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1.
Value Health ; 24(3): 346-352, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determining the price and reimbursement of a new medicine is a national competence within the Member States of the European Union that is carried out by health technology authorities and is based mainly on the added therapeutic value (ATV). The primary objective of this study was to compare the ATVs granted by the French (Haute Autorité de Santé, HAS) and the German (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen, IQWIG) authorities. The secondary objective was to analyze the reasons for the discrepancies observed. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of all ATVs assigned by HAS and IQWIG for the period 2011 to 2017. ATV assessments were classified as major, considerable, minor, no benefit, or not quantifiable. The concordance between the authorities was evaluated, and a qualitative analysis of highly discordant assessments was performed. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-one drugs were evaluated by both agencies. The overall percentage of agreement was 50.3%. It was 73.1% for no benefit of ATVs, 37.5% for minor ATVs, 31.2% for considerable ATVs, and 5% for major ATVs. Highly conflicting assessments (n = 35) mainly concerned antineoplastic drugs (n = 14) and anti-infectives (n = 14). The main reasons for inconsistency concerned the following: a different appreciation of the subgroup analysis of efficacy data (n = 15), the appropriateness of comparators (n = 15), the surrogate endpoints (n = 10), methodological differences (n = 8), and the benefit/risk criteria that were used (n = 6). CONCLUSION: In the context of the common assessment of ATVs promoted by the European Commission, the harmonization between member states regarding the way evaluation criteria are assessed deserves to be addressed.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Determinação de Ponto Final , França , Alemanha , Humanos
2.
Value Health ; 24(3): 353-360, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the impact of mammography-based screening on the quality of life, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted or quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained can be used. We aimed to assess whether the use of DALYs averted or QALYs gained will lead to different cost-effective screening strategies. METHODS: Using the microsimulation model MISCAN, we simulated different breast cancer screening strategies varying in starting age (starting at 45, 47, and 50 years), stopping age (stopping at 69, 72, and 74 years), and frequency (annual [A], biennial [B], combination of both [A + B], and triennial [T]). In total, we defined 24 different breast cancer screening strategies, including no screening as a reference strategy. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and compared which strategies were on the efficiency frontiers for DALYs and QALYs. RESULTS: Breast cancer screening averted between 46.00 and 105.58 DALYs and gained between 28.69 and 64.50 QALYs per 1000 women. For DALYs there were 5 strategies on the efficiency frontier (T50-69, T50-74, T45-74, B45-74, and A45-74). The same strategies plus one (B45-72) were on the efficiency frontier for QALYs. CONCLUSIONS: Using DALYs averted instead of QALYs gained to assess the effects on quality of life from breast cancer screening in the Dutch population yields differences in ICERs, but almost the same strategies were on the efficiency frontiers. Whether the choice in outcome measure leads to a difference in optimal policy depends on the cost-effectiveness threshold.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
3.
Value Health ; 24(3): 397-403, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While the United States does not have a method for assessing the added therapeutic benefit of drugs, France, Canada, and Germany do. We examined the added therapeutic benefit of the most expensive drugs prescribed to Medicare Part D beneficiaries in the United States. METHODS: We identified ultra-expensive drugs with annual Medicare spending that exceeded $62 794 (United States GDP per capita in 2018) using Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Spending and Utilization Data. We used added therapeutic benefit ratings assessed by health technology assessment agencies in France, Canada, and Germany. RESULTS: We identified 122 ultra-expensive drugs in 2018. Sixty-five percent of these drugs (n = 79) were assessed by at least one of the countries. Based on these assessments, approximately 75% received a low added therapeutic benefit rating. CONCLUSIONS: Most ultra-expensive drugs prescribed in the United States and assessed by France, Canada, and Germany provide low added therapeutic benefit. Policy reforms in the United States could use added therapeutic benefit to inform coverage and pricing decisions for ultra-expensive drugs. Similar to Germany, one approach would be to allow the company to set a market price for a limited period of time before requiring a price reduction if the added therapeutic benefit is below a certain threshold. Another approach would be to identify when drug prices are substantially more expensive in the United States and conduct an added therapeutic benefit assessment and price review on these drugs.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Medicare Part D/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
Value Health ; 24(3): 431-442, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether the adoption of a societal perspective would alter the results and conclusions of economic evaluations for rare disease-related healthcare technologies. METHODS: A search strategy involving all the active substances considered as orphan drugs by the European Medicines Agency plus a list of 76 rare diseases combined with economic-related terms was conducted on Medline and the Cost-Effectiveness Registry from the beginning of 2000 until November 2018. We included studies that considered quality-adjusted life years as an outcome, were published in a scientific journal, were written in English, included informal care costs or productivity losses, and separated the results according to the applied perspective. RESULTS: We found 14 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Productivity losses were considered in 12 studies, the human capital approach being the method most frequently used. Exclusively, informal care was considered in 2 articles, being valued through the opportunity cost method. The 14 articles selected resulted in 26 economic evaluation estimations, from which incremental cost-utility ratio values changed from cost-effective to dominant in 3 estimates, but the consideration of societal costs only modified the authors' conclusion in 1 study. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of societal costs in the economic evaluation of rare diseases did not affect the conclusions of the studies except in a single specific case. In those studies where the societal perspective was considered, we did not find significant changes in the economic evaluation results due to the higher costs of treatments and the low quality-adjusted life-years gained.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Doenças Raras/economia , Doenças Raras/terapia , Eficiência , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24871, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic short stature (ISS) causes a high economic burden worldwide. As part of a research project that synthesizes economic evidence for Korean medicine treatment of ISS, we describe the methods that will be used for the comprehensive review of articles that analyze health-related economic evaluation for available interventions for ISS using a systematic review methodology. METHODS: Eight electronic English, Korean, and Chinese databases will be searched from their inception until December 2020 to identify studies on the economic evaluation of available interventions on ISS, without language, study design, or publication status restrictions. From the included studies, the effectiveness, utility, and cost data will be collected as the outcome measures by two researchers independently. Descriptive analysis of individual studies will be conducted. If it is judged that the interventions and outcomes of the included studies are sufficiently homogeneous, we will attempt a quantitative synthesis through meta-analysis using Review Manager version 5.4 software (Cochrane, London, UK). RESULTS: This study will summarize the evidence regarding the economic evaluation of available interventions for ISS. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review will help clinicians and patients in evidence-based decision-making in clinical settings and help policy makers develop effective policies and distribute resources based on the available evidence.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Nanismo/economia , Nanismo/terapia , Acupuntura/métodos , Pessoal Administrativo/legislação & jurisprudência , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gerenciamento de Dados , Nanismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
6.
Value Health ; 24(2): 244-249, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) embeds an assumption at odds with most economic analysis-that of constant returns to health in the creation of happiness (utility). We aim to reconcile it with the bulk of economic theory. METHODS: We generalize the traditional CEA approach, allow diminishing returns to health, and align CEA with the rest of the health economics literature. RESULTS: This simple change has far-reaching implications for the practice of CEA. First, optimal cost-effectiveness thresholds should systematically rise for more severe diseases and fall for milder ones. We provide formulae for estimating how these thresholds vary with health-related quality of life (QoL) in the sick state. Practitioners can also use our approach to account for treatment outcome uncertainty. Holding average benefits fixed, risk-averse consumers value interventions more when they reduce outcome uncertainty ('insurance value') and/or when they provide a chance at positively skewed outcomes ('value of hope'). Finally, we provide a coherent way to combine improvements in QoL and life expectancy (LE) when people have diminishing returns to QoL. CONCLUSION: This new approach obviates the need for increasingly prevalent and ad hoc exceptions to CEA for end-of-life care, rare disease, and very severe disease (eg, cancer). Our methods also show that the value of improving QoL for disabled people is greater than for comparable non-disabled people, thus resolving an ongoing and mathematically legitimate objection to CEA raised by advocates for disabled people. Our Generalized Risk-Adjusted Cost-Effectiveness (GRACE) approach helps align HTA practice with realistic preferences for health and risk.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Pessoas com Deficiência , Qualidade de Vida , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Felicidade , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Incerteza
7.
Value Health ; 24(2): 274-280, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Health utility decrement estimates for diabetes and complications are needed for parametrization of simulation models that aim to assess the cost-utility of diabetes prevention and care strategies. This study estimates health utility decrements associated with diabetes and cardiovascular and microvascular complications from a population-based German study. METHODS: Data were obtained from the population based cross-sectional KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region) health questionnaire 2016 and comprised n = 1072 individuals with type 2 diabetes and n = 7879 individuals without diabetes. Health utility was assessed through the EQ-5D-5L. We used linear regression models with interaction terms between type 2 diabetes and different cardiovascular and microvascular complications while adjusting for demographic and socio-economic factors and other comorbidities. RESULTS: Type 2 diabetes (ß = -0.028, standard error [SE] = 0.014), stroke (ß = -0.070, SE = 0.010), cardiac arrhythmia (ß = -0.031, SE = 0.006), heart failure (ß = -0.073, SE = 0.009), coronary heart disease (ß = -0.028, SE = 0.010), myocardial infarction (ß = -0.020, SE = 0.011, estimates of main effect), and neuropathy (ß = -0.067, SE = 0.020), diabetic foot (ß = -0.042, SE = 0.030), nephropathy (ß = -0.032, SE = 0.025), and blindness (ß = -0.094, SE = 0.056, estimates of interaction terms) were negatively associated with health utility. The interaction term for diabetes x stroke (ß = -0.052, SE = 0.021) showed that the utility decrement for stroke is significantly larger in people with type 2 diabetes than in people without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes, cardiovascular, and microvascular conditions are associated with significant health utility decrements. Utility decrements for some conditions differ between people with and without type 2 diabetes. These results are of high relevance for the parametrization of decision analytic simulation models and applied health economic evaluations in the field of prevention and management of type 2 diabetes in Germany.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/economia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/economia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Alemanha , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Value Health ; 24(2): 281-290, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are increasing concerns about the appropriateness of generic preference-based measures to capture health benefits in the area of mental health. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to estimate preference weights for a new measure, Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL-10), to better capture the benefits of mental healthcare. METHODS: Psychometric analyses of a larger sample of mental health service users (n = 4266) using confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory were used to derive a health state classification system and inform the selection of health states for utility assessment. A valuation survey with members of the UK public representative in terms of age, sex, and region was conducted using face-to-face interviewer administered time-trade-off with props. A series of regression models were fitted to the data and the best performing model selected for the scoring algorithm. RESULTS: The ReQoL-Utility Index (UI) classification system comprises 6 mental health items and 1 physical health item. Sixty-four health states were valued by 305 participants. The preferred model was a random effects model, with significant and consistent coefficients and best model fit. Estimated utilities modeled for all health states ranged from -0.195 (state worse than dead) to 1 (best possible state). CONCLUSIONS: The development of the ReQoL-UI is based on a novel application of item response theory methods for generating the classification system and selecting health states for valuation. Conventional time-trade-off was used to elicit utility values that are modeled to enable the generation of QALYs for use in cost-utility analysis of mental health interventions.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Saúde Mental/economia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Esperança , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Psicometria , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Value Health ; 24(1): 105-111, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The standard framework of economic evaluation of health programs, which is increasingly used for policy funding decisions, is insufficiently equipped to reflect the full range of health and economic benefits conferred by vaccines and thus undervalues vaccination. METHODS: In 2019, a group of Belgian health economic and clinical experts, supported by 2 senior international vaccination experts (1 American, 1 Belgian), convened 4 roundtable meetings to highlight which particular value elements of vaccination remain neglected in economic evaluations. RESULTS: They concluded that the standard economic evaluation framework fails to reflect the full value of vaccination with respect to prevention of complications linked to some vaccine-preventable diseases, health gains for caregivers, herd effects, changes in exposure to and distribution of serotypes, the effect on antimicrobial resistance, productivity gains for caregivers and patients, and the distributive implications of vaccination programs. CONCLUSIONS: Here, suggestions are made regarding how these shortcomings can be addressed in future economic evaluations of vaccines and how a more level playing field between vaccines and other health programs can be created.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Vacinas/economia , Bélgica , Cuidadores/psicologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Eficiência , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Morbidade
11.
Value Health ; 24(1): 136-143, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to catalogue and describe published applications of equity-informative cost-effectiveness analysis (CEAs). METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched Medline for English-language, peer-reviewed CEAs published on or before August 2019. We included CEAs that evaluated 2 or more alternatives; explicitly mentioned equity as a consideration or decision-making principle; and applied an equity-informative CEA method to analyze or examine at least 1 equity criterion in an applied CEA. We extracted data on selected characteristics and analyzed reporting quality using the CHEERS checklist. RESULTS: Fifty-four articles identified through a search and bibliography reviews met the inclusion criteria. All articles were published on or after 2010, with 80% published after 2015. Most studies evaluated primary prevention interventions in disease areas such as cancer, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Equity impact analysis alone was the most common equity-informative CEA (56%), followed by equity impact analysis with financial protection effects (30%). At least 11 different equity criteria have been used in equity-informative CEAs; socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity were used most frequently. Seventy-eight percent of studies reported finding "greater value" in an intervention after examining its distributional effects. CONCLUSION: The number of equity-informative CEAs is increasing, and the wide range of equity criteria, diseases, interventions, settings, and populations represented suggests that broad application of these methods is feasible but will require further refinement. Inclusion of equity into CEAs may shift the value of evaluated interventions and can provide crucial additional information for decision makers.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Equidade em Saúde , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Value Health ; 24(1): 41-49, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) are based on the value judgment that health outcomes (eg, quantified in quality-adjusted life-years; QALYs) are all equally valuable irrespective of their context. Whereas most published CEAs perform extensive sensitivity analysis on various parameters and assumptions, only rarely is the influence of the QALY-equivalence assumption on cost-effectiveness results investigated. We illustrate how the integration of alternative social value judgments in CEA can be a useful form of sensitivity analysis. METHODS: Because varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccination affects 2 distinct diseases (varicella zoster and herpes zoster) and likely redistributes infections across different age groups, the program has an important equity dimension. We used a cost-effectiveness model and disentangled the share of direct protection and herd immunity within the total projected QALYs resulting from a 50-year childhood VZV program in the UK. We use the UK population's preferences for QALYs in the vaccine context to revalue QALYs accordingly. RESULTS: Revaluing different types of QALYs for different age groups in line with public preferences leads to a 98% change in the projected net impact of the program. The QALYs gained among children through direct varicella protection become more important, whereas the QALYs lost indirectly through zoster in adults diminish in value. Weighting of vaccine-related side effects made a large difference. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that a sensitivity analysis in which alternative social value judgments about the value of health outcomes are integrated into CEA of vaccines is relatively straightforward and provides important additional information for decision makers to interpret cost-effectiveness results.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/economia , Valores Sociais , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento do Consumidor , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/economia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Value Health ; 24(1): 86-90, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431158

RESUMO

In the last 5 years, guidelines have been developed for performing cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) for the economic evaluation of vaccination programs against infectious diseases. However, these cost-effectiveness guidelines do not provide specific guidance for including the value of reducing the risk of rare but potentially catastrophic health outcomes, such as mortality or long-term sequelae. Alternative economic evaluation methods, including extended CEA, the impact inventory, cost-benefit analyses, willingness to pay or the value of a statistical life, to capture the value of this risk reduction could provide more complete estimates of the value of vaccination programs for diseases with potentially catastrophic health and nonhealth outcomes. In this commentary, using invasive meningococcal disease as an example, we describe these alternative approaches along with examples to illustrate how the benefits of vaccination in reducing risk of catastrophic health outcomes can be valued. These benefits are not usually captured in CEAs that only include population benefits estimated as the quality-adjusted life-years gained and reduced costs from avoided cases.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Infecções Meningocócicas/economia , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Meningocócicas/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Modelos Econômicos , Morbidade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028312, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315111

RESUMO

Importance: Both noninvasive anatomic and functional testing strategies are now routinely used as initial workup in patients with low-risk stable chest pain (SCP). Objective: To determine whether anatomic approaches (ie, coronary computed tomography angiography [CTA] and coronary CTA supplemented with noninvasive fractional flow reserve [FFRCT], performed in patients with 30% to 69% stenosis) are cost-effective compared with functional testing for the assessment of low-risk SCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cost-effectiveness analysis used an individual-based Markov microsimulation model for low-risk SCP. The model was developed using patient data from the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) trial. The model was validated by comparing model outcomes with outcomes observed in the PROMISE trial for anatomic (coronary CTA) and functional (stress testing) strategies, including diagnostic test results, referral to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), coronary revascularization, incident major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), and costs during 60 days and 2 years. The validated model was used to determine whether anatomic approaches are cost-effective over a lifetime compared with functional testing. Exposure: Choice of index test for evaluation of low-risk SCP. Main Outcomes and Measures: Downstream ICA and coronary revascularization, MACE (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction), cost, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of competing strategies. Results: The model cohort included 10 003 individual patients (median [interquartile range] age, 60.0 [54.4-65.9] years; 5270 [52.7%] women; 7693 [77.4%] White individuals), who entered the model 100 times. The Markov model accurately estimated the test assignment, results of anatomic and functional index testing, referral to ICA, revascularization, MACE, and costs at 60 days and 2 years compared with observed data in PROMISE (eg, coronary CTA: ICA, 12.2% [95% CI, 10.9%-13.5%] vs 12.3% [95% CI, 12.2%-12.4%]; revascularization, 6.2% [95% CI, 5.5%-6.9%] vs 6.4% [95% CI, 6.3%-6.5%]; functional strategy: ICA, 8.1% [95% CI, 7.4%-8.9%] vs 8.2% [95% CI, 8.1%-8.3%]; revascularization, 3.2% [95% CI, 2.7%-3.7%] vs 3.3% [95% CI, 3.2%-3.4%]; 2-year MACE rates: coronary CTA, 2.1% [95% CI, 1.7%-2.5%] vs 2.3% [95% CI, 2.2%-2.4%]; functional strategy, 2.2% [95% CI, 1.8%-2.6%] vs 2.4% [95% CI, 2.3%-2.4%]). Anatomic approaches led to higher ICA and revascularization rates at 60 days, 2 years, and 5 years compared with functional testing but were more effective in patient selection for ICA (eg, 60-day revascularization-to-ICA ratio, CTA: 53.7% [95% CI, 53.3%-54.0%]; CTA with FFRCT: 59.5% [95% CI, 59.2%-59.8%]; functional testing: 40.7% [95% CI, 40.4%-50.0%]). Over a lifetime, anatomic approaches gained an additional 6 months in perfect health compared with functional testing (CTA, 25.16 [95% CI, 25.14-25.19] QALYs; CTA with FFRCT, 25.14 [95% CI, 25.12-25.17] QALYs; functional testing, 24.68 [95% CI, 24.66-24.70] QALYs). Anatomic strategies were less costly and more effective; thus, CTA with FFRCT dominated and CTA alone was cost-effective (ICERs ranged from $1912/QALY for women and $3,559/QALY for men) compared with functional testing. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, anatomic approaches were cost-effective in more than 65% of scenarios, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000/QALY. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that anatomic strategies may present a more favorable initial diagnostic option in the evaluation of low-risk SCP compared with functional testing.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Esforço , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Revascularização Miocárdica , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/economia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Teste de Esforço/economia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/economia , Medição de Risco/métodos
15.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(11): e592-e603, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many European countries, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among girls has remained below target levels, supporting the scope for vaccination of boys. We aimed to investigate if sex-neutral HPV vaccination can be considered cost-effective compared with girls-only vaccination at uptake levels equal to those among girls and under tender-based vaccination costs achieved throughout Europe. METHODS: We investigated the cost-effectiveness of sex-neutral HPV vaccination in European tender-based settings. We applied a Bayesian synthesis framework for health economic evaluation to 11 countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Estonia, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden), accommodating country-specific information on key epidemiological and economic parameters, and on current HPV vaccination programmes. We used projections from three independently developed HPV transmission models to tailor region-specific herd effects. The main outcome measures in the comparison of sex-neutral with girls-only vaccination were cancer cases prevented and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), defined as the cost in international dollars (I$) per life-year gained. FINDINGS: The total number of cancer cases to be prevented by vaccinating girls at currently realised vaccine uptake varied from 318 (95% CI 197-405) per cohort of 200 000 preadolescents (100 000 girls plus 100 000 boys) in Croatia (under 20% uptake of the 9-valent vaccine) to 1904 (1741-2101) in Estonia (under 70% uptake of the 9-valent vaccine). Vaccinating boys at equal coverage increased these respective numbers by 168 (95% CI 121-213) in Croatia and 467 (391-587) in Estonia. Sex-neutral vaccination was likely to be cost-effective, with ICERs of sex-neutral compared with girls-only vaccination varying from I$4300 per life-year gained in Latvia (95% credibility interval 3450-5160; 40% uptake) to I$25 720 per life-year gained in Spain (21 380-30 330; 80% uptake). At uniform 80% uptake, a favourable cost-effectiveness profile was retained for most of the countries investigated (Austria, Belgium, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden). INTERPRETATION: Sex-neutral HPV vaccination is economically attractive in European tender-based settings. However, tendering mechanisms need to ensure that vaccination of boys will remain cost-effective at high vaccine uptake rates. FUNDING: European Commission 7th Framework Programme and WHO.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia
16.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1218-1224, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although numerous mapping algorithms from a non-preference-based measure to a target health utility measure have been developed and applied in cost-utility analyses (CUAs), conditions for a mapping algorithm to work well in a CUA are still unclear. In this research, we formulate the mapping problem as a missing data problem and clarify these conditions. METHODS: We defined a valid mapping algorithm based on the purpose of mapping (ie, not for prediction but for CUA), and derived a sufficient set of conditions for a valid mapping algorithm. We also conducted a simulation study to investigate properties of a mapping algorithm under situations where the conditions are satisfied and violated. RESULTS: The derived sufficient conditions indicate that the complete overlap of the source measure with the target health utility measure is important and that a covariate that is omitted from a mapping algorithm but has an effect on the target health utility measure not captured by the source measure may invalidate a mapping algorithm. The conditions cannot be verified from data in a CUA but can be supported using external data. A simulation study showed that when at least 1 of the 3 conditions was violated, a mapping algorithm provided biased health utility estimates in a CUA, and that prediction accuracy did not necessarily reflect performance of a mapping algorithm in a CUA. CONCLUSION: The derived conditions provide a fundamental basis for better practices in developing and selecting a mapping algorithm.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Humanos
17.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1335-e1344, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coinciding with the release of the first Chinese domestic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Cecolin in 2019, and the substantial advancements in cervical cancer screening technology, we aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the combined strategies of cervical cancer screening programmes and universal vaccination of girls (aged 9-14 years) with Cecolin in China. METHODS: We did a cost-effectiveness analysis in China, in which we developed a Markov model of cervical cancer to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of 61 intervention strategies, including a combination of various screening methods at different frequencies with and without vaccination, and also vaccination alone, from a health-care system perspective. We did univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the model's findings. FINDINGS: Compared with no intervention, various combined screening and vaccination strategies would incur an additional cost of US$6 157 000-22 146 000 and result in 691-970 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained in a designated cohort of 100 000 girls aged 9-14 years over a lifetime. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of three times the Chinese per-capita gross domestic product (GDP), careHPV screening (a rapid HPV test) once every 5 years with vaccination would be the most cost-effective strategy with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $21 799 per QALY compared with the lower-cost non-dominated strategy on the cost-effectiveness frontier, and the probability of it being cost-effective (44%) outperformed other strategies. Strategies that combined screening and vaccination would be more cost-effective than screening alone strategies when the vaccination cost was less than $50 for two doses, even with a lower willingness-to-pay of one times the per-capita GDP. INTERPRETATION: careHPV screening once every 5 years with vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for cervical cancer prevention in China. A reduction in the domestic HPV vaccine price is necessary to ascertain a good economic return for the future vaccination programme. The findings provide important evidence that informs health policies for cervical cancer prevention in China. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia
18.
Anesthesiology ; 133(4): 787-800, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea is underdiagnosed in surgical patients. The cost-effectiveness of obstructive sleep apnea screening is unknown. This study's objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of preoperative obstructive sleep apnea screening (1) perioperatively and (2) including patients' remaining lifespans. METHODS: An individual-level Markov model was constructed to simulate the perioperative period and lifespan of patients undergoing inpatient elective surgery. Costs (2016 Canadian dollars) were calculated from the hospital perspective in a single-payer health system. Remaining model parameters were derived from a structured literature search. Candidate strategies included: (1) no screening; (2) STOP-Bang questionnaire alone; (3) STOP-Bang followed by polysomnography (STOP-Bang + polysomnography); and (4) STOP-Bang followed by portable monitor (STOP-Bang + portable monitor). Screen-positive patients (based on STOP-Bang cutoff of at least 3) received postoperative treatment modifications and expedited definitive testing. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life month in the perioperative analyses and quality-adjusted life years in the lifetime analyses. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. RESULTS: In perioperative and lifetime analyses, no screening was least costly and least effective. STOP-Bang + polysomnography was the most effective strategy and was more cost-effective than both STOP-Bang + portable monitor and STOP-Bang alone in both analyses. In perioperative analyses, STOP-Bang + polysomnography was not cost-effective compared to no screening at the $4,167/quality-adjusted life month threshold (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio $52,888/quality-adjusted life month). No screening was favored in more than 90% of iterations in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In contrast, in lifetime analyses, STOP-Bang + polysomnography was favored compared to no screening at the $50,000/quality-adjusted life year threshold (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio $2,044/quality-adjusted life year). STOP-Bang + polysomnography was favored in most iterations at thresholds above $2,000/quality-adjusted life year in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The cost-effectiveness of preoperative obstructive sleep apnea screening differs depending on time horizon. Preoperative screening with STOP-Bang followed by immediate confirmatory testing with polysomnography is cost-effective on the lifetime horizon but not the perioperative horizon. The integration of preoperative screening based on STOP-Bang and polysomnography is a cost-effective means of mitigating the long-term disease burden of obstructive sleep apnea.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/economia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/economia , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/economia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia
20.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has yet to endorse deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention as part of public health campaigns. We aimed to quantify the effectiveness of repellent distributed by the village health volunteer (VHV) network in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in reducing malaria in order to advance regional malaria elimination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between April 2015 and June 2016, a 15-month stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial was conducted in 116 villages in Myanmar (stepped monthly in blocks) to test the effectiveness of 12% N,N-diethylbenzamide w/w cream distributed by VHVs, on Plasmodium spp. infection. The median age of participants was 18 years, approximately half were female, and the majority were either village residents (46%) or forest dwellers (40%). No adverse events were reported during the study. Generalised linear mixed modelling estimated the effect of repellent on infection detected by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (primary outcome) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (secondary outcome). Overall Plasmodium infection detected by RDT was low (0.16%; 50/32,194), but infection detected by PCR was higher (3%; 419/13,157). There was no significant protection against RDT-detectable infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.25, 95% CI 0.004-15.2, p = 0.512). In Plasmodium-species-specific analyses, repellent protected against PCR-detectable P. falciparum (adjusted relative risk ratio [ARRR] = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.95, p = 0.026), but not P. vivax infection (ARRR = 1.41, 95% CI 0.80-2.47, p = 0.233). Repellent effects were similar when delayed effects were modelled, across risk groups, and regardless of village-level and temporal heterogeneity in malaria prevalence. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$256 per PCR-detectable infection averted. Study limitations were a lower than expected Plasmodium spp. infection rate and potential geographic dilution of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed apparent protection against new infections associated with the large-scale distribution of repellent by VHVs. Incorporation of repellent into national strategies, particularly in areas where bed nets are less effective, may contribute to the interruption of malaria transmission. Further studies are warranted across different transmission settings and populations, from the GMS and beyond, to inform WHO public health policy on the deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12616001434482).


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Voluntários , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/economia , Malária Falciparum/economia , Malária Vivax/economia , Masculino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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