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1.
Brasília; CONITEC; nov. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1120427

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A artrite psoríaca (AP) é uma doença articular inflamatória crônica, sendo associada comumente à pacientes com psoríase. A AP pode causar danos e incapacidade articular permanente. A AP pertence ao grupo das espondiloartrites. As espondiloartrites são caracterizadas por apresentar sorologia negativa do fator reumatoide e acometimento da pele (psoríase), unhas (ungueal), articulações periféricas, do esqueleto axial (espondilite ou sacroileíte), entesites (local de inserção de tendões, ligamentos e cápsula articular às superfícies ósseas) e dactilites ("dedo em salsicha"). O Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas (PCDT) de AP divide o tratamento em não medicamentoso e medicamentoso. O tratamento não medicamentoso consiste no controle de fatores relacionados ao risco aumentado de outras doenças crônicas e o no incentivo aos hábitos saudáveis. Já o medicamentoso pode incluir as seguintes classes farmacológicas: anti-inflamatórios não esteroides (AINEs), medicamentos modificadores do curso da doença sintéticos (MMCD-s) e os MMCD biológicos (MMCD-b), que incluem os medicamentos anti-TNF adalimumabe, etanercepte, infliximabe e golimumabe; e o inibidor de citocinas anti-IL-17, secuquinumabe 300 mg, para os casos de resposta inadequada aos MMCD-b anti-TNF. PERGUNTA DEMANDANTE: Certolizumabe pegol é mais eficaz e seguro em pacientes com AP, moderada a grave, resistente ao tratamento com AINEs e MMCD-s, com falha prévia ao uso de MMCD-b, anti-TNF atualmente disponíveis no SUS, em comparação ao secuquinumabe 300 mg? TECNOLOGIA: Certolizumabe Pegol (Cimzia®). EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: Foram incluídas cinco publicações (um ensaio clínico randomizado - ECR, RAPID-PsA, com quatro relatos, e um estudo observacional). Além disso, o demandante apresentou três ECR (FUTURE 2, 3 e 5) com três relatos cada. Os estudos FUTURE e o estudo RAPID-PSA fizeram parte da revisão sistemática (RS) com meta-análise em rede (network meta-analysis, NMA). A RS com NMA, principal estudo apresentado pelo demandante, avaliou os desfechos periféricos de AP (ACR20, ACR50, ACR70, PsARC) e os desfechos de segurança do certolizumabe pegol em comparação ao secuquinumabe 300 mg. O ECR RAPID-PsA comparou certolizumabe pegol com placebo, avaliando os desfechos de eficácia, em 96 semanas e 216 semanas. A segurança, comparada com placebo, foi avaliada em 216 semanas de tratamento. Já o estudo observacional avaliou os seguintes desfechos: taxa de descontinuação, persistência e adesão ao longo de 12 meses. Apenas um estudo avaliou o desfecho MDA, que é considerado pelo PCDT de AP como o desfecho mais adequado para a doença, porém foi contra placebo (RAPID-PsA 216 semanas). AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: Foi conduzido um estudo de custo-minimização para utilização do certolizumabe pegol na última etapa de terapia com MMCD-b, comparando-se com secuquinumabe 300 mg, sob a perspectiva do SUS, em um horizonte temporal de um ano. O tratamento com certolizumabe pegol, para a indicação proposta, resultaria em uma redução de custos de R$ 6.211,20 por paciente em comparação ao secuquinumabe 300 mg. AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: O impacto orçamentário mostrou uma economia de recursos de aproximadamente 72 milhões com a incorporação do certolizumabe pegol em 5 anos. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: As evidências demonstram que certolizumabe pegol é eficaz e seguro contra placebo. Os resultados da RS com NMA sugerem uma possível similaridade entre as tecnologias, porém associada a importantes limitações principalmente para os desfechos de ACR (20/50/70) e de segurança. Os ECR incluídos e avaliados pelo Rob 2.0 apresentaram alto risco de viés, pois muitos desfechos não foram planejados. Os achados do estudo observacional, taxa de descontinuação, persistência e adesão ao longo de 12 meses, demonstram inferioridade do certolizumabe pegol em relação aos MMCD-b disponíveis no PCDT vigente para AP. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: A Conitec em sua 80ª reunião ordinária, no dia 08 de agosto de 2019, recomendou a não incorporação no SUS do certolizumabe pegol para pacientes com artrite psoríaca, moderada a grave, resistente ao tratamento com anti-inflamatórios não esteroides, medicamentos modificadores do curso da doença sintéticos e medicamentos modificadores do curso da doença biológico, anti-TNF. Considerou-se que as evidências científicas são frágeis, principalmente do ponto de vista metodológico. Além disso, existem muitas limitações e incertezas na possível economia informada pelo fabricante, devido as evidências apresentadas para subsidiar o estudo de custo-minimização e análise de impacto orçamentário. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: A Consulta Pública nº 54/2019 foi realizada entre os dias 30/08/2019 a 18/09/2019. Foram recebidas 81 contribuições no total, das quais 38 (47%) foram pelo formulário para contribuições técnico-científicas e 43 (53%) pelo formulário para contribuições sobre experiência ou opinião de pacientes, familiares, amigos ou cuidadores de pacientes, profissionais de saúde ou pessoas interessadas no tema. Das 38 contribuições de cunho técnico-científico, 76% discordaram totalmente, 8% discordaram parcialmente, 3% concordaram parcialmente e 13% concordaram totalmente com a recomendação preliminar da Conitec. Das 43 contribuições recebidas sobre experiência ou opinião, apenas 29 foram avaliadas, pois quatorze vieram em branco. Cerca de 83% discordaram totalmente, 10% discordaram parcialmente e 7% concordaram totalmente com a recomendação preliminar da Conitec. Após a apreciação das contribuições encaminhadas na consulta pública nº 54/2019, o plenário da Conitec considerou que: I) os dados da comparação indireta demonstraram que a eficácia e segurança do certolizumabe pegol são semelhantes ao secuquinumabe 300 mg; II) Foram apresentados pelo demandante estudos de segurança do certolizumabe durante a gestação e lactação; III) A avaliação de custo-minimização e a AIO demonstram economia em comparação ao secuquinumabe 300 mg. RECOMENDAÇÃO FINAL DA CONITEC: Os membros da Conitec presentes na 82ª reunião ordinária, no dia 09 de outubro de 2019, deliberaram por unanimidade recomendar a incorporação do certolizumabe pegol para o tratamento de pacientes adultos com artrite psoríaca ativa, moderada a grave, que tiveram resposta inadequada prévia aos anti-inflamatórios não esteroides, medicamentos modificadores do curso da doença sintéticos, e aos medicamentos modificadores do curso da doença biológicos, anti-TNF, disponíveis no SUS. Foi assinado o Registro de Deliberação nº 476/2019. DECISÃO: Incorporar o certolizumabe pegol para o tratamento da artrite psoríaca, conforme Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas do Ministério da Saúde, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS. Dada pela Portaria nº 59, publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 224, seção 1, página 79, em 20 de novembro de 2019.


Assuntos
Humanos , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Certolizumab Pegol/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
2.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20009, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016627

RESUMO

Successful management and utilization of increasingly large genomic datasets is essential for breeding programs to accelerate cultivar development. To help with this, we developed a Sorghum bicolor Practical Haplotype Graph (PHG) pangenome database that stores haplotypes and variant information. We developed two PHGs in sorghum that were used to identify genome-wide variants for 24 founders of the Chibas sorghum breeding program from 0.01x sequence coverage. The PHG called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with 5.9% error at 0.01x coverage-only 3% higher than PHG error when calling SNPs from 8x coverage sequence. Additionally, 207 progenies from the Chibas genomic selection (GS) training population were sequenced and processed through the PHG. Missing genotypes were imputed from PHG parental haplotypes and used for genomic prediction. Mean prediction accuracies with PHG SNP calls range from .57-.73 and are similar to prediction accuracies obtained with genotyping-by-sequencing or targeted amplicon sequencing (rhAmpSeq) markers. This study demonstrates the use of a sorghum PHG to impute SNPs from low-coverage sequence data and shows that the PHG can unify genotype calls across multiple sequencing platforms. By reducing input sequence requirements, the PHG can decrease the cost of genotyping, make GS more feasible, and facilitate larger breeding populations. Our results demonstrate that the PHG is a useful research and breeding tool that maintains variant information from a diverse group of taxa, stores sequence data in a condensed but readily accessible format, unifies genotypes across genotyping platforms, and provides a cost-effective option for genomic selection.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Análise Custo-Benefício , Genoma , Genômica , Haplótipos , Sorghum/genética
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038390, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In order to avoid unnecessary hospital admission and associated complications, there is an urgent need to improve the early detection of infection in nursing home residents. Monitoring signs and symptoms with checklists or aids called decision support tools may help nursing home staff to detect infection in residents, particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic.We plan to conduct a survey exploring views and experiences of how infections are detected and managed in practice by nurses, care workers and managers in nursing homes in England and Sweden. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: An international cross-sectional descriptive survey, using a pretested questionnaire, will be used to explore nurses, care workers and managers views and experiences of how infections are detected and managed in practice in nursing homes. Data will be analysed descriptively and univariate associations between personal and organisational factors explored. This will help identify important factors related to awareness, knowledge, attitudes, belief and skills likely to affect future implementation of a decision support tool for the early detection of infection in nursing home residents. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved using the self-certification process at the University of Surrey and Linköping University ethics committee (Approval 2018/514-32) in 2018. Study findings will be disseminated through community/stakeholder/service user engagement events in each country, publication in academic peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. A LAY summary will be provided to participants who indicate they would like to receive this information.This is the first stage of a plan of work to revise and evaluate the Early Detection of Infection Scale (EDIS) tool and its effect on managing infections and reducing unplanned hospital admissions in nursing home residents. Implementation of the EDIS tool may have important implications for the healthcare economy; this will be explored in cost-benefit analyses as the work progresses.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Hospitalização , Humanos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/economia , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gerenciamento da Prática Profissional/economia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Suécia/epidemiologia
4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 625-635, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046914

RESUMO

Livestock production systems and the societies in which they are embedded face a set of risks presented by infectious diseases and natural and human-made disasters which compromise animal health. Within this set, threats are posed by natural, deliberate and accidental actions that can cause sudden changes in animal health status, requiring the allocation of additional resources to manage animal health. Determining the benefit of preparing for such emergencies is a challenge when the total set of risks includes the unknown. Any method for analysing the economic costs and benefits of animal health emergencies must not only accommodate this uncertainty, but make it a central feature of the analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is a key approach to economically evaluating animal health interventions. However, the value of this approach in dealing with uncertainty is often called into question. This paper makes the case that, by restricting the outcomes of an emergency event to specified states of nature, boundaries can be placed on the uncertainty space, allowing cost-benefit analysis to be performed. This method, which merges state-contingent analysis with cost-benefit analysis, is presented here. Further discussion on the economic characteristics of emergency events, and the nature of the threats posed to animal health systems, is also provided.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Desastres , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Análise Custo-Benefício , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos , Gado
5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 534-544, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016405

RESUMO

Many states are adopting more stringent nutrient load restrictions, requiring utilities to invest in costly improvements. To date, substantial research has been done to independently assess the nutrient removal efficacy of wastewater treatment technologies and stormwater control measures. The analysis presented here provides a unique assessment by evaluating combinations of nutrient load reduction strategies across water supply, wastewater, and stormwater sectors. A demonstration study was conducted evaluating 7812 cross-sector removal strategies in the urban water system using empirical models to quantify efficacy of common wastewater treatment, water management, and stormwater control measures (SCMs). Pareto optimal solutions were evaluated to identify the most cost-effective strategies. To meet stringent nutrient requirements, wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs) will likely require advanced biological nutrient removal with carbon and ferric addition. Even with these technologies, WWTFs may still be unable to obtain target nutrient requirements. In addition, municipalities can consider water management practices and SCMs to further reduce nutrient loading or provide a more cost-effective nutrient removal strategy. For water management practices, source separation and effluent reuse were frequently identified as part of the most effective nutrient strategies but face engineering, political, and social adoption barriers. Similarly, SCMs were frequently part of effective nutrient removal strategies compared to only adopting nutrient removal practices at WWTFs. This research provides the framework and demonstrates the value in using an urban water system approach to identify optimal nutrient removal strategies that can be easily applied to other urban areas.


Assuntos
Nutrientes , Água , Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , Águas Residuárias
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we predict the health and economic consequences of immediate investment in personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care workers (HCWs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: To account for health consequences, we estimated mortality for HCWs and present a cost-effectiveness and return on investment (ROI) analysis using a decision-analytic model with Bayesian multivariate sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. Data sources included inputs from the World Health Organization Essential Supplies Forecasting Tool and the Imperial College of London epidemiologic model. RESULTS: An investment of $9.6 billion USD would adequately protect HCWs in all LMICs. This intervention would save 2,299,543 lives across LMICs, costing $59 USD per HCW case averted and $4,309 USD per HCW life saved. The societal ROI would be $755.3 billion USD, the equivalent of a 7,932% return. Regional and national estimates are also presented. DISCUSSION: In scenarios where PPE remains scarce, 70-100% of HCWs will get infected, irrespective of nationwide social distancing policies. Maintaining HCW infection rates below 10% and mortality below 1% requires inclusion of a PPE scale-up strategy as part of the pandemic response. In conclusion, wide-scale procurement and distribution of PPE for LMICs is an essential strategy to prevent widespread HCW morbidity and mortality. It is cost-effective and yields a large downstream return on investment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/economia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Teorema de Bayes , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Pandemias/economia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2901-2904, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018613

RESUMO

This paper reported data-driven functional connectivity (FC) analytical method to investigate functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based connectivity. We evaluated the synchronization of oxygenated hemoglobin using Pearson's correlation and employed orthogonal minimal spanning trees (OMSTs) in characterizing brain connectivity. Then we compared the resultant global cost efficiency and robustness with those generated by non-human i.e. lattice and random networks. We also further benchmarked our method using proportional threshold. Results from 59 healthy subjects demonstrated global cost efficiency and assortativity varied in lattice and random network significantly (p < 0.05), highlighting the potential of OMSTs in extracting true neuronal network. Moreover, the inadequate of proportional threshold in extracting small world network from the same dataset supported that the OMSTs might be the better alternative in FC analysis especially in evaluating cost-efficiency and robustness of network.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Encéfalo , Análise Custo-Benefício
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(7): 1312-1326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079712

RESUMO

The Municipality of Asker (Norway) is at risk of not meeting the water quality targets set by the European Union Water Framework Directive within the stipulated timeframe. While there are multiple factors negatively impacting water quality in the municipality, wastewater is likely to be a major contributor. Infiltration and inflow water (I/I-water) leads to a number of unwanted consequences, of which direct discharge of untreated wastewater through overflow points is particularly important. In Aker municipality the portion of I/I-water is about 63%, while the goal is to achieve a level of about 30%. This study utilises a socio-economic cost-effectiveness analysis of measures to prevent sewer overflows into waterbodies. The most effective alternative identified in the analysis is a complete renovation of old pipes in combination with troubleshooting for faulty stormwater connections, when compared to alternatives considering upsizing/retention. I/I-water cost the municipality of Asker NOK34 million in 2017, when using a price of NOK16,434 for each kg of total phosphorus (Tot-P) let into the recipient water bodies. If the phosphorus cost is equal to or less than NOK17,806/kg Tot-P, then it will not be socio-economically justified to reduce I/I-water.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Água , Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , Noruega
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-benefits analysis of a clinical pharmacy (CP) service implemented in a Neurology ward of a tertiary teaching hospital. METHODS: This is a cost-benefit analysis of a single arm, prospective cohort study performed at the adult Neurology Unit over 36 months, which has evaluated the results of a CP service from a hospital and Public Health System (PHS) perspective. The interventions were classified into 14 categories and the costs identified as direct medical costs. The results were analyzed by the total and marginal cost, the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and the net benefit (NB). RESULTS: The total 334 patients were followed-up and the highest occurrence in 506 interventions was drug introduction (29.0%). The marginal cost for the hospital and avoided cost for PHS was US$182±32 and US$25,536±4,923 per year; and US$0.55 and US$76.4 per patient/year. The BCR and NB were 0.0, -US$26,105 (95%CI -31,850 - -10,610), -US$27,112 (95%CI -33,160-11,720) for the hospital and; 3.0 (95%CI 1.97-4.94), US$51,048 (95%CI 27,645-75,716) and, 4.6 (95%CI 2.24-10.05), US$91,496 (95%CI 34,700-168,050; p < 0.001) for the PHS, both considering adhered and total interventions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CP service was not directly cost-benefit at the hospital perspective, but it presented savings for forecast cost related to the occurrence of preventable morbidities, measuring a good cost-benefit for the PHS.


Assuntos
Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/economia , Adulto , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio and the budget impact of sending text messages associated with medical consultations in order to reduce the viral load of patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial, basis for the development of a dynamic cohort model with Markov states in order to compare medical appointments for adults infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus versus the alternative strategy that associated medical consultations to sending text messages through telephone. RESULTS: 156 adults participated in the study. As for the viral load, it was verified that in the control group there was an increase, in the intervention group A (weekly messages) there was a reduction (p = 0.002) and in group B (biweekly messages) there was no statistically significant difference. Sending text messages would prevent 286,538 new infections by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and 282 deaths in the 20-year period, compared to the standard treatment. The alternative strategy would result in saving R$ 14 billion in treatment costs. CONCLUSION: weekly sending messages in association with the standard treatment can reduce the circulating viral load due to its effect in decreasing new infections, in addition to reducing health costs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
11.
Neuquén; s.n; sept. 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1120652

RESUMO

CONTEXTO: Ante el avance de la pandemia COVID-19 muchas provincias argentinas se encuentran en el límite de saturación de su capacidad sanitaria, especialmente para los pacientes más críticos que requieren hospitalización, oxigenoterapia y asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM). Se han analizado distintas alternativas en los pacientes con hipoxemias moderadas a severas que no corrigen con máscara reservorio. METODOLOGÍA: Un equipo multidisciplinario e independiente de conflictos de interés con el proveedor de esta tecnología, y de tecnologías alternativas realizó una evaluación de tecnología sanitaria enfocada en responder las preguntas clínicas: 1. ¿Cuál es la eficacia de los cascos para ventilación no invasiva en los pacientes internados con COVID-19? 2. ¿Cuál es la seguridad de los cascos para ventilación no invasiva en los pacientes internados con COVID-19? 3. ¿Cuál es el costo y la factibilidad de incorporar cascos para ventilación no invasiva en los pacientes internados con COVID-19? 4. ¿Cuál es el potencial impacto en la red prestacional pública de los cascos para ventilación no invasiva en los pacientes internados con COVID-19? Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las principales bases de datos, en buscadores genéricos de internet, y financiadores de salud. Se dio prioridad a las Revisiones Sistemáticas (RS), evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS), evaluaciones económicas (EE), guías de práctica clínica (GPC), políticas de cobertura (PC) de diferentes sistemas de salud, ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA), y estudios observacionales, desde 2000 hasta agosto 2020 sin ninguna restricción de idioma. RESULTADOS: Descripción de la Tecnología: Este informe se centra en el casco marca ECLERIS, por tratarse de un dispositivo médico "de pared" que no requiere equipamiento mecánico complejo, por ser fabricado en Argentina, cuenta con autorización de la Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (ANMAT), y su adquisición es más factible en el contexto de pandemia. Tecnologías Alternativas: En el presente informe la tecnología no se compara con equipos de ARM, sino con la mejor alternativa disponible cuando estos ya no se encuentran disponibles, qué es escenario asumido. Estas alternativas pueden ser aquellos dispositivos que ofrecen oxígeno suplementario a presión atmosférica (máscaras y máscaras reservorio). No se compara en este caso la VNI con el respirador, ya que en este escenario se asume agotada la capacidad de respiradores. Pese a lo cual se incluirán en las búsquedas y análisis de estudios o guías que analicen la comparación entre VNI y ARM para buscar información sobre seguridad. Acerca del contexto, se analiza su utilización en salas de internación, guardia de emergencias y derivaciones en ambulancia. CONCLUSIÓN: La mayoría de las autoridades sanitarias recomiendan, cuando está disponible, la intubación precoz y ARM en los pacientes con neumonía grave y SDRA por COVID. Al analizar la eficacia en los pocos estudios identificados (de baja calidad), estos preferencian la VNI en contraposición a la intubación temprana, basada en evidencia indirecta (proveniente de pacientes con SARS y MERS) y en un estudio descriptivo de SARS-Cov2. En esos contextos mostrarían disminución de la mortalidad, aunque es necesario realizar más estudios. En el presente informe los cascos de VNI tipo ECLERIS no se comparan con equipos de ARM, sino con la mejor alternativa cuando estos ya no se encuentran disponibles, que es el escenario asumido y esperado. Estas alternativas pueden ser aquellos dispositivos que ofrecen oxígeno suplementario a presión atmosférica (máscaras y máscaras reservorio). La capacidad de limitar el tratamiento a pacientes seleccionados puede amplificar los beneficios potenciales reduciendo la tasa de fracaso. Si la combinación de hCPAP y la posición prona redujera la tasa de intubación, el sistema de salud podría mejorar la asignación de camas de UCI, otorgando un mejor tratamiento a todos los pacientes que necesitan asistencia ventilatoria.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Hipóxia/complicações , Argentina , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício
12.
Lima; Instituto Nacional de Salud; sept. 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1122251

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Este documento técnico se realiza a solicitud de la Dirección de Prevención y Control de Enfermedades No Transmisibles, Raras y Huérfanas del Ministerio de Salud; la cual motivó la realización de la pregunta PICO por parte de médicos y especialistas de la siguiente manera, P: pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1); I: análogos de insulina humana; C: insulina humana; O: control glucémico, calidad de vida y eventos adversos. A. Cuadro clínico La DM1 es una forma de enfermedad autoinmune que ocasiona la destrucción de las células que producen insulina. En el Perú, para el 2018, los casos de DM1 representaron el 2,7% del total de casos de diabetes. El uso de insulina representa el pilar de tratamiento farmacológico de las personas con DM1, permitiendo alcanzar un adecuado control glicémico y disminuir las complicaciones macro y microvasculares. En la actualidad, además de la insulina humana recombinante, existen en el mercado nuevas formulaciones denominados análogos de insulina humana, desarrollados con el propósito de imitar de forma más precisa el comportamiento de la insulina fisiológica. B. Tecnología sanitaria Los análogos de insulina son un tipo de insulinas cuyas moléculas han sido modificadas en la secuencia de aminoácidos. Existen tres tipos principales: de acción rápida (aspart, lispro, glulisina), de acción prolongada (glargina, detemir, degludec) y las formulaciones de análogos de insulina premezclados. Los análogos de insulina permiten emular más estrechamente la fisiología normal de la insulina y seleccionar diferentes regímenes según las preferencias y estilo de vida del paciente. Sin embargo, su precio es significativamente más alto que la insulina humana. En Perú, los análogos de insulina humana cuentan con un total de doce registros sanitarios vigentes. OBJETIVO: Describir la evidencia científica disponible sobre la eficacia y seguridad del uso de análogos de insulina humana para el control glicémico de pacientes con diabetes tipo 1. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una búsqueda en Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, EMBASE y LILACS hasta el 01 de setiembre de 2020, complementada con la búsqueda de evidencia en páginas institucionales de agencias gubernamentales y buscadores genéricos. La calidad de la evidencia se valoró usando: AMSTAR 2 para RS y AGREE II para valorar el rigor metodológico de las GPC. RESULTADOS: Se identificó cinco revisiones sistemáticas, siete guías de práctica clínica y cinco evaluaciones de tecnología sanitaria. CONCLUSIONES: En adultos con DM1, los análogos de insulina de acción rápida redujeron en promedio la glucosa postprandial en 19 mg/dL, la hemoglobina glicosilada en 0,13% y el riesgo de hipoglicemia general, nocturna y severa (en 7%, 45% y 32%, respectivamente) comparado con insulina humana. En población pediátrica, no se observó una reducción en los niveles de hemoglobina glicosilada, ni en el riesgo de episodios de hipoglicemia. En ambas poblaciones, el impacto sobre la calidad de vida fue inconsistente. En adultos con DM1, los análogos de insulina de acción lenta redujeron en promedio la hemoglobina glicosilada en 0,17% y el riesgo de hipoglicemia general y nocturna (en 7% y 32%, respectivamente), sin diferencias en el riesgo de hipoglicemia severa. El impacto sobre la calidad de vida fue inconsistente. Las seis GPC incluyen en sus recomendaciones el uso de análogos de insulina e insulina humana para pacientes pediátricos o adultos con DM1. En tres de ellas, se recomienda preferentemente usar análogos de insulina, mientras en otras tres no se establece algún tipo de preferencia entre el uso de ambas formulaciones. Cinco informes de ETS, procedentes de agencias de Canadá, España y Perú, coinciden en no recomendar el uso de análogos de insulina debido a insuficiente evidencia sobre su beneficio clínico y aspectos relacionados con su costo-efectividad. Dos RS fueron consideradas como nivel de confianza críticamente bajo, mientras que tres RS fueron consideradas como nivel de confianza alto. Las GPC incluidas obtuvieron un puntaje global promedio en la evaluación de calidad que varió entre 69,4% y 80,4%.


Assuntos
Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/prevenção & controle , Insulina Regular Humana/análogos & derivados , Peru , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício
13.
s.l; RedArets; 18 Sept. 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1120665

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia de COVID-19 causada por un nuevo virus SARS-CoV2, ha desencadenado la búsqueda vertiginosa de alternativas terapéuticas o preventivas que permitan mitigar su impacto. En la carrera contra el virus, en lo que va del año, se han registrado en Argentina 634 presentaciones de estudios1. El 30% pertenecen a intervenciones farmacoterapéutica, algunos son agentes con actividad viral especí_ca, otros con diferentes indicaciones a los _nes de explorar un eventual "reposicionamiento terapéutico", o bien la búsqueda de estrategias para la inmunización activa o pasiva. En ese contexto, las agencias regulatorias, los organismos sanitarios internacionales y las sociedades cientí_cas en todo el mundo han emitido diferentes recomendaciones que orientan sobre las indicaciones y formas de administración de estas terapias, y algunos resultados preliminares. ACERCA DEL IBUPROFENO: Al principio de la pandemia se cuestionó fuertemente el uso de Ibuprofeno vía oral en pacientes con COVID-19, bajo la "sospecha" de un supuesto efecto perjudicial en el curso de la enfermedad; basado en la información de las _chas técnicas de los medicamentos disponibles en el mercado, que contienen ibuprofeno. Se sabe que, el ibuprofeno puede enmascarar los síntomas de las infecciones, lo que podría retrasar los diagnósticos y llevar a la detección avanzada de infecciones, aunque se re_ere a cuadros generales, no especí_camente a la infección por COVID 19. Posteriormente, se han publicado varias decenas de estudios no aleatorizados, que si bien no son de_nitivos, parecen descartar que estos medicamentos lleve a un peor resultado clínico. De hecho, algunos investigadores han planteado que incluso podrían tener un efecto bene_cioso en ciertas etapas de la enfermedad, por lo que hay "ensayos" en curso evaluando esta hipótesis3 4. Entre estos estudios, sólo 2 estudios (uno con ibuprofeno inhalado y uno con ibuprofeno lipídico vía oral) y un estudio observacional presentan protocolos publicados5, aún sin resultados publicados en revistas cientí_cas con revisión de pares. RESULTADOS: La droga debe actualmente continuar bajo investigación en por lo menos un ensayo clínico controlado (a menos que todos los ensayos clínicos hayan sido completados y el sponsor busque activamente la aprobación de la droga investigada para su comercialización). Debe al menos haber completado la fase II de investigación, para la enfermedad o síntoma que se indica, no considerándose estudios realizados para otras indicaciones. Debe existir al menos una publicación (publicación de prestigio reconocido) de al menos un estudio clínico. Debe haberse completado la fase preclínica, con estimulación de los márgenes de seguridad. El pedido de uso compasivo deberá ir acompañado de una declaración de fabricante, de un informe con los antecedentes del paciente y la justi_cación para el uso de la droga rmados por el médico tratante y un consentimiento escrito _rmado por el paciente a tratar, acompañado de la información de los motivos por los cuales se usará dicha droga. Si la droga ha sido previamente autorizada por la autoridad sanitaria de un país extranjero. El pedido de uso compasivo deberá ir acompañado de una declaración del fabricante, de un informe con los antecedentes del paciente y la justi_cación para el uso de la droga _rmados por el médico tratante y un consentimiento escrito _rmado a tratar, acompañado de la información de los motivos por los cuales se usará dicha droga. El pedido de uso compasivo deberá ir acompañado por los trabajos de investigación preclínica, de los ensayos clínicos realizados para la indicación propuesta y el certicado de autorización de la droga en ese país. CONCLUSIÓN: La RedArets no recomienda el uso de ibuprofeno inhalatorio hasta no contar con evidencia sobre su e_cacia y seguridad proveniente de estudios clínicos bien diseñados con bajo riesgo de sesgo como los ensayos controlados aleatorizados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício
15.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106351, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892905

RESUMO

Radon, a gaseous radioactive decay product of naturally-occurring uranium is widely distributed in the environment in rocks and soils and, in certain circumstances, can accumulate in the built environment. Initial studies confirmed a direct link between exposure to both radon gas and its short-lived radioactive progeny, and increased lung-cancer incidence, and demonstrated that radon levels in domestic housing can be sufficiently high to expose occupants to increased risk of lung-cancer. Subsequent studies worldwide have shown that it is cost-effective to detect and reduce domestic radon levels in order to reduce this risk. Recent advances in the early detection of lung-cancer, coupled with the development of improved treatment procedures, have progressively improved survival from the disease, with the numbers surviving at 5 years doubling over recent years, during which period the real costs of lung cancer treatment have risen by around 30%. In the meantime, however, in addition to radon and tobacco-smoke, other airborne pollutants have been identified as risk-factors for lung-cancer. This paper reviews both these actual developments and anticipated future trends, and concludes that since these advances in diagnosis and treatment of lung-cancer have had only a modest effect on cost-effectiveness, it is still important to conduct radon monitoring and remediation programmes. While the general increase in life-expectancy improves the cost-effectiveness of radon remediation programmes significantly, reducing tobacco-smoking incidence reduces that cost-effectiveness but with the overall benefit of reducing radon-related lung-cancers. The challenge remains of encouraging affected householders to remediate their homes to reduce radon levels.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/economia , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Habitação , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Reino Unido
16.
Crit Care Resusc ; 22(3): 191-199, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hydrocortisone is a cost-effective treatment for patients with septic shock. DESIGN: Data linkage-based cost-effectiveness analysis. SETTING: New South Wales and Queensland intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: Patients with septic shock randomly assigned to treatment with hydrocortisone or placebo in the Adjunctive Glucocorticoid Therapy in Patients with Septic Shock (ADRENAL) trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health-related quality of life at 6 months using the EuroQoL 5-dimension 5-level questionnaire. Data on hospital resource use and costs were obtained by linking the ADRENAL dataset to government administrative health databases. Clinical outcomes included mortality, health-related quality of life, and quality-adjusted life-years gained; economic outcomes included hospital resource use, costs and cost-effectiveness from the health care payer perspective. We also assessed cost-effectiveness by sex. To increase the precision of cost-effectiveness estimates, we conducted unrestricted bootstrapping. RESULTS: Of 3800 patients in the ADRENAL trial, 1772 (46.6%) were eligible and 1513 (85.4% of those eligible) were included. There was no difference between hydrocortisone or placebo groups in regards to mortality (218/742 [29.4%] v 227/759 [29.9%]; HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.78-1.12; P = 0.47), mean number of QALYs gained (0.10 ± 0.09 v 0.10 ± 0.09; P = 0.52), or total hospital costs (A$73 515 ± 61 376 v A$69 748 ± 61 793; mean difference, A$3767; 95% CI, -A$2891 to A$10 425; P = 0.27). The incremental cost of hydrocortisone was A$1 254 078 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. In females, hydrocortisone was cost-effective in 46.2% of bootstrapped replications and in males it was cost-effective in 2.7% of bootstrapped replications. CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive hydrocortisone did not significantly affect longer term mortality, health-related quality of life, health care resource use or costs, and is unlikely to be cost-effective.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/economia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Hidrocortisona/economia , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1463, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare facilities are notorious for occupational health and safety problems. Multi-level interventions are needed to address interacting exposures and their overlapping origins in work organization features. Worker participation in problem identification and resolution is essential. This study evaluates the CPH-NEW Healthy Workplace Participatory Program (HWPP), a Total Worker Health® protocol to develop effective employee teams for worker safety, health, and wellbeing. METHODS: Six public sector, unionized healthcare facilities are enrolled, in three pairs, matched by agency. The unit of intervention is a workplace health and safety committee, adapted here to a joint labor-management "Design Team" (DT). The DT conducts root cause analyses, prioritizes problems, identifies feasible interventions in light of the constraints and needs of the specific setting, makes business-case presentations to facility leadership, and assists in evaluation. Following a stepped-wedge (cross-over) design, one site in each pair is randomly assigned to "immediate intervention" status, receiving the full coached intervention at baseline; in the "lagged intervention" site, coaching begins about half-way through the study. Program effectiveness and cost-effectiveness outcomes are assessed at both organizational (e.g., workers' compensation claim and absenteeism rates, perceived management support of safety) and individual levels (e.g., self-rated health, sleep quality, leisure-time exercise). Targeted pre-post analyses will also examine specific outcomes appropriate to the topics selected for intervention. Process evaluation outcomes include fidelity of the HWPP intervention, extent of individual DT member activity, expansion of committee scope to include employee well-being, program obstacles and opportunities in each setting, and sustainability (within the available time frame). DISCUSSION: This study aims for a quantitative evaluation of the HWPP over a time period long enough to accomplish multiple intervention cycles in each facility. The design seeks to achieve comparable study engagement and data quality between groups. We will also assess whether the HWPP might be further improved to meet the needs of U.S. public sector healthcare institutions. Potential challenges include difficulty in pooling data across study sites if Design Teams select different intervention topics, and follow-up periods too short for change to be observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04251429 (retrospectively registered January 29, 2020), protocol version 1.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Engajamento no Trabalho , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Grupos Populacionais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Indenização aos Trabalhadores
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1335-e1344, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coinciding with the release of the first Chinese domestic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Cecolin in 2019, and the substantial advancements in cervical cancer screening technology, we aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the combined strategies of cervical cancer screening programmes and universal vaccination of girls (aged 9-14 years) with Cecolin in China. METHODS: We did a cost-effectiveness analysis in China, in which we developed a Markov model of cervical cancer to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of 61 intervention strategies, including a combination of various screening methods at different frequencies with and without vaccination, and also vaccination alone, from a health-care system perspective. We did univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the model's findings. FINDINGS: Compared with no intervention, various combined screening and vaccination strategies would incur an additional cost of US$6 157 000-22 146 000 and result in 691-970 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained in a designated cohort of 100 000 girls aged 9-14 years over a lifetime. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of three times the Chinese per-capita gross domestic product (GDP), careHPV screening (a rapid HPV test) once every 5 years with vaccination would be the most cost-effective strategy with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $21 799 per QALY compared with the lower-cost non-dominated strategy on the cost-effectiveness frontier, and the probability of it being cost-effective (44%) outperformed other strategies. Strategies that combined screening and vaccination would be more cost-effective than screening alone strategies when the vaccination cost was less than $50 for two doses, even with a lower willingness-to-pay of one times the per-capita GDP. INTERPRETATION: careHPV screening once every 5 years with vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for cervical cancer prevention in China. A reduction in the domestic HPV vaccine price is necessary to ascertain a good economic return for the future vaccination programme. The findings provide important evidence that informs health policies for cervical cancer prevention in China. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia
19.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 108(2): 430-434, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890526

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Health systems have increased telemedicine use during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak to limit in-person contact. We used time-driven activity-based costing to evaluate the change in resource use associated with transitioning to telemedicine in a radiation oncology department. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using a patient undergoing 28-fraction treatment as an example, process maps for traditional in-person and telemedicine-based workflows consisting of discrete steps were created. Physicians/physicists/dosimetrists and nurses were assumed to work remotely 3 days and 1 day per week, respectively. Mapping was informed by interviews and surveys of personnel, with cost estimates obtained from the department's financial officer. RESULTS: Transitioning to telemedicine reduced provider costs by $586 compared with traditional workflow: $47 at consultation, $280 during treatment planning, $237 during on-treatment visits, and $22 during the follow-up visit. Overall, cost savings were $347 for space/equipment and $239 for personnel. From an employee perspective, the total amount saved each year by not commuting was $36,718 for physicians (7243 minutes), $19,380 for physicists (7243 minutes), $17,286 for dosimetrists (7210 minutes), and $5599 for nurses (2249 minutes). Patients saved $170 per treatment course. CONCLUSIONS: A modified workflow incorporating telemedicine visits and work-from-home capability conferred savings to a department as well as significant time and costs to health care workers and patients alike.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/métodos , Telemedicina/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/economia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Environ Manage ; 263: 110333, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883470

RESUMO

The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to improve America's water quality is being applied to the Chesapeake Bay watershed to mitigate the "dead zone" problem. Agricultural activities are the major nonpoint source of nitrogen (N), contributing 44% of total N to the Bay. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are recognized as an effective way to mitigate N loss of agricultural activities. However, because of physical and economic heterogeneity in agricultural regions, targeting BMPs to areas that produce disproportionate nutrient losses has the potential to reduce the costs of achieving water quality goals. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential to reduce costs of meeting a regional water quality goal by targeting N load reductions within- and across-counties. Based on TMDL developed by the US EPA in 2010 for the Chesapeake Bay watershed, the N reduction goal is 35% for Pennsylvania by 2025. We examine the effects of targeting the required reductions within counties, across counties, and both within and across counties for the Susquehanna watershed. Using the uniform strategy to meet 35% N reduction as the baseline, results show that costs of achieving a regional 35% N reduction goal can be reduced by 13%, 31% and 36% with cross-county targeting, within-county targeting and within and across county targeting, respectively. Cost effectiveness of government subsidy programs for water quality improvement in agriculture can be increased by targeting them to areas with lower N abatement costs.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Qualidade da Água , Agricultura , Análise Custo-Benefício , Pennsylvania
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