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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 89-95, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374353

RESUMO

Background: Total laboratory automation (TLA) is an innovation in laboratory technology; however, the high up-front costs restrict its widespread adoption. To examine whether the capital investment for TLA is worthwhile, we analyzed its clinical- and cost-effectiveness for the expected payback period. Methods: Clinical chemistry tests and immunoassays performed in the clinical laboratory of a tertiary care hospital were divided into a post-TLA group, including 1,182,419 tests performed during December 2019, and a pre-TLA group, including 1,151,501 tests performed during December 2018. Laboratory information system data were used to measure clinical effectiveness, and depreciation data were used to calculate TLA costs. Results: Laboratory performance improved after TLA adoption in all four key performance indicators: mean turn-around time (TAT), representing the timeliness of result reporting, decreased by 6.1%; the 99th percentile of TAT, representing the outlier rate, decreased by 13.3%; the TAT CV, representing predictability, decreased by 70.0%; and weighted tube touch moment (wTTM), representing staff safety, improved by 77.6%. Based on these effectiveness results, economic evaluation was performed using two approaches. First, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and wTTM were used as the most cost-effective performance indicators. Second, the expected payback period was calculated. Considering only staff cost reduction, it was anticipated that 4.75 yrs would be needed to payback the initial investment. Conclusions: TLA can significantly enhance laboratory performance, has a relatively quick payback period, and can reduce total hospital expenses in the long term. Therefore, the capital investment for TLA adoption is considered to be worthwhile.


Assuntos
Automação Laboratorial , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Laboratórios , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046609, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of combined scalp acupuncture therapy with speech and language therapy for patients with Broca's aphasia after stroke. DESIGN: A within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis. SETTINGS: Community health centres. SUBJECTS: A total of 203 participants with Broca's aphasia after stroke who had been randomly assigned to receive scalp acupuncture with speech and language therapy (intervention) or speech and language therapy alone (control). INTERVENTION: Both groups underwent speech and language therapy (30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks), while the intervention group simultaneously received scalp acupuncture. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: All outcomes were collected at baseline, and after the 4-week intervention and 12-week follow-up. Cost-effectiveness measures included the Chinese Rehabilitation Research Center Standard Aphasia Examination (CRRCAE) and Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Cost-utility was evaluated using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were expressed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The total cost to deliver the intervention was €4001.72, whereas it was €4323.57 for the control group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios showed that the intervention was cost-effective (€495.1 per BDAE grade gained; €1.8 per CRRCAE score gained; €4597.1 per QALYs gained) relative to the control over the 12 weeks. The intervention had a 56.4% probability of being cost-effective at the ¥50 696 (€6905.87) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita threshold. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with speech and language therapy alone, the addition of scalp acupuncture was cost-effective in Chinese communities. As the costs of acupuncture services in China are likely to differ from other countries, these results should be carefully interpreted and remain to be confirmed in other populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-TRC-13003703.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Afasia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Terapia da Linguagem , Couro Cabeludo , Fala , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049581, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of four different primary screening strategies: high-risk factor questionnaire (HRFQ) alone, single immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT), double iFOBT and HRFQ+double iFOBT for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening compared with no screening using the Markov model. METHODS: Treeage Pro V.2011 software was used to simulate the Markov model. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, which was compared with the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold, was used to reflect the cost-effectiveness of the CRC screening method. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used for parameter uncertainty. RESULTS: All strategies had greater effectiveness because they had more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) than no screening. When the WTP was ¥435 762/QALY, all screening strategies were cost-effective compared with no screening. The double iFOBT strategy was the best-buy option compared with all other strategies because it had the most QALYs and the least cost. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the sensitivity of low-risk adenoma, compliance with colonoscopy and primary screening cost were the main influencing factors comparing single iFOBT, double iFOBT and HRFQ+double iFOBT with no screening. However, within the scope of this study, there was no fundamental impact on cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that when the WTP was ¥435 762/QALY, the probabilities of the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve with HRFQ alone, single iFOBT, double iFOBT and HRFQ+double iFOBT were 0.0%, 5.3%, 69.3% and 25.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: All screening strategies for CRC were cost-effective compared with no screening strategy. Double iFOBT was the best-buy option compared with all other strategies. The significant influencing factors were the sensitivity of low-risk polyps, compliance with colonoscopy and cost of primary screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , China , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050259, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. In Indonesia, the availability of formal treatment for SUD falls short of the targeted coverage. A standardised therapeutic option for SUD with potential for widespread implementation is required, yet evidence-based data in the country are scarce. In this study, we developed a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based group telemedicine model and will investigate effectiveness and implementability in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 220 participants will be recruited from the social networks of eight sites in Indonesia: three hospitals, two primary healthcare centres and three rehabilitation centres. The intervention arm will participate in a relapse prevention programme called the Indonesia Drug Addiction Relapse Prevention Programme (Indo-DARPP), a newly developed 12-week module based on CBT and motivational interviewing constructed in the Indonesian context. The programme will be delivered by a healthcare provider and a peer counsellor in a group therapy setting via video-conferencing, as a supplement to participants' usual treatments. The control arm will continue treatment as usual. The primary outcome will be the percentage increase in days of abstinence from the primarily used substance in the past 28 days. Secondary outcomes will include addiction severity, quality of life, motivation to change, psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, coping, and internalised stigma. Assessments will be performed at baseline (week 0), post-treatment (week 13), and 3 and 12 months post-treatment completion (weeks 24 and 60). Retention, participant satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as the implementation outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committees of Universitas Indonesia and Kyoto University. The results will be disseminated via academic journals and international conferences. Depending on trial outcomes, the treatment programme will be advocated for adoption as a formal healthcare-based approach for SUD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000042186.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia de Grupo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Indonésia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Prevenção Secundária , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
5.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604025, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531712

RESUMO

Objectives: Rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions in Chinese populations have contributed to the growth in childhood obesity. This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of a school- and family-based childhood obesity prevention programme in China. Methods: A trial-based economic evaluation assessed cost-effectiveness at 12 months. Forty schools with 1,641 children were randomised to either receive the multi-component (diet and physical activity) intervention or to continue with usual activities. Both public sector and societal perspectives were adopted. Costs and benefits in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were compared and uncertainty was assessed using established UK and US thresholds. Results: The intervention cost was 35.53 Yuan (£7.04/US$10.01) per child from a public sector perspective and 536.95 Yuan (£106/US$151) from a societal perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was 272.7 Yuan (£54/US$77)/BMI z-score change. The ICER was 8,888 Yuan (£1,760/US$2,502) and 73,831 Yuan (£14,620/US$20,796) per QALY from a public sector and societal perspective, respectively and was cost-effective using UK (£20,000) and US (US$50,000) per QALY thresholds. Conclusion: A multi-component school-based prevention programme is a cost-effective means of preventing childhood obesity in China.


Assuntos
Família , Obesidade Pediátrica , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 909, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of six diagnostic strategies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted biopsy for diagnosing prostate cancer in initial and repeat biopsy settings from the Singapore healthcare system perspective. METHODS: A combined decision tree and Markov model was developed. The starting model population was men with mean age of 65 years referred for a first prostate biopsy due to clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. The six diagnostic strategies were selected for their relevance to local clinical practice. They comprised MRI targeted biopsy following a positive pre-biopsy multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) [Prostate Imaging - Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score ≥ 3], systematic biopsy, or saturation biopsy employed in different testing combinations and sequences. Deterministic base case analyses with sensitivity analyses were performed using costs from the healthcare system perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained as the outcome measure to yield incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS: Deterministic base case analyses showed that Strategy 1 (MRI targeted biopsy alone), Strategy 2 (MRI targeted biopsy ➔ systematic biopsy), and Strategy 4 (MRI targeted biopsy ➔ systematic biopsy ➔ saturation biopsy) were cost-effective options at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of US$20,000, with ICERs ranging from US$18,975 to US$19,458. Strategies involving MRI targeted biopsy in the repeat biopsy setting were dominated. Sensitivity analyses found the ICERs were affected mostly by changes to the annual discounting rate and prevalence of prostate cancer in men referred for first biopsy, ranging between US$15,755 to US$23,022. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed Strategy 1 to be the least costly, and Strategies 2 and 4 being the preferred strategies when WTP thresholds were US$20,000 and US$30,000, respectively. LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: This study found MRI targeted biopsy to be cost-effective in diagnosing prostate cancer in the biopsy-naïve setting in Singapore.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Biópsia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Singapura/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 916, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification of people at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an important step in preventing or delaying its onset. Pharmacies can serve as a significant channel to reach these people. This study aimed to assess the potential health economic impact of screening and recruitment services in pharmacies in referring people to preventive interventions. METHODS: A decision analytic model was constructed to perform a cost-utility analysis of the expected national health economic consequences (in terms of costs and quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) of a hypothetical pharmacy-based service where people screened and recruited through pharmacies would participate in a digital lifestyle program. Cost-effectiveness was considered in terms of net monetary benefit (NMB). In addition, social return on investment (SROI) was calculated as the ratio of the intervention and recruitment costs and the net present value of expected savings. Payback time was the time taken to reach the break-even point in savings. In the base scenario, a 20-year time horizon was applied. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were applied to study robustness of the results. RESULTS: In the base scenario, the expected savings from the pharmacy-based screening and recruitment among the reached target cohort were 255.3 m€ (95% CI - 185.2 m€ to 717.2 m€) in pharmacy visiting population meaning 1412€ (95% CI - 1024€ to 3967€) expected savings per person. Additionally, 7032 QALYs (95% CI - 1344 to 16,143) were gained on the population level. The intervention had an NMB of 3358€ (95% CI - 1397€ to 8431€) using a cost-effectiveness threshold of 50,000 €/QALY. The initial costs were 122.2 m€ with an SROI of 2.09€ (95% CI - 1.52€ to 5.88€). The expected payback time was 10 and 8 years for women and men, respectively. Results were most sensitive for changes in effectiveness of the intervention and selected discount rate. CONCLUSIONS: T2D screening and recruitment to prevention programs conducted via pharmacies was a dominant option providing both cost savings and QALY gains. The highest savings can be potentially reached by targeting recruitment at men at elevated risk of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Farmácias , Farmácia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
8.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00076320, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495091

RESUMO

In several countries, primary care for pregnant women is performed by obstetric nurses and/or midwives. In Brazil's Supplementary Health System (private health insurance and out-of-pocket care), coverage of prenatal care is mandatory and is performed by medical obstetricians. The objective of this study is to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing clinical outcomes and costs associated with the incorporation of prenatal care by obstetric nurses and midwives in the Supplementary Health System, from the perspective of the operator of health plans as the payment source. A decision tree was built, based on data from a Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis that showed a reduction in the risk of premature birth in the group of normal-risk pregnant women accompanied by obstetric nurses and midwives. The analysis only considered the direct medical costs covered by health plan operators for essential appointments and tests, according to the prevailing Ministry of Health protocol. The study assumed equal unit costs of consultations by medical professionals and applied an increase in the overall cost of prenatal tests associated with medical follow-up, based on data from the literature. Incremental cost-effective ratio was estimated at -BRL 10,038.43 (savings of BRL 10,038.43) per premature birth avoided. This result was consistent with the sensitivity analyses, with savings associated with the substitution ranging from -BRL 2,544.60 to -BRL 31,807.46 per premature death avoided. In conclusion, prenatal care provided by obstetric nurses and midwives was superior to that provided by medical obstetricians for the prevention of premature birth, besides resulting in cost savings.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal
9.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1972561, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are highly prevalent conditions that constitute a major public health and economic burden on society in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the increased demand for economic evidence to support resource allocation for scaled-up implementation of mental health services in these contexts, economic evaluations of psychological treatments for CMDs remain scarce. OBJECTIVE: The proposed systematic review aims to synthesize findings on methods and outcomes of economic evaluations of psychological treatments for CMDs in LMICs and appraise quality. METHODS: We will identify, select, and extract data from published economic evaluations of psychological interventions for CMDs conducted in LMICs. We will search bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, EconLit, PsycINFO, Africa-Wide Information, Cochrane library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry), and the African Journals Online (AJOL) and Google Scholar platforms. Only full economic evaluations (Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Utility Analysis (CUA), Cost-Consequence Analysis (CCA), or Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)) of psychological treatments for CMDs (defined as depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders) conducted in LMICs will be included. There will be no restrictions based on date of publication, perspective, follow-up duration or sample size. Data extraction will be guided by the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. RESULTS: The results presented will be examined using a narrative synthesis approach. The quality of included studies will be assessed using the Drummond & Jefferson checklist. CONCLUSION: The fledgling evidence base in this area provides an opportunity to promote improved economic evaluation methods in line with repeated calls for economic evidence alongside effectiveness evidence in these settings. A rigorously developed economic evaluation evidence base will support resource allocation decisions for scaled up implementation of psychological interventions in LMIC settings. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020185277.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais , África , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pobreza
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051503, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several treatment options are available for COVID-19 to date. However, the use of a combination of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is necessary for jurisdictions to contain its spread. Although the implementation cost of NPIs may be low from the healthcare system perspective, it can be costly when considering the indirect costs from the societal perspective. COVID-19 vaccination campaigns have begun in several countries worldwide. Nonetheless, the quantity of vaccines available remain limited over the next 1 to 2 years. A tool for informing vaccine prioritisation that considers both cost and effectiveness will be highly useful. This study aims to identify the most cost-effective combination of COVID-19 response policies, using Singapore as an example. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: An age-stratified Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model will be used to generate the number of infections stratified by disease severity under different intervention scenarios. Polices of interest include test-trace-isolate, travel restriction, compulsory face mask and hygiene practices, social distancing, dexamethasone/remdesivir therapy and vaccination. The latest phase 3 trial results and the WHO Target Product Profiles for COVID-19 vaccines will be used to model vaccine characteristics. A cost (expected resource utilisation and productivity losses) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) will be attached to these outputs for a cost-utility analysis. The primary outcome measure will be the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio generated from the incremental cost of policy alternatives expressed as a ratio of the incremental benefits (QALYs gained). Efficacy of policy options will be gathered from literature review and from its observed impacts in Singapore. Cost data will be gathered from healthcare institutions, Ministry of Health and published data. Sensitivity analysis such as threshold analysis and scenario analysis will be conducted. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was not required for this study. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Trials ; 22(1): 630, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malawi is a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa that has limited resources to address a significant burden of disease-including HIV/AIDS. Additionally, depression is a leading cause of disability in the country but largely remains undiagnosed and untreated. The lack of cost-effective, scalable solutions is a fundamental barrier to expanding depression treatment. Against this backdrop, one major success has been the scale-up of a network of more than 700 HIV clinics, with over half a million patients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART). As a chronic care system with dedicated human resources and infrastructure, this presents a strategic platform for integrating depression care and responds to a robust evidence base outlining the bi-directionality of depression and HIV outcomes. METHODS: We will evaluate a stepped model of depression care that combines group-based Problem Management Plus (group PM+) with antidepressant therapy (ADT) for 420 adults with moderate/severe depression in Neno District, Malawi, as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Roll-out will follow a stepped-wedge cluster randomized design in which 14 health facilities are randomized to implement the model in five steps over a 15-month period. Primary outcomes (depression symptoms, functional impairment, and overall health) and secondary outcomes (e.g., HIV: viral load, ART adherence; diabetes: A1C levels, treatment adherence; hypertension: systolic blood pressure, treatment adherence) will be measured every 3 months through 12-month follow-up. We will also evaluate the model's cost-effectiveness, quantified as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) compared to baseline chronic care services in the absence of the intervention model. DISCUSSION: This study will conduct a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial to compare the effects of an evidence-based depression care model versus usual care on depression symptom remediation as well as physical health outcomes for chronic care conditions. If determined to be cost-effective, this study will provide a model for integrating depression care into HIV clinics in additional districts of Malawi and other low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04777006 . Registered on 1 March, 2021.


Assuntos
Depressão , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/terapia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malaui , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Carga Viral
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 897, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary catheters are useful among hospital patients for allowing urinary flows and preparing patients for surgery. However, urinary infections associated with catheters cause significant patient discomfort and burden hospital resources. A nurse led intervention aiming to reduce inpatient catheterisation rates was recently trialled among adult overnight patients in four New South Wales hospitals. It included: 'train-the trainer' workshops, site champions, compliance audits and promotional materials. This study is the 'in-trial' cost-effectiveness analysis, conducted from the perspective of the New South Wales Ministry of Health. METHODS: The primary outcome variable was catheterisation rates. Catheterisation and procedure/treatment data were collected in three point prevalence patient surveys: pre-intervention (n = 1630), 4-months (n = 1677), and 9-months post-intervention (n = 1551). Intervention costs were based on trial records while labour costs were gathered from wage awards. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios were calculated for 4- and 9-months post-intervention and tested with non-parametric bootstrapping. Sensitivity scenarios recalculated results after adjusting costs and parameters. RESULTS: The trial found reductions in catheterisations across the four hospitals between preintervention (12.0 % (10.4 - 13.5 %), n = 195) and the 4- (9.9 % (8.5 - 11.3 %), n = 166 ) and 9- months (10.2 % (8.7 - 11.7 %) n = 158) post-intervention points. The trend was statistically non-significant (p = 0.1). Only one diagnosed CAUTI case was observed across the surveys. However, statistically and clinically significant decreases in catheterisation rates occurred for medical and critical care wards, and among female patients and short-term catheterisations. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios at 4-months and 9-months post-intervention were $188 and $264. Bootstrapping found reductions in catheterisations at positive costs over at least 72 % of iterations. Sensitivity scenarios showed that cost effectiveness was most responsive to changes in catheterisation rates. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis showed that the association between the intervention and changes in catheterisation rates was not statistically significant. However, the intervention resulted in statistically significant reductions for subgroups including among short-term catheterisations and female patients. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed that reductions in catheterisations were most likely achieved at positive cost. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12617000090314). First hospital enrolment, 15/11/2016; last hospital enrolment, 8/12/2016.


Assuntos
Cateteres de Demora , Cateteres Urinários , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Cateterismo Urinário
13.
Trials ; 22(1): 581, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older people account for 25% of all Emergency Department (ED) admissions. This is expected to rise with an ageing demographic. Older people often present to the ED with complex medical needs in the setting of multiple comorbidities. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) has been shown to improve outcomes in an inpatient setting but clear evidence of benefit in the ED setting has not been established. It is not feasible to offer this resource-intensive assessment to all older adults in a timely fashion. Screening tools for frailty have been used to identify those at most risk for adverse outcomes following ED visit. The overall aim of this study is to examine the impact of CGA on the quality, safety and cost-effectiveness of care in an undifferentiated population of frail older people with medical complaints who present to the ED and Acute Medical Assessment Unit. METHODS: This will be a parallel 1:1 allocation randomised control trial. All patients who are ≥ 75 years will be screened for frailty using the Identification of Seniors At Risk (ISAR) tool. Those with a score of ≥ 2 on the ISAR will be randomised. The treatment arm will undergo geriatric medicine team-led CGA in the ED or Acute Medical Assessment Unit whereas the non-treatment arm will undergo usual patient care. A dedicated multidisciplinary team of a specialist geriatric medicine doctor, senior physiotherapist, specialist nurse, pharmacist, senior occupational therapist and senior medical social worker will carry out the assessment, as well as interventions that arise from that assessment. Primary outcomes will be the length of stay in the ED or Acute Medical Assessment Unit. Secondary outcomes will include ED re-attendance, re-hospitalisation, functional decline, quality of life and mortality at 30 days and 180 days. These will be determined by telephone consultation and electronic records by a research nurse blinded to group allocation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Service Executive (HSE) Mid-Western Regional Hospital Research Ethics Committee (088/2020). Our lay dissemination strategy will be developed in collaboration with our Patient and Public Involvement stakeholder panel of older people at the Ageing Research Centre and we will present our findings in peer-reviewed journals and national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04629690 . Registered on November 16, 2020.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/terapia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hospitais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Telefone
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17787, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493774

RESUMO

Despite COVID-19's significant morbidity and mortality, considering cost-effectiveness of pharmacologic treatment strategies for hospitalized patients remains critical to support healthcare resource decisions within budgetary constraints. As such, we calculated the cost-effectiveness of using remdesivir and dexamethasone for moderate to severe COVID-19 respiratory infections using the United States health care system as a representative model. A decision analytic model modelled a base case scenario of a 60-year-old patient admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Patients requiring oxygen were considered moderate severity, and patients with severe COVID-19 required intubation with intensive care. Strategies modelled included giving remdesivir to all patients, remdesivir in only moderate and only severe infections, dexamethasone to all patients, dexamethasone in severe infections, remdesivir in moderate/dexamethasone in severe infections, and best supportive care. Data for the model came from the published literature. The time horizon was 1 year; no discounting was performed due to the short duration. The perspective was of the payer in the United States health care system. Supportive care for moderate/severe COVID-19 cost $11,112.98 with 0.7155 quality adjusted life-year (QALY) obtained. Using dexamethasone for all patients was the most-cost effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $980.84/QALY; all remdesivir strategies were more costly and less effective. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed dexamethasone for all patients was most cost-effective in 98.3% of scenarios. Dexamethasone for moderate-severe COVID-19 infections was the most cost-effective strategy and would have minimal budget impact. Based on current data, remdesivir is unlikely to be a cost-effective treatment for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/economia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/economia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dexametasona/economia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Respiração Artificial/economia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498235

RESUMO

A stroke is the most common cause for disability in the adult population. Rehabilitation is the tool to reduce the consequences of impairment. However, the continuum of stroke care is fragmented and rehabilitation is often lacking and unevenly distributed along the care pathway. In order to find potential cost-effective solutions, we have analysed the Swedish stroke care service system by using a three-level framework, i.e. micro, meso, and macro levels. At the micro level, a standardized and regular follow-up including assessment of rehabilitation needs is needed to facilitate effective rehabilitation and timely transition of care. The evidence-based rehabilitation including increasing rehabilitation intensity should be implemented in the whole care chain. At the meso level, a tight collaboration between different medical specialities is necessary to build a cost-effective stroke care. The awareness of rehabilitation needs and possibilities to respond to these require increased education about rehabilitation for the health care staff. Both undergraduate teaching as well as speciality training should include rehabilitation. The use of tele-medicine can be a way forward to provide rehabilitation in the same manner for more people and in different parts of the country.  Together with these micro and meso level solutions, additional recourses need to be prioritized at the macro level in order to facilitate the improvement of the cost-effective continuum of stroke care.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e053004, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a single session compared with multiple sessions of education and exercise for older adults with spinal pain treated conservatively in an advanced practice physiotherapy model of care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, 152 older adults (≥65 years old) with neck or back pain initially referred for a consultation in neurosurgery, but treated conservatively, will be recruited through the advanced practice physiotherapy neurosurgery CareAxis programme in the Montreal region (Quebec, Canada). In the CareAxis programme, older patients with spinal pain are triaged by an advance practice physiotherapist and are offered conservative care and only potential surgical candidates are referred to a neurosurgeon. Participants will be randomised into one of two arms: 1-a single session or 2-multiple sessions (6 sessions over 12 weeks) of education and exercise with the advance practice physiotherapist (1:1 ratio). The primary outcome measure will be the Brief Pain Inventory (pain severity and interference subscales). Secondary measures will include self-reported disability (the Neck Disability Index or Oswestry Disability Index), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, satisfaction with care questionnaires (9-item Visit-specific Satisfaction Questionnaire and MedRisk), and the EQ-5D-5L. Participants' healthcare resources use and related costs will be measured. Outcomes will be collected at baseline and at 6, 12 and 26 weeks after enrolment. Intention-to-treat analyses will be performed, and repeated mixed-model analysis of variance will assess differences between treatment arms. Cost-utility analyses will be conducted from the perspective of the healthcare system. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained from the Comité d'éthique de la recherche du CIUSS de l'Est-de-l'Île-de-Montréal (FWA00001935 and IRB00002087). Results of this study will be presented to different stakeholders, published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. PROTOCOL VERSION: V.4 August 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04868591; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Fisioterapeutas , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047771, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497078

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder that is often inadequately treated. OBJECTIVE: To determine if adding a self-management intervention to care as usual (CAU) is effective and safe. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled, rater-blind trial. Duration of treatment and assessments: 12 months. SETTING: Secondary care, recruited mainly via the internet. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with BPD and BPD Severity Index (BPDSI) of at least 15. INTERVENTIONS: CAU by treating psychiatrist and/or psychotherapist alone or adjunctive use of an internet-based self-management intervention that is based on schema therapy (priovi). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Outcomes were assessed by trained raters. The primary outcome was change in BPDSI. The safety outcome was the number of serious adverse events (SAEs). The primary outcome time point was 12 months after randomisation. RESULTS: Of 383 participants assessed for eligibility, 204 were included (91.7% female, mean age: 32.4 years; 74% were in psychotherapy and 26% were in psychiatric treatment). The slope of BPDSI change did not differ significantly between groups from baseline to 12 months (F3,248= 1.857, p=0.14). At 12 months, the within-group effect sizes were d=1.38 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.68) for the intervention group and d=1.02 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.31) for the control group. The between-group effect size was d=0.27 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.55) in the intention-to-treat sample and d=0.39 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.68) for those who used the intervention for at least 3 hours (per-protocol sample). We found no significant differences in SAEs. CONCLUSIONS: We have not found a significant effect in favour of the intervention. This might be due to the unexpectedly large effect in the group receiving CAU by a psychiatrist and/or psychotherapist alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03418142.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Autogestão , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Psicoterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048141, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The combination of biomarkers and drugs is the subject of growing interest both from regulators, physicians and companies. This study protocol of a systematic review is aimed to describe available literature evidences about the cost-effectiveness, cost-utility or net-monetary benefit of the use of biomarkers in solid tumour as tools for customising immunotherapy to identify what further research needs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review of the literature will be carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guidelines. PubMed and Embase will be queried from June 2010 to June 2021. The PICOS model will be applied: target population (P) will be patients with solid tumours treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs); the interventions (I) will be test of the immune checkpoint predictive biomarkers; the comparator (C) will be any other targeted or non-targeted therapy; outcomes (O) evaluated will be health economic and clinical implications assessed in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, net health benefit, net monetary benefit, life years gained, quality of life, etc; study (S) considered will be economic evaluations reporting cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, net-monetary benefit. The quality of the evidence will be graded according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review will assess the cost-effectiveness implications of using biomarkers in the immunotherapy with ICIs, which may help to understand whether this approach is widespread in real clinical practice. This research is exempt from ethics approval because the work is carried out on published documents. We will disseminate this protocol in a related peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020201549.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Biomarcadores , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e039594, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of a Community-based Hypertension Improvement Project (ComHIP) compared with standard hypertension care in Ghana. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov model. SETTING: Lower Manya Krobo, Eastern Region, Ghana. INTERVENTION: We evaluated ComHIP, an intervention with multiple components, including: community-based education on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and healthy lifestyles; community-based screening and monitoring of blood pressure by licensed chemical sellers and CVD nurses; community-based diagnosis, treatment, counselling, follow-up and referral of hypertension patients by CVD nurses; telemedicine consultation by CVD nurses and referral of patients with severe hypertension and/or organ damage to a physician; information and communication technologies messages for healthy lifestyles, treatment adherence support and treatment refill reminders for hypertension patients; Commcare, a cloud-based health records system linked to short-message service (SMS)/voice messaging for treatment adherence, reminders and health messaging. ComHIP was evaluated under two scale-up scenarios: (1) ComHIP as currently implemented with support from international partners and (2) ComHIP under full local implementation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incremental cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a societal perspective over a time horizon of 10 years. RESULTS: ComHIP is unlikely to be a cost-effective intervention, with current ComHIP implementation and ComHIP under full local implementation costing on average US$12 189 and US$6530 per DALY averted, respectively. Results were robust to uncertainty analyses around model parameters. CONCLUSIONS: High overhead costs and high patient costs in ComHIP suggest that the societal costs of ensuring appropriate hypertension care are high and may not produce sufficient impact to achieve cost-effective implementation. However, these results are limited by the evidence quality of the effectiveness estimates, which comes from observational data rather than from randomised controlled study design.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Pressão Sanguínea , Análise Custo-Benefício , Gana , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia
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