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1.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205185

RESUMO

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It affects ~10% of the world's population of children, and about 30-50% of those diagnosed in childhood continue to show ADHD symptoms later, with 2-5% of adults having the condition. Current diagnosis of ADHD is based on the clinical evaluation of the patient, and on interviews performed by clinicians with parents and teachers of the children, which, together with the fact that it shares common symptoms and frequent comorbidities with other neurodevelopmental disorders, makes the accurate and timely diagnosis of the disorder a difficult task. Despite the large effort to identify reliable biomarkers that can be used in a clinical environment to support clinical diagnosis, this goal has never been achieved hitherto. In the present study, infrared spectroscopy was used together with multivariate statistical methods (hierarchical clustering and partial least-squares discriminant analysis) to develop a model based on the spectra of blood serum samples that is able to distinguish ADHD patients from healthy individuals. The developed model used an approach where the whole infrared spectrum (in the 3700-900 cm-1 range) was taken as a holistic imprint of the biochemical blood serum environment (spectroscopic biomarker), overcoming the need for the search of any particular chemical substance associated with the disorder (molecular biomarker). The developed model is based on a sensitive and reliable technique, which is cheap and fast, thus appearing promising to use as a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical environment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Análise Discriminante , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208417

RESUMO

In the present study, we analyze the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) blood serum metabolic profiles of 106 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients during radio (RT) and concurrent radio-chemotherapy (CHRT). Four different fractionation schemes were compared. The blood samples were collected weekly, from the day before the treatment until the last week of CHRT/RT. The NMR spectra were acquired on A Bruker 400 MHz spectrometer at 310 K and analyzed using multivariate methods. Seven metabolites were found significantly to be altered solely by radiotherapy: N-acetyl-glycoprotein (NAG), N-acetylcysteine, glycerol, glycolate and the lipids at 0.9, 1.3 and 3.2 ppm. The NMR results were correlated with the tissue volumes receiving a particular dose of radiation. The influence of the irradiated volume on the metabolic profile is weak and mainly limited to sparse correlations with the inflammatory markers, creatinine and the lymphocyte count in RT and the branched-chain amino-acids in CHRT. This is probably due to the optimal planning and delivery of radiotherapy improving sparing of the surrounding normal tissues and minimizing the differences between the patients (caused by the tumor location and size).


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Discriminante , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203988

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity and the in vivo effect on the murine fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of (S)-reutericyclin. The antimicrobial activity of (S)-reutericyclin was tested against Clostridium difficile, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus (S.) epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Propionibacterium acnes. Reutericyclin or water were gavage fed to male BALBc mice for 7 weeks. Thereafter stool samples underwent 16S based microbiome analysis and VOC analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (S)-reutericyclin inhibited growth of S. epidermidis only. Oral (S)-reutericyclin treatment caused a trend towards reduced alpha diversity. Beta diversity was significantly influenced by reutericyclin. Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis showed an increase of Streptococcus and Muribaculum as well as a decrease of butyrate producing Ruminoclostridium, Roseburia and Eubacterium in the reutericyclin group. VOC analysis revealed significant increases of pentane and heptane and decreases of 2,3-butanedione and 2-heptanone in reutericyclin animals. The antimicrobial activity of (S)-reutericyclin differs from reports of (R)-reutericyclin with inhibitory effects on a multitude of Gram-positive bacteria reported in the literature. In vivo (S)-reutericyclin treatment led to a microbiome shift towards dysbiosis and distinct alterations of the fecal VOC profile.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Tenuazônico/análogos & derivados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ácido Tenuazônico/farmacologia
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(7)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259621

RESUMO

Introduction. Contamination of specimens and overuse of broad spectrum antibiotics contribute to false positives and false negatives, respectively. Therefore, useful and applicable biomarkers of bacteremia are still required.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. IL-6 can be used as a serum biomarker to discriminate among bacterial infections and fungal infections in febrile patients with a bloodstream infection.Aim. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), procalcitonin (PCT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in discriminating Gram-negative (G-) bacteria from Gram-positive (G+) bacteria and fungi in febrile patients.Methodology. A total of 567 patients with fever were evaluated. Serum levels of IL-6, PCT, NLR and CRP were compared among a G- group (n=188), a G+ group (n=168), a fungal group (n=38) and a culture negative group (n=173). Sensitivity, specificity, Yuden's index and area under the Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were obtained to analyse the diagnostic abilities of these biomarkers in discriminating bloodstream infection caused by different pathogens.Results. Serum IL-6 and PCT in the G- group increased significantly when compared with both the G+ group and fungal group (P <0.05). AUC of IL-6 (0.767, 95 % CI:0.725-0.805) is higher than AUC of PCT (0.751, 95 % CI:0.708-0.796) in discriminating the G- group from G+ group. When discriminating the G- group from fungal group, the AUC of IL-6 (0.695, 95 % CI:0.651-0.747) with a cut-off value of 464.3 pg ml-1 was also higher than the AUC of PCT (0.630, 95 % CI:0.585-0.688) with a cut-off value of 0.68 ng ml-1. Additionally, AUC of NLR (0.685, 95 % CI:0.646-0.727) in discriminating the fungal group from G+ group at the cut-off value of 9.03, was higher than AUC of IL-6, PCT and CRP.Conclusion. This study suggests that IL-6 could be used as a serum biomarker to discriminate among bacterial infections and fungal infections in febrile patients with a bloodstream infection. In addition, NLR is valuable to discriminate fungal infections from Gram-positive infections in febrile patients with a bloodstream infection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Febre/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/sangue , Micoses/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Calcitonina/sangue , Análise Discriminante , Febre/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Linfócitos/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/diagnóstico , Neutrófilos/citologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206281

RESUMO

A rapid and nondestructive method is greatly important for the classification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) concentration of single maize kernel to satisfy the ever-growing needs of consumers for food safety. A novel method for classification of AFB1 concentration of single maize kernel was developed on the basis of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (1100-2000 nm). Four groups of AFB1 samples with different concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 100 ppb) and one group of control samples were prepared, which were preprocessed with Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing and first derivative (FD) algorithms for their raw NIR spectra. A key wavelength selection method, combining the variance and order of average spectral intensity, was proposed on the basis of pretreated spectra. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to reduce the dimensionality of hyperspectral data. Finally, a classification model for AFB1 concentrations was developed through linear discriminant analysis (LDA), combined with five key wavelengths and the first three PCs. The results show that the proposed method achieved an ideal performance for classifying AFB1 concentrations in a single maize kernel with overall accuracy, with an F1-score and Kappa values of 95.56%, 0.9554, and 0.9444, respectively, as well as the test accuracy yield of 88.67% for independent validation samples. The combinations of variance and order of average spectral intensity can be used for key wavelength selection which, combined with PCA, can achieve an ideal dimensionality reduction effect for model development. The findings of this study have positive significance for the classification of AFB1 concentration of maize kernels.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Zea mays , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Análise Discriminante , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 830-834, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226475

RESUMO

For individual identification, the principal biological element is sex determination from disfigured and amputated limbs or body fragments in forensic investigation. Diverse dimensions and proportions affect the anthropometric assessment of sex in different populations. A cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2014 to June 2016 on five hundred and four healthy individuals of age-group 22-40 years of Western India to see the degree of sexual dimorphism in limb measurements. The forearm length, whole upper limb length, tibial length and whole lower limb length of both sides were measured by the universal anthropometric criteria. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed for each measurement. The sexual dimorphism was observed in all variables and males have a higher value than females (p<0.001). The tibial length showed the highest accuracy in sex determination and the highest sexual dimorphism, followed by whole lower limb length. The range of Cross-validated sex classification precision was between 58-90% for the individual variables, 91.7% for the stepwise method and 95.4% for all measurements taken together. The established prototypes delivered effective and consistent sex estimates with high precision rates and low prediction errors.


Assuntos
Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 385, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212245

RESUMO

Newcastle disease and heat stress reduce the productivity of local chickens of Nigeria (LCN). This study compared the antibody response to Newcastle disease and heat tolerance among different LCN genotypes in hot humid tropics using multivariate discriminant analysis. A total of 299 birds were used for the study. Geometric mean titre against Newcastle disease before vaccination (GMTB), geometric mean titre against Newcastle disease after vaccination (GMTA), rectal temperature at week 4 (RT4), pulse rate at week 4 (PR4), respiratory rate at week 4 (RR4), heat stress index at week 4 (H4), rectal temperature at week 13 (RT13), pulse rate at week 13 (PR13), respiratory rate at week 13 (RR13) and heat stress index at week 13 (H13) were measured. All the traits were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the genotype while sex differences were only observed in GMTB, GMTA and RR13. The stepwise discriminant analysis revealed RR4, PR13, RT13, H4, GMTA, GMTB, H13 and RT4 to be effective in differentiating the three chicken genotypes. Two canonical variables that accounted for 60.21% and 39.79% of the total variation were revealed. Linear discriminant functions for differentiation of the three chicken genotypes were also developed. 87.39% of normal feather, 76.58% of naked neck and 100% of frizzle feather chickens were correctly assigned into their genotypes. The longest Mahalanobis distance was observed between normal feather and frizzle feather chickens. The discriminant functions developed in this study could be used to differentiate the three genotypes of LCN using antibody response to Newcastle disease and heat tolerance.


Assuntos
Doença de Newcastle , Termotolerância , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Nigéria
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063055

RESUMO

Exploiting hand gestures for non-verbal communication has extraordinary potential in HCI. A data glove is an apparatus widely used to recognize hand gestures. To improve the functionality of the data glove, a highly stretchable and reliable signal-to-noise ratio sensor is indispensable. To do this, the study focused on the development of soft silicone microchannel sensors using a Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) liquid metal alloy and a hand gesture recognition system via the proposed data glove using the soft sensor. The EGaIn-silicone sensor was uniquely designed to include two sensing channels to monitor the finger joint movements and to facilitate the EGaIn alloy injection into the meander-type microchannels. We recruited 15 participants to collect hand gesture dataset investigating 12 static hand gestures. The dataset was exploited to estimate the performance of the proposed data glove in hand gesture recognition. Additionally, six traditional classification algorithms were studied. From the results, a random forest shows the highest classification accuracy of 97.3% and a linear discriminant analysis shows the lowest accuracy of 87.4%. The non-linearity of the proposed sensor deteriorated the accuracy of LDA, however, the other classifiers adequately overcame it and performed high accuracies (>90%).


Assuntos
Gálio , Gestos , Algoritmos , Análise Discriminante , Mãos , Humanos , Índio , Silicones
9.
Talanta ; 232: 122424, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074410

RESUMO

Spoilage microorganisms are of great concern for the food industry. While traditional culturing methods for spoilage microorganism detection are laborious and time-consuming, the development of early detection methods has gained a lot of interest in the last decades. In this work a rapid and non-destructive detection and discrimination method of eight important food-related microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis DSM 10, Bacillus coagulans DSM 1, Escherichia coli K12 DSM 498, Escherichia coli TOP10, Micrococcus luteus DSM 20030, Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 4358, Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090 and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis DSM 5724) based on IR-microspectroscopy and chemometric evaluation was developed. Sampling was carried out directly from the surface to be tested, without the need for sample preparation such as purification, singulation, centrifugation and washing steps, as an efficient and inexpensive blotting technique using the sample carrier. IR spectra were recorded directly after the blotting from the surface of the sample carrier without any further pretreatments. A combination of data preprocessing, principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis was found to be suitable. The spectral range from 400 to 1750 cm-1 of the IR-microspectrosopic data was determined to be highly sensitive to the time after incubation and sample thickness, resulting in a high standard deviation. Therefore, this area was excluded from the evaluation in favor of the meaningfulness of the chemometric model and, thus, only the spectral range of specific -CH/-NH/-OH excitations (2815-3680 cm-1) was used for model development. This study showed that the differentiation of food-related microorganisms on genera, species and strain level is feasible. A leave-one-out cross-validation of the training data set showed 100% accuracy. The classification of the ungrouped test data showed with an accuracy of 94.5% that, despite the large biological variance of the analytes such as different times after incubation and the presented sampling (including its variance), a robust and meaningful model for the differentiation of food-related bacteria could be developed by data preprocessing and subsequent chemometric evaluation.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Análise Discriminante , Análise Multivariada , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071694

RESUMO

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis supports diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), however a number of issues limits its potentialities in clinical practice. Here, a newly developed technique for fluid voltammetry, relying on a simple sensor (BIOsensor-based multisensorial system for mimicking Nose, Tongue and Eyes, BIONOTE), was used to test the applicability for CSF analysis. BIONOTE was initially calibrated on an artificial CSF-like solution and then applied on human CSF, either immediately after collection or after refrigerated storage. Following optimization, it was used to evaluate 11 CSF samples correlating the electrochemical dataset with CSF routine parameters and biomarkers of neurodegeneration. Multivariate data analysis was performed for model elaboration and calibration using principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis. BIONOTE presented a high capacity to predict both physiological and pathological constituents of artificial CSF. It differentiated distinct fresh human CSF samples well but lost accuracy after refrigerated storage. The electrochemical analysis-derived data correlated with either CSF routine cytochemical indexes or a biomarker of neurodegeneration. BIONOTE resulted as being a reliable system for electrochemical analysis of CSF. The CSF fingerprint provided by the sensor has shown itself to be sensitive to CSF modification, thus it is potentially representative of CSF alteration. This result opens the way to its testing in further study addressed at assessing the clinical relevance of the methodology. Because of its advantages due to the ease and rapidity of the methodology, a validation study is now required to translate the technique into clinical practice and improve diagnostic workup of NDs.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Biomarcadores , Análise Discriminante , Humanos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072353

RESUMO

The variability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), its rapid adaptive response against environmental changes, and its continued acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants have made it commonplace in hospitals, where it causes the problem of multidrug resistance. In this study, we used molecular topology to develop several discriminant equations capable of classifying compounds according to their anti-MRSA activity. Topological indices were used as structural descriptors and their relationship with anti-MRSA activity was determined by applying linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on a group of quinolones and quinolone-like compounds. Four extra equations were constructed, named DFMRSA1, DFMRSA2, DFMRSA3 and DFMRSA4 (DFMRSA was built in a previous study), all with good statistical parameters, such as Fisher-Snedecor F (>68 in all cases), Wilk's lambda (<0.13 in all cases), and percentage of correct classification (>94% in all cases), which allows a reliable extrapolation prediction of antibacterial activity in any organic compound. The results obtained clearly reveal the high efficiency of combining molecular topology with LDA for the prediction of anti-MRSA activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Análise Discriminante , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Algoritmos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Estatísticos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068950

RESUMO

Coleus amboinicus Lour., Lamiaceae, is a perennial herb that is native to Indonesia and also cultivated in Africa, Asia and Australia. The major phytochemicals responsible for its bioactivity are rosmarinic acid (RA) and its analogues, flavonoids and abietane diterpenoids. The possibility of cultivation in a colder climate would extend the use of this herb and provide new opportunities to herb growers and livestock farmers. Our study to compare feed value and phytochemical composition of C. amboinicus plants cultivated in its original region, Indonesia, and in Poland. The crude protein content was significantly higher in plants cultivated in Indonesia compared to those cultivated in Poland-21% and 13% of dry matter, respectively. The higher ADF contents were detected in C. amboinicus cultivated in Indonesia, 38-41%, in comparison to 34% in plants cultivated in Poland. The phytochemical composition was also significantly influenced by the cultivation location. Polish samples were higher in polyphenols (RA and its analogues), and also had 1.5-2-fold higher antioxidant potential, as measured by DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum reduction and Fenton reaction driven lipid peroxidation. The Indonesian samples contained more diterpenoid compounds, such as dihydroxyroyleanone, and the sum of terpenoids was ca. 10 times higher than in samples from Poland (15.59-23.64 vs. 1.87 µg/g of extracts). In conclusion, C. amboinicus is suitable for cultivation in non-optimal climatic conditions but some nutritional properties and bioactivity are significantly affected.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Coleus/química , Coleus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Animais , Análise Discriminante , Comportamento Alimentar , Indonésia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Polônia , Análise de Componente Principal , Ovinos
13.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063107

RESUMO

Untargeted metabolomics based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can detect thousands of features in samples and produce highly complex datasets. The accurate extraction of meaningful features and the building of discriminant models are two crucial steps in the data analysis pipeline of untargeted metabolomics. In this study, pure ion chromatograms were extracted from a liquor dataset and left-sided colon cancer (LCC) dataset by K-means-clustering-based Pure Ion Chromatogram extraction method version 2.0 (KPIC2). Then, the nonlinear low-dimensional embedding by uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP) showed the separation of samples from different groups in reduced dimensions. The discriminant models were established by extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) based on the features extracted by KPIC2. Results showed that features extracted by KPIC2 achieved 100% classification accuracy on the test sets of the liquor dataset and the LCC dataset, which demonstrated the rationality of the XGBoost model based on KPIC2 compared with the results of XCMS (92% and 96% for liquor and LCC datasets respectively). Finally, XGBoost can achieve better performance than the linear method and traditional nonlinear modeling methods on these datasets. UMAP and XGBoost are integrated into KPIC2 package to extend its performance in complex situations, which are not only able to effectively process nonlinear dataset but also can greatly improve the accuracy of data analysis in non-target metabolomics.


Assuntos
Análise Discriminante , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metabolômica , Modelos Teóricos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Algoritmos , Cromatografia Líquida , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Curva ROC
14.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064666

RESUMO

Wine metabolomics constitutes a powerful discipline towards wine authenticity assessment through the simultaneous exploration of multiple classes of compounds in the wine matrix. Over the last decades, wines from autochthonous Greek grape varieties have become increasingly popular among wine connoisseurs, attracting great interest for their authentication and chemical characterization. In this work, 46 red wine samples from Agiorgitiko and Xinomavro grape varieties were collected from wineries in two important winemaking regions of Greece during two consecutive vintages and analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS). A targeted metabolomics methodology was developed, including the determination and quantification of 28 phenolic compounds from different classes (hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, stilbenes and flavonoids). Moreover, 86 compounds were detected and tentatively identified via a robust suspect screening workflow using an in-house database of 420 wine related compounds. Supervised chemometric techniques were employed to build an accurate and robust model to discriminate between two varieties.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Vinho/análise , Análise Discriminante , Grécia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067096

RESUMO

Colombia is the main producer of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), a plant known for its various consumption practices and medicinal properties. This plant is generally grown in eroded soils and is considered moderately tolerant to unfavorable conditions, such as nutrient-poor soils or high salt concentrations. Most studies conducted on this plant focus on fruit production and composition because it is the target product, but a small number of studies have been conducted to describe the effect of abiotic stress, e.g., salt stress, on growth and biochemical responses. In order to better understand the mechanism of inherent tolerance of this plant facing salt stress, the present study was conducted to determine the metabolic and growth differences of P. peruviana plants at three different BBCH-based growth substages, varying salt conditions. Hence, plants were independently treated with two NaCl solutions, and growth parameters and LC-ESI-MS-derived semi-quantitative levels of metabolites were then measured and compared between salt treatments per growth substage. A 90 mM NaCl treatment caused the greatest effect on plants, provoking low growth and particular metabolite variations. The treatment discrimination-driving feature classification suggested that glycosylated flavonols increased under 30 mM NaCl at 209 substages, withanolides decreased under 90 mM NaCl at 603 and 703 substages, and up-regulation of a free flavonol at all selected stages can be considered a salt stress response. Findings locate such response into a metabolic context and afford some insights into the plant response associated with antioxidant compound up-regulation.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Physalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Physalis/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Análise Discriminante , Germinação/fisiologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Salinidade
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26328, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128876

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In-training examinations (ITEs), arranged during residency training, evaluate the residents' performances periodically. There is limited literature focusing on the effectiveness of resident ITEs in the format of simulation-based examinations, as compared to traditional oral or written tests. Our primary objective is to investigate the effectiveness and discriminative ability of high-fidelity simulation compared with other measurement formats in emergency medicine (EM) residency training program.This is a retrospective cohort study. During the 5-year study period, 8 ITEs were administered to 68 EM residents, and 253 ITE measurements were collected. Different ITE scores were calculated and presented as mean and standard deviation. The ITEs were categorized into written, oral, or high-fidelity simulation test forms. Discrimination of ITE scores between different training years of residency was examined using a one-way analysis of variance test.The high-fidelity simulation scores correlated to the progression of EM training, and residents in their fourth training year (R4) had the highest scores consistently, followed by R3, R2, and then R1. The oral test scores had similar results but not as consistent as the high-fidelity simulation tests. The written test scores distribution failed to discriminate the residents' seniority. The high-fidelity simulation test had the best discriminative ability and better correlation between different EM residency training years comparing to other forms.High-fidelity simulation tests had the good discriminative ability and were well correlated to the EM training year. We suggest high-fidelity simulation should be a part of ITE in training programs associated with critical or emergency patient cares.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Treinamento com Simulação de Alta Fidelidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary intakes must cover protein and essential amino acid (EAA) requirements. For this purpose, different methods have been developed such as the nitrogen balance method, factorial method, or AA tracer studies. However, these methods are either invasive or imprecise, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2013) recommends new methods and, in particular, metabolomics. The aim of this study is to determine total protein/EAA requirement in the plasma and urine of growing rats. METHODS: 36 weanling rats were fed with diets containing 3, 5, 8, 12, 15, and 20% protein for 3 weeks. During experimentation, urine was collected using metabolic cages, and blood from the portal vein and vena was taken at the end of the experiment. Metabolomics analyses were performed using LC-MS, and the data were analyzed with a multivariate analysis model, partial least Squares (PLS) regression, and independent component-discriminant analysis (ICDA). Each discriminant metabolite identified by PLS or ICDA was tested by one-way ANOVA to evaluate the effect of diet. RESULTS: PLS and ICDA allowed us to identify discriminating metabolites between different diet groups. Protein deficiency led to an increase in the AA catabolism enzyme systems inducing the production of breakdown metabolites in the plasma and urine. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that metabolites are specific for the state of EAA deficiency and sufficiency. Some types of biomarkers such as AA degradation metabolites appear to be specific candidates for protein/EAA requirement.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais/sangue , Aminoácidos Essenciais/urina , Deficiências Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Proteínas na Dieta/sangue , Proteínas na Dieta/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Aminoácidos Essenciais/deficiência , Análise de Variância , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Análise Discriminante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Avaliação Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Deficiência de Proteína/diagnóstico , Ratos
18.
Food Chem ; 362: 130168, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090045

RESUMO

Multielement analysis and chemometric methods were proposed to discriminate the Sorrento lemon (PGI) juices according to geographical origin. In 2018 and 2019, 169 fruits from three farms in PGI area and two in not-PGI area were collected and analysed for essential and not-essential elements by ICP-MS. The PCA of multielement fingerprinting grouped lemon juices from PGI farms revealing a strong differentiation at small geographical scale. The S-LDA discriminated lemon juices for Mo, Ba, Rb, Mg, Co, Ca, Fe, Sr on the two production years, giving 97.7% correct classification, 98.5% accuracy and 93.8% external validation. The good correlation lemon juice vs cultivation soil and the soil discrimination by not-essential elements suggested the use of these elements as reliable indicators of lemon juice provenances. Despite lowering the number of variables, constituted by not-essential elements Ba, Rb, Ti, Co, the use of S-QDA discriminated the lemons juices with 87.5% accuracy and 83.9% validation.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Metais/análise , Solo/química , Quimioinformática/métodos , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Itália
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1651: 462271, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102397

RESUMO

Successful applications of lipidomics in clinic need study large-scale samples, and the bottlenecks are in throughput and robustness of the lipid analytical method. Here, we report an untargeted lipidomics method by combining high throughput pretreatment in the 96-well plate with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated to have satisfactory analytical characteristics in terms of linearity, repeatability and extraction recovery. It can be used to handle 96 samples simultaneously in 25 min and detect 441 lipids in plasma sample. Storage stability investigation on lipid extracts provided an operable procedure for large-scale sample analysis and demonstrated most lipids were stable in autosampler at 10 °C within 36 h and at -80 °C within 72 h after the pretreatment. To prove the usefulness, the method was employed to investigate abnormal plasma lipidome related to atrial fibrillation. A biomarker panel with the area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.831 and 0.745 was achieved in the discovery and external validation sets, respectively. These results showed that the developed method is applicable for large-scale biological sample handling and lipid analysis of plasma.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Lipidômica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Limite de Detecção , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Food Chem ; 362: 130215, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091166

RESUMO

To overcome the lack of consumer trust in ecofriendly products due to low reliability of ecofriendly certification and decreasing areas certified for growing ecofriendly agricultural products, alternative approaches for reliable certification are required. Isotopic-chemometric analysis has potential for determining organic authenticity, but previous studies have struggled to differentiate the authenticities of different rice types. The present study examined 5-year variations in δ13C and δ15N in ecofriendly and conventional rice sold at retail markets in South Korea, while assessing the feasibility of discriminant models for authentication of organic rice. Supporting vector machine analysis showed 4.4-14.6% better overall predictability of rice types than discriminant analysis and was effective in discriminating organic or conventional rice from pesticide-free rice, potentially enabling high-throughput screening to authenticate organic rice at marketplaces. Our findings provide reliable information for authenticating ecofriendly rice, with a potential to improve consumer safety and thus the confidence in organic products.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Oryza/química , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Orgânica , Praguicidas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
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