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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A search for accurate linear discriminant function (LDF) allowing the diagnosis of schizophrenia and estimation of treatment effectiveness according to EEG is an urgent problem. OBJECTIVE: To develop a methodology for discriminant EEG analysis for minimizing the overlearning effect, selection of optimal LDF model and evaluation of its generalizing ability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty patients with schizophrenia and 1400 people without psychiatric diseases, who were comparable in basic characteristics, were enrolled. EEG was recorded using 16 leads, 10-20 system and aural reference electrodes. EEG was processed by spectral and coherent analysis. RESULTS: After linear discriminant analysis, LDF was obtained to differentiate people with schizophrenia from healthy subjects and a formula was selected from LDF that included 8 predictors (spectral and coherent parameters of standard EEG ranges theta, alpha and beta) with 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity, significance level for Wilks' lambda p<3.9E-28 and the Mahalanobis distance between training set centroids 4,6. CONCLUSION: A method for obtaining optimal LDF models and selection the best one with further LDF generalizing ability assessment is suggested.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Análise Discriminante , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(3): 444-448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769281

RESUMO

Background: Mandible is a dimorphic, dense compact bone that makes it very durable and well preserved in mass disasters for personnel identification. Mandibular ramus morphometric measurements can be used for gender determination using orthopantomogram (OPG) or on dry mandibles. Aim: To determine gender from morphometric analysis of mandibular ramus of 200 digital OPG of patients from Sriganganagar population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on randomly selected digital OPG of 200 patients of both genders between the ages of 21 and 70 years taken using CS8000C machine from daily OPD. Morphometric analysis of mandibular ramus (maximum ramus breadth, minimum ramus breadth, condylar height, projective height of ramus, and coronoid height) was done twice by single maxillofacial radiologist independently at an interval of 1 day and mean of both the values were considered. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS Software version 20 using independent t-test and discriminant function analysis. Results: Out of total 200 subjects, 37% were male and 63% were female. Mean of minimum ramus breadth, maximum ramus height, and projected ramus height was noted significantly more among males while maximum ramus breadth was noted slightly higher in females. The overall accuracy for determining sex from mandibular ramus was found to be 77.6%, whereas for determining male and female, the accuracy was 78.4% and 76.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Mandibular ramus can be used for sexual dimorphism by morphometric analysis done on OPG among Sriganganagar population.


Assuntos
Mandíbula , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Coleta de Dados , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Panorâmica , Adulto Jovem
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(31): 1286-1292, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750014

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low back pain is a major factor that influences both society and economy. In Hungary, 21% of the population suffers from low back pain or back pain, and six out of ten take medication for the disease. Therapy is complex and no single method has been proved effectively to treat this disease. There are four main factors associated with low back pain: the geometry of the spine, morphological degeneration, the pain of the patients associated with the degeneration and the degree of the impairment. AIM: To investigate the relationship between the distribution of lumbar lordosis and the degeneration of intervertebral discs by mathematical analysis and its software application. METHOD: Algorithmic analysis of 60 MRIs and their classification into degeneration classes using discriminant analysis. RESULTS: By the classification, three independent variables show significant results: the gender, the age, and the digression percentage (K), but not the gold standard Cobb-angle. The common correct predicted classification value of the classification functions is 83% and the correct predicted classification value is 92% in the most relevant serious degeneration class. CONCLUSION: According to our results, the average degeneration of lumbar spine can be determined indirectly by the gender, the age, and the K (lordosis distribution) values with the Spinalyze Software which is available online for free. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(31): 1286-1292.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/epidemiologia , Lordose/epidemiologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Disco Intervertebral , Vértebras Lombares/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461352, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797832

RESUMO

In the present study, we characterize a famous Pirkle-type enantioselective stationary phase ((R,R)-Whelk-O1 from Regis Technologies) and an equivalent enantiomeric phase (ReproSil Chiral-NR from Dr. Maisch) in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with carbon dioxide - methanol (90:10 v/v) mobile phase. First, the interactions contributing to retention are evaluated with a modified version of the solvation parameter model, comprising five Abraham descriptors (E, S, A, B, V), two additional descriptors to take account of molecular shape (flexibility F and globularity G), and two additional descriptors to take account of interactions with ionizable species (D- and D+). Linear solvation energy relationships (LSER) are established based on the retention of 212 achiral analytes. As expected, π-π interactions are the most significant to explain retention, while dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions with cationic species are of secondary importance. Secondly, the contributions of interactions to enantioseparations are discussed, based on the analysis of 79 racemates. Discriminant analyses (DA) were computed to gain some insight on retention mechanisms. The set of racemates is first divided between racemates eluted earlier than expected based on the LSER models, and those eluted later than expected. Small spherical molecules are more retained than expected, as they may better fit inside the cleft of the chiral selector. They are also most frequently resolved, probably for the same reason. Among the molecules that are less retained than expected, which are rather large and/or non-spherical, other features are favourable to enantiorecognition: π-electrons, dipoles and electron-donating properties. Contrary to the observations on other sorts of chiral selectors, flexibility was found to have no contribution on the enantiorecognition process.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Análise Discriminante , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Íons , Metanol/química , Modelos Teóricos , Estereoisomerismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804928

RESUMO

We studied avian development in 49 to 153 species of temperate and tropical New World passerine birds to determine how growth rates, and incubation and nestling periods, varied in relation to other life-history traits. We collected growth data and generated unbiased mass and tarsus growth rate estimates (mass n = 92 species, tarsus n = 49 species), and measured incubation period (n = 151) and nestling period (n = 153), which we analyzed with respect to region, egg mass, adult mass, clutch size, parental care type, nest type, daily nest predation rate (DMR), and nest height. We investigated covariation of life-history and natural-history attributes with the four development traits after controlling for phylogeny. Species in our lowland tropical sample grew 20% (incubation period), 25% (mass growth rate), and 26% (tarsus growth rate) more slowly than in our temperate sample. Nestling period did not vary with respect to latitude, which suggests that tropical songbirds fledge in a less well-developed state than temperate species. Suboscine species typically exhibited slower embryonic and post-embryonic growth than oscine passerines regardless of their breeding region. This pattern of slow development in tropical species could reflect phylogenetic effects based on unknown physiological attributes. Time-dependent nest mortality was unrelated to nestling mass growth rate, tarsus growth rate, and incubation period, but was significantly associated with nestling period. This suggests that nest predation, the predominant cause of nest loss in songbirds, does not exert strong selection on physiologically constrained traits, such as embryonic and post-embryonic growth, among our samples of temperate and lowland tropical songbird species. Nestling period, which is evolutionarily more labile than growth rate, was significantly shorter in birds exposed to higher rates of nest loss and nesting at lower heights, among other traits. Differences in life-history variation across latitudes provide insight into how unique ecological characteristics of each region influence physiological processes of passerines, and thus, how they can shape the evolution of life histories. While development traits clearly vary with respect to latitude, trait distributions overlap broadly. Life-history and natural history associations differ for each development trait, which suggests that unique selective pressures or constraints influence the evolution of each trait.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Clima , Tamanho da Ninhada , Análise Discriminante , Ecossistema , Feminino , Traços de História de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Michigan , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Oregon , Panamá , Filogenia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Aves Canoras/classificação , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tarso Animal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 357, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that labeling errors are not uncommon in omics data. Potential outliers may severely undermine the correct classification of patients and the identification of reliable biomarkers for a particular disease. Three methods have been proposed to address the problem: sparse label-noise-robust logistic regression (Rlogreg), robust elastic net based on the least trimmed square (enetLTS), and Ensemble. Ensemble is an ensembled classification based on distinct feature selection and modeling strategies. The accuracy of biomarker selection and outlier detection of these methods needs to be evaluated and compared so that the appropriate method can be chosen. RESULTS: The accuracy of variable selection, outlier identification, and prediction of three methods (Ensemble, enetLTS, Rlogreg) were compared for simulated and an RNA-seq dataset. On simulated datasets, Ensemble had the highest variable selection accuracy, as measured by a comprehensive index, and lowest false discovery rate among the three methods. When the sample size was large and the proportion of outliers was ≤5%, the positive selection rate of Ensemble was similar to that of enetLTS. However, when the proportion of outliers was 10% or 15%, Ensemble missed some variables that affected the response variables. Overall, enetLTS had the best outlier detection accuracy with false positive rates < 0.05 and high sensitivity, and enetLTS still performed well when the proportion of outliers was relatively large. With 1% or 2% outliers, Ensemble showed high outlier detection accuracy, but with higher proportions of outliers Ensemble missed many mislabeled samples. Rlogreg and Ensemble were less accurate in identifying outliers than enetLTS. The prediction accuracy of enetLTS was better than that of Rlogreg. Running Ensemble on a subset of data after removing the outliers identified by enetLTS improved the variable selection accuracy of Ensemble. CONCLUSIONS: When the proportion of outliers is ≤5%, Ensemble can be used for variable selection. When the proportion of outliers is > 5%, Ensemble can be used for variable selection on a subset after removing outliers identified by enetLTS. For outlier identification, enetLTS is the recommended method. In practice, the proportion of outliers can be estimated according to the inaccuracy of the diagnostic methods used.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Logísticos , Tamanho da Amostra , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833991

RESUMO

As a characteristic edible fungus with a high nutritional value and medicinal effect, the Bachu mushroom has a broad market. To distinguish among Bachu mushrooms with high value and other fungi effectively and accurately, as well as to explore a universal identification method, this study proposed a method to identify Bachu mushrooms by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with machine learning. In this experiment, two kinds of common edible mushrooms, Lentinus edodes and club fungi, were selected and classified with Bachu mushrooms. Due to the different distribution of nutrients in the caps and stalks, the caps and stalks were studied in this experiment. By comparing the average normalized infrared spectra of the caps and stalks of the three types of fungi, we found differences in their infrared spectra, indicating that the latter can be used to classify and identify the three types of fungi. We also used machine learning to process the spectral data. The overall steps of data processing are as follows: use partial least squares (PLS) to extract spectral features, select the appropriate characteristic number, use different classification algorithms for classification, and finally determine the best algorithm according to the classification results. Among them, the basis of selecting the characteristic number was the cumulative variance interpretation rate. To improve the reliability of the experimental results, this study also used the classification results to verify the feasibility. The classification algorithms used in this study were the support vector machine (SVM), backpropagation neural network (BPNN) and k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm. The results showed that the three algorithms achieved good results in the multivariate classification of the caps and stalks data. Moreover, the cumulative variance explanation rate could be used to select the characteristic number. Finally, by comparing the classification results of the three algorithms, the classification effect of KNN was found to be the best. Additionally, the classification results were as follows: according to the caps data classification, the accuracy was 99.06%; according to the stalks data classification, the accuracy was 99.82%. This study showed that infrared spectroscopy combined with a machine learning algorithm has the potential to be applied to identify Bachu mushrooms and the cumulative variance explanation rate can be used to select the characteristic number. This method can also be used to identify other types of edible fungi and has a broad application prospect.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Algoritmos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Análise Discriminante , Fungos/classificação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cogumelos Shiitake , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804973

RESUMO

The characterization of the microbial population of many niches of the organism, as the gastrointestinal tract, is now possible thanks to the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing technique. Several studies in the companion animals field already investigated faecal microbiome in healthy or affected subjects, although the methodologies used in the different laboratories and the limited number of animals recruited in each experiment does not allow a straight comparison among published results. In the present study, we report data collected from several in house researches carried out in healthy dogs, with the aim to seek for a variability of microbial taxa in the faeces, caused by factors such as diet and sex. The database contains 340 samples from 132 dogs, collected serially during dietary intervention studies. The procedure of samples collection, storage, DNA extraction and sequencing, bioinformatic and statistical analysis followed a standardized pipeline. Microbial profiles of faecal samples have been analyzed applying dimensional reduction discriminant analysis followed by random forest analysis to the relative abundances of genera in the feces as variables. The results supported the responsiveness of microbiota at a genera taxonomic level to dietary factor and allowed to cluster dogs according this factor with high accuracy. Also sex factor clustered dogs, with castrated males and spayed females forming a separated group in comparison to intact dogs, strengthening the hypothesis of a bidirectional interaction between microbiota and endocrine status of the host. The findings of the present analysis are promising for a better comprehension of the mechanisms that regulate the connection of the microorganisms living the gastrointestinal tract with the diet and the host. This preliminary study deserves further investigation for the identification of the factors affecting faecal microbiome in dogs.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Cães/microbiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Microbiota , Algoritmos , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237869, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810164

RESUMO

Abrupt dietary changes, as can be common when managing horses, may lead to compositional changes in gut microbiota, which may result in digestive or metabolic disturbances. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the faecal microbiota of ponies abruptly changed from pasture grazing ad libitum to a restricted hay-only diet and vice versa. The experiment consisted of two, 14-day periods. Faecal samples were collected on day 0 and days 1-3,7,14 after abrupt dietary change from grass to hay and from hay to grass. Microbial populations were characterised by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform, 4,777,315 sequences were obtained from 6 ponies. Further analyses were performed to characterise the microbiome as well as the relative abundance of microbiota present. The results of this study suggest that the faecal microbiota of mature ponies is highly diverse, and the relative abundances of individual taxa change in response to abrupt changes in diet. The faecal microbiota of ponies maintained on a restricted amount of hay-only was similar to that of the ponies fed solely grass ad libitum in terms of richness and phylogenetic diversity; however, it differed significantly in terms of the relative abundances at distinct taxonomic levels. Class Bacilli, order Lactobacillales, family Lactobacillaceae, and genus Lactobacillus were presented in increased relative abundance on day 2 after an abrupt dietary change from hay to grass compared to all other experimental days (P <0.05). Abrupt changes from grass to hay and vice versa affect the faecal microbial community structure; moreover, the order of dietary change appears to have a profound effect in the first few days following the transition. An abrupt dietary change from hay to grass may represent a higher risk for gut disturbances compared to abrupt change from grass to hay.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Cavalos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Poaceae , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Análise Discriminante , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461380, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823093

RESUMO

Microwave-ultrasonic assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction (MUAAEE) was applied to extract tiger nut oil (TNO). The conditions of MUAAEE were optimized by Plackett-Burman design followed Box-Behnken design. An oil recovery of 85.23% was achieved under optimum conditions of a 2% concentration of mixed enzyme including cellulase, pectinase and hemicellulase (1/1/1, w/w/w), particle size <600 µm, microwave power 300 W, ultrasonic power 460 W, radiation temperature 40 °C, time 30 min, enzymolysis temperature 45 °C, pH 4.9, liquid-to-solid ratio 10 mL/g and time 180 min. Oil by MUAAEE revealed the similar fatty acid compositions, triglyceride compositions, thermal behaviour and flavour compared with oil by Soxhlet extraction (SE), while the oil quality of MUAAEE is superior to that of SE. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that structural disruption of tiger nut caused by MUAAEE facilitated the oil extraction. Results suggest that MUAAEE could be an efficient and environment-friendly method for extraction of TNO.


Assuntos
Cyperus/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Nozes/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Celulase/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/análise , Água/química
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012022, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common cancer of the lymphatic system in Western countries. Several clinical and biological factors for CLL have been identified. However, it remains unclear which of the available prognostic models combining those factors can be used in clinical practice to predict long-term outcome in people newly-diagnosed with CLL. OBJECTIVES: To identify, describe and appraise all prognostic models developed to predict overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) or treatment-free survival (TFS) in newly-diagnosed (previously untreated) adults with CLL, and meta-analyse their predictive performances. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (from January 1950 to June 2019 via Ovid), Embase (from 1974 to June 2019) and registries of ongoing trials (to 5 March 2020) for development and validation studies of prognostic models for untreated adults with CLL. In addition, we screened the reference lists and citation indices of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all prognostic models developed for CLL which predict OS, PFS, or TFS, provided they combined prognostic factors known before treatment initiation, and any studies that tested the performance of these models in individuals other than the ones included in model development (i.e. 'external model validation studies'). We included studies of adults with confirmed B-cell CLL who had not received treatment prior to the start of the study. We did not restrict the search based on study design. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We developed a data extraction form to collect information based on the Checklist for Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies (CHARMS). Independent pairs of review authors screened references, extracted data and assessed risk of bias according to the Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool (PROBAST). For models that were externally validated at least three times, we aimed to perform a quantitative meta-analysis of their predictive performance, notably their calibration (proportion of people predicted to experience the outcome who do so) and discrimination (ability to differentiate between people with and without the event) using a random-effects model. When a model categorised individuals into risk categories, we pooled outcome frequencies per risk group (low, intermediate, high and very high). We did not apply GRADE as guidance is not yet available for reviews of prognostic models. MAIN RESULTS: From 52 eligible studies, we identified 12 externally validated models: six were developed for OS, one for PFS and five for TFS. In general, reporting of the studies was poor, especially predictive performance measures for calibration and discrimination; but also basic information, such as eligibility criteria and the recruitment period of participants was often missing. We rated almost all studies at high or unclear risk of bias according to PROBAST. Overall, the applicability of the models and their validation studies was low or unclear; the most common reasons were inappropriate handling of missing data and serious reporting deficiencies concerning eligibility criteria, recruitment period, observation time and prediction performance measures. We report the results for three models predicting OS, which had available data from more than three external validation studies: CLL International Prognostic Index (CLL-IPI) This score includes five prognostic factors: age, clinical stage, IgHV mutational status, B2-microglobulin and TP53 status. Calibration: for the low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, the pooled five-year survival per risk group from validation studies corresponded to the frequencies observed in the model development study. In the very high-risk group, predicted survival from CLL-IPI was lower than observed from external validation studies. Discrimination: the pooled c-statistic of seven external validation studies (3307 participants, 917 events) was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 0.77). The 95% prediction interval (PI) of this model for the c-statistic, which describes the expected interval for the model's discriminative ability in a new external validation study, ranged from 0.59 to 0.83. Barcelona-Brno score Aimed at simplifying the CLL-IPI, this score includes three prognostic factors: IgHV mutational status, del(17p) and del(11q). Calibration: for the low- and intermediate-risk group, the pooled survival per risk group corresponded to the frequencies observed in the model development study, although the score seems to overestimate survival for the high-risk group. Discrimination: the pooled c-statistic of four external validation studies (1755 participants, 416 events) was 0.64 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.67); 95% PI 0.59 to 0.68. MDACC 2007 index score The authors presented two versions of this model including six prognostic factors to predict OS: age, B2-microglobulin, absolute lymphocyte count, gender, clinical stage and number of nodal groups. Only one validation study was available for the more comprehensive version of the model, a formula with a nomogram, while seven studies (5127 participants, 994 events) validated the simplified version of the model, the index score. Calibration: for the low- and intermediate-risk groups, the pooled survival per risk group corresponded to the frequencies observed in the model development study, although the score seems to overestimate survival for the high-risk group. Discrimination: the pooled c-statistic of the seven external validation studies for the index score was 0.65 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.70); 95% PI 0.51 to 0.77. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Despite the large number of published studies of prognostic models for OS, PFS or TFS for newly-diagnosed, untreated adults with CLL, only a minority of these (N = 12) have been externally validated for their respective primary outcome. Three models have undergone sufficient external validation to enable meta-analysis of the model's ability to predict survival outcomes. Lack of reporting prevented us from summarising calibration as recommended. Of the three models, the CLL-IPI shows the best discrimination, despite overestimation. However, performance of the models may change for individuals with CLL who receive improved treatment options, as the models included in this review were tested mostly on retrospective cohorts receiving a traditional treatment regimen. In conclusion, this review shows a clear need to improve the conducting and reporting of both prognostic model development and external validation studies. For prognostic models to be used as tools in clinical practice, the development of the models (and their subsequent validation studies) should adapt to include the latest therapy options to accurately predict performance. Adaptations should be timely.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Viés , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Calibragem , Intervalos de Confiança , Análise Discriminante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Genes p53/genética , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756589

RESUMO

Dysregulated expression of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) plays substantial role in the initiation and progression of both diabetes and periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to validate four miRNAs in saliva as potential predictive biomarkers of periodontal disease among patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). MiRNAs were extracted from the saliva of 24 adult subjects with DM and 29 healthy controls. Each group was subdivided into periodontally healthy or having periodontitis. In silico analysis identified 4 miRNAs (miRNA 155, 146 a/b and 203) as immune modulators. The expression of miRNAs-146a/b, 155, and 203 was tested using quantitative PCR. The expression levels in the study groups were compared to explore the effect of diabetes on periodontal status and vice versa. In our cohort, the four miRNAs expression were higher in patients with periodontitis and/or diabetes. miRNA-155 was the most reliable predictors of periodontitis among non-diabetics with an optimum cut-off value of < 8.97 with accuracy = 82.6%. MiRNA 146a, on the other hand, was the only reliable predictor of periodontitis among subjects with diabetes with optimum cut-off value of ≥11.04 with accuracy = 86.1%. The results of the present study concluded that MiRNA-146a and miRNA155 in saliva provide reliable, non-invasive, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers that can be used to monitor periodontal health status among diabetic and non-diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/genética , Periodontite/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Saliva/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
13.
Anal Chem ; 92(16): 11297-11304, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683857

RESUMO

Viruses are infections species that infect a large spectrum of living systems. Although displaying a wide variety of shapes and sizes, they are all composed of nucleic acid encapsulated into a protein capsid. After virions enter the host cell, they replicate to produce multiple copies of themselves. They then lyse the host, releasing virions to infect new cells. The high proliferation rate of viruses is the underlying cause of their fast transmission among living species. Although many viruses are harmless, some of them are responsible for severe diseases such as AIDS, viral hepatitis, and flu. Traditionally, electron microscopy is used to identify and characterize viruses. This approach is time- and labor-consuming, which is problematic upon pandemic proliferation of previously unknown viruses, such as H1N1 and COVID-19. Herein, we demonstrate a novel diagnosis approach for label-free identification and structural characterization of individual viruses that is based on a combination of nanoscale Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Using atomic force microscopy-infrared (AFM-IR) spectroscopy, we were able to probe structural organization of the virions of Herpes Simplex Type 1 viruses and bacteriophage MS2. We also showed that tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) could be used to reveal protein secondary structure and amino acid composition of the virus surface. Our results show that AFM-IR and TERS provide different but complementary information about the structure of complex biological specimens. This structural information can be used for fast and reliable identification of viruses. This nanoscale bimodal imaging approach can be also used to investigate the origin of viral polymorphism and study mechanisms of virion assembly.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Vírion/química , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Capsídeo/química , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Análise Discriminante , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Levivirus/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Células Vero
14.
Food Chem ; 332: 127424, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619947

RESUMO

Celery (Apium graveolens L. var dulce) is a widely cultivated vegetable which is popularly consumed due to its nutrient content and contains bioactive metabolites with positive effects on human physiology. In this study, 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was used to distinguish celery stem and leaf samples from different geographical origins. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to investigate the differences between celery extracts from three geographical origins: Australia, Taiwan and China. Sugars, amino acids and organic acids were found to contribute significantly to the differentiation between origins, with mannitol identified as an important discriminating metabolite. It was demonstrated that NMR-based metabolomics is an effective approach for establishing reliable metabolomic fingerprints and profiles, enabling the identification of metabolite biomarkers for the possible discrimination of geographical origin.


Assuntos
Apium/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Apium/metabolismo , Austrália , China , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Manitol/análise , Manitol/metabolismo , Análise Multivariada , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109212, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721430

RESUMO

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is frequently used medications for many auto-immunity diseases. However, HCQ induced retinal toxicity, which might result in irreversible retinopathy, is one of the most important complications of HCQ. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the HCQ retinal toxicity is still not well known. Retinal pigment epithelium, in which HCQ is highly enriched due to the tissue-specific affinity of HCQ, is considered to play important role in HCQ retinopathy. Herein, we used a metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate the metabolic changes in retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) with HCQ exposure at 6 h and 24 h. ARPE-19 cells were treated with HCQ at sub-lethal concentration 20 (IC 20), which was determined with MTT assay. Untargeted metabolic profiling revealed 9 and 15 metabolites that were significantly different between control group and HCQ exposure group at 6 h and 24 h, respectively. Enrichment and pathway analysis highlighted ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, d-Glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism and C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism were disturbed after HCQ exposure. These findings increased our knowledge about the metabolic perturbation induced by HCQ exposure and indicated that metabolic profiling in the ARPE-19 cells might be helpful in understanding the mechanism of HCQ retinal toxicity and exploring potential biomarker.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Hidroxicloroquina/toxicidade , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise Discriminante , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal
16.
Food Chem ; 332: 127415, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619945

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the combined effect of storage at 4 °C (10-days) and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the phytochemical profile of red beet (Beta vulgaris) and amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) microgreens. The untargeted profiling based on UHPLC-QTOF metabolomics allowed annotating 316 compounds, comprising mainly polyphenols and lipids. An impact of storage on the total phenolic content (TPC) was observed, with a maximum increase at 10-days of storage for both red beet (+1.3-fold) and amaranth (+1.1-fold). On the other hand, in vitro digestion of both red beet and amaranth microgreens produced a significant increase in TPC (36-88%), CUPRAC (27-40%), DPPH (6-43%), and BC (41-57%) to reach the maximum at 10 days of storage. Tyrosinase inhibitory potential also decreased following digestion. The combination of biochemical changes occurring in microgreen immature plants (likely in response to the harvest stress) with changes during digestion, determined the actual functional value of microgreens.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Digestão , Análise Discriminante , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(14): 3467-3474, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726063

RESUMO

Resin-containing drugs in Dracaena from four different appearances were analyzed by headspace sampling-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-GC-MS) metabolomics technique and hierarchical clustering analysis(HCA) chemometrics method. This study was to analyze differential volatile components in resin-containing drugs in Dracaena from different appearance and metabolic pathways. The results of partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) and HCA analysis indicated that there was little difference in volatile components between fiber-rich sample and hollow cork cambium sample, however, the volatile components in the two samples compared with whole body resin-containing sample and resin-secreting aggregated sample had a large metabolic difference. Twenty differential metabolites were screened by VIP and P values of PLS-DA. The content of these differential metabolites was significantly higher in whole body resin-containing sample and resin-secreting aggregated sample than in fiber-rich sample and hollow cork cambium sample. Sixteen significant metabolic pathways were obtained through enrichment analysis(P<0.05), mainly involved in terpenoids biosynthesis and phenylpropanoid metabolism. This result provided a reference for further study of resin formation mechanism of resin-containing drugs in Dracaena from different appearances. At the same time, it also provided a reference for establishing a multi-index quality evaluation system.


Assuntos
Dracaena , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Resinas Vegetais
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730353

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), exhibit antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, diets rich in n-3 PUFAs are known to improve disease resistance and limit pathogen infection in commercial aquaculture fishes. In this study, we examined the effects of transgenic overexpression of n-3 PUFA biosynthesis genes on the physiological response to bacterial infection in tilapia. We first established tilapia strains with single or dual expression of salmon delta-5 desaturase and/or delta-6 desaturase and then challenged the fish with Vibrio vulnificus infection. Interestingly, our data suggest that n-3 PUFA-mediated alterations in gut microbiota may be important in determining disease outcome via effects on immune response of the host. Both liver- and muscle-specific single and dual expression of delta-5 desaturase and delta-6 desaturase resulted in higher n-3 PUFA content in transgenic fish fed with a LO basal diet. The enrichment of n-3 PUFAs in dual-transgenic fish is likely responsible for their improved survival rate and comparatively reduced expression of inflammation- and immune-associated genes after V. vulnificus infection. Gut microbiome analysis further revealed that dual-transgenic tilapia had high gut microbiota diversity, with low levels of inflammation-associated microbiota (i.e., Prevotellaceae). Thus, our findings indicate that dual expression of transgenic delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase in tilapia enhances disease resistance, an effect that is associated with increased levels of n-3 PUFAs and altered gut microbiota composition.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/metabolismo , Tilápia/microbiologia , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Análise Discriminante , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/genética , Tilápia/genética , Vibrioses/patologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
19.
Analyst ; 145(17): 5725-5732, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696763

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is known as the causal agent for the current COVID-19 global pandemic. The majority of COVID-19 patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), while some experience a cytokine storm effect, which is considered as one of the leading causes of patient mortality. Lipids are known to be involved in the various stages of the lifecycle of a virus functioning as receptors or co-receptors that controls viral propagation inside the host cell. Therefore, lipid-related metabolomics aims to provide insight into the immune response of the novel coronavirus. Our study has focused on determination of the potential metabolomic biomarkers utilizing a Teslin® Substrate in paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) for the development of a rapid detection test within 60 seconds of analysis time. In this study, results were correlated with PCR tests to reflect that the systemic responses of the cells were affected by the COVID-19 virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Papel , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0229192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701945

RESUMO

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a widely used forage grass which shares a symbiosis with the endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala. The endophyte produces an alkaloid toxin that provides herbivory, heat and drought resistance to the grass, but can cause fescue toxicosis in grazing livestock. Fescue toxicosis can lead to reduced weight gain and milk yields resulting in significant losses to the livestock industry. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial and fungal communities associated with fescue toxicosis tolerance. In this trial, 149 Angus cows across two farms were continuously exposed to toxic, endophyte-infected, fescue for a total of 13 weeks. Of those 149 cows, 40 were classified into either high (HT) or low (LT) tolerance groups according to their growth performance (weight gain). 20 HT and 20 LT cattle balanced by farm were selected for amplicon sequencing to compare the fecal microbiota of the two tolerance groups. This study reveals significantly (q<0.05) different bacterial and fungal microbiota between HT and LT cattle, and indicates that fungal phylotypes may be important for an animal's response to fescue toxicosis: We found that fungal phylotypes affiliating to the Neocallimastigaceae, which are known to be important fiber-degrading fungi, were consistently more abundant in the HT cattle. Whereas fungal phylotypes related to the genus Thelebolus were more abundant in the LT cattle. This study also found more pronounced shifts in the microbiota in animals receiving higher amounts of the toxin. We identified fungal phylotypes which were consistently more abundant either in HT or LT cattle and may thus be associated with the respective animal's response to fescue toxicosis. Our results thus suggest that some fungal phylotypes might be involved in mitigating fescue toxicosis.


Assuntos
Epichloe/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lolium/microbiologia , Animais , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Análise Discriminante , Alcaloides de Claviceps/análise , Alcaloides de Claviceps/toxicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neocallimastigales/isolamento & purificação , Neocallimastigales/metabolismo , Simbiose , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Toxinas Biológicas/toxicidade
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