentage of solved and reported crimes was obtained from the national database on crime and justice of the Research and Documentation Centre of the Ministry of Justice and Security, Statistics Netherlands, and the Council for the Judiciary in the Netherlands. We applied a top-down micro costing approach to calculate the point estimate of the unit costs for each of the delinquent acts and, subsequently, estimated the mean (SD) unit costs for each of the delinquent acts by taking random draws from a triangular distribution while taking into account a 10% uncertainty associated with the associated point estimate. RESULTS: The mean (SD) unit costs per delinquent act per perpetrator ranged between EUR495 (EUR1.30) for "Driving under the influence" and EUR33,813 (EUR78.30) for a "Cybercrime". These unit costs may be considered as outliers as most unit costs ranged between EUR 2,600 and EUR 13,500 per delinquent act per perpetrator. DISCUSSION: This study is the first to estimate the unit costs per delinquent act per perpetrator in the Netherlands. The results of this study enable the inclusion of government expenditures associated with crime and justice in economic evaluations conducted from a societal perspective. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: Youth mental health interventions aimed at reducing substance use and delinquency in adolescents are increasingly subjected to economic evaluations. These evaluations are used to inform decisions concerning the allocation of scarce healthcare resources and should cover all the costs and benefits for society, including those associated with delinquent acts. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: The results of this study facilitate economic evaluations of youth mental health interventions aimed at reducing substance use and delinquency in adolescents, conducted from a societal perspective. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Based on health-economic evaluations conducted in the field of youth mental health and the results of the current study, we recommend including the estimated unit costs in guidelines for health-economic evaluations conducted from a societal perspective. Future research could aim at examining whether these unit costs require regular updating. The methodology applied in this study allows for this.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/economia , Delinquência Juvenil/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/economia , Adolescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/reabilitação , Saúde Mental , Países Baixos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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