Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.613
Filtrar
1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200492

RESUMO

Inertial sensors can potentially assist clinical decision making in gait-related disorders. Methods for objective spatio-temporal gait analysis usually assume the careful alignment of the sensors on the body, so that sensor data can be evaluated using the body coordinate system. Some studies infer sensor orientation by exploring the cyclic characteristics of walking. In addition to being unrealistic to assume that the sensor can be aligned perfectly with the body, the robustness of gait analysis with respect to differences in sensor orientation has not yet been investigated-potentially hindering use in clinical settings. To address this gap in the literature, we introduce an orientation-invariant gait analysis approach and propose a method to quantitatively assess robustness to changes in sensor orientation. We validate our results in a group of young adults, using an optical motion capture system as reference. Overall, good agreement between systems is achieved considering an extensive set of gait metrics. Gait speed is evaluated with a relative error of -3.1±9.2 cm/s, but precision improves when turning strides are excluded from the analysis, resulting in a relative error of -3.4±6.9 cm/s. We demonstrate the invariance of our approach by simulating rotations of the sensor on the foot.


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha , Marcha , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , , Humanos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13648, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211038

RESUMO

Few study has revealed spatial transmission characteristics of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. We aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal spread of COVID-19 in Wuhan and its influence factors. Information of 32,682 COVID-19 cases reported through March 18 were extracted from the national infectious disease surveillance system. Geographic information system methods were applied to analysis transmission of COVID-19 and its influence factors in different periods. We found decrease in effective reproduction number (Rt) and COVID-19 related indicators through taking a series of effective public health measures including restricting traffic, centralized quarantine and strict stay-at home policy. The distribution of COVID-19 cases number in Wuhan showed obvious global aggregation and local aggregation. In addition, the analysis at streets-level suggested population density and the number of hospitals were associated with COVID-19 cases number. The epidemic situation showed obvious global and local spatial aggregations. High population density with larger number of hospitals may account for the aggregations. The epidemic in Wuhan was under control in a short time after strong quarantine measures and restrictions on movement of residents were implanted.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espaço-Temporal
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1093, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective reduction of tuberculosis (TB) requires information on the distribution of TB incidence rate across time and location. This study aims to identify the spatio-temporal pattern of TB incidence rate in Iran between 2008 and 2018. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on aggregated TB data (50,500 patients) at the provincial level provided by the Ministry of Health in Iran between 2008 and 2018. The Anselin Local Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* were performed to identify the spatial variations of the disease. Furthermore, spatial scan statistic was employed for purely temporal and spatio-temporal analyses. In all instances, the null hypothesis of no clusters was rejected at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of TB decreased from 13.46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 13.19-13.73) in 2008 to 10.88 per 100,000 (95% CI: 10.65-11.11) in 2018. The highest incidence rate of TB was observed in southeast and northeast of Iran for the whole study period. Additionally, spatial cluster analysis discovered Khuzestan Province, in the West of the country, having significantly higher rates than neighbouring provinces in terms of both total TB and smear-positive pulmonary TB (SPPTB). Purely temporal analysis showed that high-rate and low-rate clusters were predominantly distributed in the time periods 2010-2014 and 2017-2018. Spatio-temporal results showed that the statistically significant clusters were mainly distributed from centre to the east during the study period. Some high-trend TB and SPPTB statistically significant clusters were found. CONCLUSION: The results provided an overview of the latest TB spatio-temporal status In Iran and identified decreasing trends of TB in the 2008-2018 period. Despite the decreasing incidence rate, there is still need for screening, and targeting of preventive interventions, especially in high-risk areas. Knowledge of the spatio-temporal pattern of TB can be useful for policy development as the information regarding the high-risk areas would contribute to the selection of areas needed to be targeted for the expansion of health facilities.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
4.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 29, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting nations globally, but with an impact exhibiting significant spatial and temporal variation at the sub-national level. Identifying and disentangling the drivers of resulting hospitalisation incidence at the local scale is key to predict, mitigate and manage epidemic surges, but also to develop targeted measures. However, this type of analysis is often not possible because of the lack of spatially-explicit health data and spatial uncertainties associated with infection. METHODS: To overcome these limitations, we propose an analytical framework to investigate potential drivers of the spatio-temporal heterogeneity in COVID-19 hospitalisation incidence when data are only available at the hospital level. Specifically, the approach is based on the delimitation of hospital catchment areas, which allows analysing associations between hospitalisation incidence and spatial or temporal covariates. We illustrate and apply our analytical framework to Belgium, a country heavily impacted by two COVID-19 epidemic waves in 2020, both in terms of mortality and hospitalisation incidence. RESULTS: Our spatial analyses reveal an association between the hospitalisation incidence and the local density of nursing home residents, which confirms the important impact of COVID-19 in elderly communities of Belgium. Our temporal analyses further indicate a pronounced seasonality in hospitalisation incidence associated with the seasonality of weather variables. Taking advantage of these associations, we discuss the feasibility of predictive models based on machine learning to predict future hospitalisation incidence. CONCLUSION: Our reproducible analytical workflow allows performing spatially-explicit analyses of data aggregated at the hospital level and can be used to explore potential drivers and dynamic of COVID-19 hospitalisation incidence at regional or national scales.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espaço-Temporal
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3679, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140473

RESUMO

Following implantation, the human embryo undergoes major morphogenetic transformations that establish the future body plan. While the molecular events underpinning this process are established in mice, they remain unknown in humans. Here we characterise key events of human embryo morphogenesis, in the period between implantation and gastrulation, using single-cell analyses and functional studies. First, the embryonic epiblast cells transition through different pluripotent states and act as a source of FGF signals that ensure proliferation of both embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues. In a subset of embryos, we identify a group of asymmetrically positioned extra-embryonic hypoblast cells expressing inhibitors of BMP, NODAL and WNT signalling pathways. We suggest that this group of cells can act as the anterior singalling centre to pattern the epiblast. These results provide insights into pluripotency state transitions, the role of FGF signalling and the specification of anterior-posterior axis during human embryo development.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Gastrulação/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Camadas Germinativas/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem da Célula , Células Cultivadas , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Gastrulação/fisiologia , Camadas Germinativas/citologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Família Multigênica , Proteína Nodal/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA-Seq , Análise Espaço-Temporal
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3710, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140475

RESUMO

The growing need for the implementation of stretchable biosensors in the body has driven rapid prototyping schemes through the direct ink writing of multidimensional functional architectures. Recent approaches employ biocompatible inks that are dispensable through an automated nozzle injection system. However, their application in medical practices remains challenged in reliable recording due to their viscoelastic nature that yields mechanical and electrical hysteresis under periodic large strains. Herein, we report sponge-like poroelastic silicone composites adaptable for high-precision direct writing of custom-designed stretchable biosensors, which are soft and insensitive to strains. Their unique structural properties yield a robust coupling to living tissues, enabling high-fidelity recording of spatiotemporal electrophysiological activity and real-time ultrasound imaging for visual feedback. In vivo evaluations of custom-fit biosensors in a murine acute myocardial infarction model demonstrate a potential clinical utility in the simultaneous intraoperative recording and imaging on the epicardium, which may guide definitive surgical treatments.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrocardiografia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Tinta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Mioblastos/patologia , Próteses e Implantes , Silicones/química , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Suínos , Ultrassonografia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26298, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190148

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this study, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission networks were built to analyze the epidemic situation of COVID-19 in Liaoning and Jilin provinces in early 2020. We explore the characteristics of the spread of COVID-19, and put forward effective recommendations for epidemic prevention and control. We collected demographic characteristics, exposure history, and course of action of COVID-19 cases. We described the demographic and case characteristics of these cases to show the basic characteristics of COVID-19 cases in both provinces. Combined with the spatial analysis of confirmed cases, the distribution law of the number of confirmed cases in different regions was analyzed. We exhibit the relationship among COVID-19 cases with a transmission network. The transmission characteristics of COVID-19 were analyzed through the transmission network. Mainly cases in Liaoning and Jilin provinces were imported cases from other provinces and the vast majority of these cases were related to Hubei province. The number of confirmed cases in different regions was positively correlated with their GDP and population. The main clinical symptoms of the cases were fever. Judge from the transmission network relationship between the 2 provinces, the transmission chain in Liaoning province contains fewer cases than that in Jilin province. The main transmission routes of the local cases in the 2 provinces were the family members, and the infection of the imported cases were mainly occurred in public places. It was estimated that the unidentified asymptomatic infected cases in the 2 provinces account for approximately 7.3% of the total number of infected cases. The length of the transmission chain suggests that the spread of COVID-19 can be effectively controlled with effective prevention measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3442, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117253

RESUMO

Rapid climate warming is altering Arctic and alpine tundra ecosystem structure and function, including shifts in plant phenology. While the advancement of green up and flowering are well-documented, it remains unclear whether all phenophases, particularly those later in the season, will shift in unison or respond divergently to warming. Here, we present the largest synthesis to our knowledge of experimental warming effects on tundra plant phenology from the International Tundra Experiment. We examine the effect of warming on a suite of season-wide plant phenophases. Results challenge the expectation that all phenophases will advance in unison to warming. Instead, we find that experimental warming caused: (1) larger phenological shifts in reproductive versus vegetative phenophases and (2) advanced reproductive phenophases and green up but delayed leaf senescence which translated to a lengthening of the growing season by approximately 3%. Patterns were consistent across sites, plant species and over time. The advancement of reproductive seasons and lengthening of growing seasons may have significant consequences for trophic interactions and ecosystem function across the tundra.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas , Reprodução/fisiologia , Tundra , Regiões Árticas , Clima , Ecossistema , Flores , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Plantas/genética , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Temperatura
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3358, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099733

RESUMO

Early stages of embryogenesis depend on subcellular localization and transport of maternal mRNA. However, systematic analysis of these processes is hindered by a lack of spatio-temporal information in single-cell RNA sequencing. Here, we combine spatially-resolved transcriptomics and single-cell RNA labeling to perform a spatio-temporal analysis of the transcriptome during early zebrafish development. We measure spatial localization of mRNA molecules within the one-cell stage embryo, which allows us to identify a class of mRNAs that are specifically localized at an extraembryonic position, the vegetal pole. Furthermore, we establish a method for high-throughput single-cell RNA labeling in early zebrafish embryos, which enables us to follow the fate of individual maternal transcripts until gastrulation. This approach reveals that many localized transcripts are specifically transported to the primordial germ cells. Finally, we acquire spatial transcriptomes of two xenopus species and compare evolutionary conservation of localized genes as well as enriched sequence motifs.


Assuntos
Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Embrião não Mamífero/embriologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Especificidade da Espécie , Xenopus/embriologia , Xenopus/genética , Xenopus laevis/embriologia , Xenopus laevis/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
10.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(1): 27, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of deaths attributable to COVID-19 in Spain has been highly controversial since it is problematic to tell apart deaths having COVID as the main cause from those provoked by the aggravation by the viral infection of other underlying health problems. In addition, overburdening of health system led to an increase in mortality due to the scarcity of adequate medical care, at the same time confinement measures could have contributed to the decrease in mortality from certain causes. Our aim is to compare the number of deaths observed in 2020 with the projection for the same period obtained from a sequence of previous years. Thus, this computed mortality excess could be considered as the real impact of the COVID-19 on the mortality rates. METHODS: The population was split into four age groups, namely: (< 50; 50-64; 65-74; 75 and over). For each one, a projection of the death numbers for the year 2020, based on the interval 2008-2020, was estimated using a Bayesian spatio-temporal model. In each one, spatial, sex, and year effects were included. In addition, a specific effect of the year 2020 was added ("outbreak"). Finally, the excess deaths in year 2020 were estimated as the count of observed deaths minus those projected. RESULTS: The projected death number for 2020 was 426,970 people, the actual count being 499,104; thus, the total excess of deaths was 72,134. However, this increase was very unequally distributed over the Spanish regions. CONCLUSION: Bayesian spatio-temporal models have proved to be a useful tool for estimating the impact of COVID-19 on mortality in Spain in 2020, making it possible to assess how the disease has affected different age groups accounting for effects of sex, spatial variation between regions and time trend over the last few years.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Mortalidade/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
11.
Int J Health Geogr ; 20(1): 29, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting nations globally, but with an impact exhibiting significant spatial and temporal variation at the sub-national level. Identifying and disentangling the drivers of resulting hospitalisation incidence at the local scale is key to predict, mitigate and manage epidemic surges, but also to develop targeted measures. However, this type of analysis is often not possible because of the lack of spatially-explicit health data and spatial uncertainties associated with infection. METHODS: To overcome these limitations, we propose an analytical framework to investigate potential drivers of the spatio-temporal heterogeneity in COVID-19 hospitalisation incidence when data are only available at the hospital level. Specifically, the approach is based on the delimitation of hospital catchment areas, which allows analysing associations between hospitalisation incidence and spatial or temporal covariates. We illustrate and apply our analytical framework to Belgium, a country heavily impacted by two COVID-19 epidemic waves in 2020, both in terms of mortality and hospitalisation incidence. RESULTS: Our spatial analyses reveal an association between the hospitalisation incidence and the local density of nursing home residents, which confirms the important impact of COVID-19 in elderly communities of Belgium. Our temporal analyses further indicate a pronounced seasonality in hospitalisation incidence associated with the seasonality of weather variables. Taking advantage of these associations, we discuss the feasibility of predictive models based on machine learning to predict future hospitalisation incidence. CONCLUSION: Our reproducible analytical workflow allows performing spatially-explicit analyses of data aggregated at the hospital level and can be used to explore potential drivers and dynamic of COVID-19 hospitalisation incidence at regional or national scales.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espaço-Temporal
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252990, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264225

RESUMO

The outbreak of the COVID-19 disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Cases in the United States began appearing in late January. On March 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic. By mid-March COVID-19 cases were spreading across the US with several hotspots appearing by April. Health officials point to the importance of surveillance of COVID-19 to better inform decision makers at various levels and efficiently manage distribution of human and technical resources to areas of need. The prospective space-time scan statistic has been used to help identify emerging COVID-19 disease clusters, but results from this approach can encounter strategic limitations imposed by constraints of the scanning window. This paper presents a different approach to COVID-19 surveillance based on a spatiotemporal event sequence (STES) similarity. In this STES based approach, adapted for this pandemic context we compute the similarity of evolving daily COVID-19 incidence rates by county and then cluster these sequences to identify counties with similarly trending COVID-19 case loads. We analyze four study periods and compare the sequence similarity-based clusters to prospective space-time scan statistic-based clusters. The sequence similarity-based clusters provide an alternate surveillance perspective by identifying locations that may not be spatially proximate but share a similar disease progression pattern. Results of the two approaches taken together can aid in tracking the progression of the pandemic to aid local or regional public health responses and policy actions taken to control or moderate the disease spread.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Análise por Conglomerados , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112409, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260713

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 150 million confirmed infections worldwide, while it is not clear whether it affects the coastal waters. This paper proposed a biophysical model based on 16 scenarios with different virus half-life parameters to assess potential viral contamination from 25 municipal sewage outfalls into the Bohai Sea. Viral concentration maps showing spatial and temporal changes are provided based on a biophysical model under multiple scenarios. Results demonstrate that adjacent sea areas can become exposed to SARS-CoV-2 via water-borne transport from outfalls, with a higher risk in winter, because SARS-CoV-2 can be highly stable at low temperature. As coastal waters are the ultimate sink for wastewater and the epidemic will last for long time, this work is of great importance to raise awareness, identify vulnerable areas for marine mammals, and avoid the risk of exposure of tourists at bathing beach.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2 , Água do Mar/virologia , Esgotos/virologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Animais , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Temperatura
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26298, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288188

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this study, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission networks were built to analyze the epidemic situation of COVID-19 in Liaoning and Jilin provinces in early 2020. We explore the characteristics of the spread of COVID-19, and put forward effective recommendations for epidemic prevention and control. We collected demographic characteristics, exposure history, and course of action of COVID-19 cases. We described the demographic and case characteristics of these cases to show the basic characteristics of COVID-19 cases in both provinces. Combined with the spatial analysis of confirmed cases, the distribution law of the number of confirmed cases in different regions was analyzed. We exhibit the relationship among COVID-19 cases with a transmission network. The transmission characteristics of COVID-19 were analyzed through the transmission network. Mainly cases in Liaoning and Jilin provinces were imported cases from other provinces and the vast majority of these cases were related to Hubei province. The number of confirmed cases in different regions was positively correlated with their GDP and population. The main clinical symptoms of the cases were fever. Judge from the transmission network relationship between the 2 provinces, the transmission chain in Liaoning province contains fewer cases than that in Jilin province. The main transmission routes of the local cases in the 2 provinces were the family members, and the infection of the imported cases were mainly occurred in public places. It was estimated that the unidentified asymptomatic infected cases in the 2 provinces account for approximately 7.3% of the total number of infected cases. The length of the transmission chain suggests that the spread of COVID-19 can be effectively controlled with effective prevention measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252990, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111199

RESUMO

The outbreak of the COVID-19 disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Cases in the United States began appearing in late January. On March 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic. By mid-March COVID-19 cases were spreading across the US with several hotspots appearing by April. Health officials point to the importance of surveillance of COVID-19 to better inform decision makers at various levels and efficiently manage distribution of human and technical resources to areas of need. The prospective space-time scan statistic has been used to help identify emerging COVID-19 disease clusters, but results from this approach can encounter strategic limitations imposed by constraints of the scanning window. This paper presents a different approach to COVID-19 surveillance based on a spatiotemporal event sequence (STES) similarity. In this STES based approach, adapted for this pandemic context we compute the similarity of evolving daily COVID-19 incidence rates by county and then cluster these sequences to identify counties with similarly trending COVID-19 case loads. We analyze four study periods and compare the sequence similarity-based clusters to prospective space-time scan statistic-based clusters. The sequence similarity-based clusters provide an alternate surveillance perspective by identifying locations that may not be spatially proximate but share a similar disease progression pattern. Results of the two approaches taken together can aid in tracking the progression of the pandemic to aid local or regional public health responses and policy actions taken to control or moderate the disease spread.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Análise por Conglomerados , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc ; 55(3): 239-245, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Gap Balancing (GB) versus Measured Resection (MR) techniques on the early clinical and radiological results of Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: In this prospective study, 99 patients (99 knees) who underwent unilateral TKA between March 2018 and January 2019 were randomly allocated to one of two groups: The GP group, TKA with GB technique (19 male, 31 female; mean age = 55.9 ±16.5) and the MR group, TKA with MR technique (19 male, 30 female; mean age = 54.2 ± 18.7). Patients in both groups were comparable in terms of the demographic and clinical data. The angle of cutting block to PCA and Cutting Thickness of the Medial and Lateral Condyle (CTMC, CTLC) were intraoperatively measured. In radiographic analysis, Preoperative Mechanical Femorotibial Angle (Pre-mFTA), Postoperative Mechanical Femorotibial Angle (Post-mFTA), and joint line changes were examined. Femoral component Rotation Angle (FCRA) was also measured by computed tomography. In gait analysis, the spatiotemporal parameters (walking speed, step length, and single support time) and kinematics parameters (flexion angle, extension angle, and transversal rotation) were collected at 12 months postoperatively. Furthermore, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) were performed at 12 months after surgery. RESULTS: CTMC and CTLC were both significantly higher in GB group than in the MR group (9.8±2.0 mm vs 8.5 ± 1.2 mm; 7.9 ± 1.8mm vs 6.8 ± 1.4mm; P = 0.001, P = 0.002, respectively). Angle of cutting block to PCA was statistically lower in GB group than in the MR group (1.7 ± 1.5° vs 3.1 ± 0.5 °; P < 0.001). FCRA is greater in the GB group compared to the MR group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (1.2 ± 2.8 ° vs 0.7 ± 2.0 °; P > 0.05). Although post-mFTA significantly improved compared with pre-mFTA in both groups, no significant difference was observed in the changes of post-mFTA between the two groups (0.9 ± 1.7° vs 0.3 ± 1.8°, P > 0.05). No significant differences were determined between the two groups in spatiotemporal gait parameters including walking speed, step length, and single support time. The sagittal max knee flexion range was significantly larger in the GB group than in the MR group (49.27 ± 5.24 ° vs 45.99 ± 8.21 °, P < 0.05). The flexion range did not reach the level of the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in WOMAC at 12 months follow-up (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Evidence from this study has revealed GB and MR techniques have both little effect on early clinical results of TKA. Nonetheless, GB technique can provide better knee flexion in the early postoperative gait status compared with MR technique. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, Therapeutic Study.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Osso e Ossos , Articulação do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Osso e Ossos/cirurgia , Feminino , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
17.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(1): 27, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of deaths attributable to COVID-19 in Spain has been highly controversial since it is problematic to tell apart deaths having COVID as the main cause from those provoked by the aggravation by the viral infection of other underlying health problems. In addition, overburdening of health system led to an increase in mortality due to the scarcity of adequate medical care, at the same time confinement measures could have contributed to the decrease in mortality from certain causes. Our aim is to compare the number of deaths observed in 2020 with the projection for the same period obtained from a sequence of previous years. Thus, this computed mortality excess could be considered as the real impact of the COVID-19 on the mortality rates. METHODS: The population was split into four age groups, namely: (< 50; 50-64; 65-74; 75 and over). For each one, a projection of the death numbers for the year 2020, based on the interval 2008-2020, was estimated using a Bayesian spatio-temporal model. In each one, spatial, sex, and year effects were included. In addition, a specific effect of the year 2020 was added ("outbreak"). Finally, the excess deaths in year 2020 were estimated as the count of observed deaths minus those projected. RESULTS: The projected death number for 2020 was 426,970 people, the actual count being 499,104; thus, the total excess of deaths was 72,134. However, this increase was very unequally distributed over the Spanish regions. CONCLUSION: Bayesian spatio-temporal models have proved to be a useful tool for estimating the impact of COVID-19 on mortality in Spain in 2020, making it possible to assess how the disease has affected different age groups accounting for effects of sex, spatial variation between regions and time trend over the last few years.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Mortalidade/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067987

RESUMO

Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are widely distributed within the small intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) layer and represent one of the largest T cell pools of the body. While implicated in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, detailed insight especially into the cellular cross-talk between IELs and IECs is largely missing in part due to lacking methodologies to monitor this interaction. To overcome this shortcoming, we employed and validated a murine IEL-IEC (organoids) ex vivo co-culture model system. Using livecell imaging we established a protocol to visualize and quantify the spatio-temporal migratory behavior of IELs within organoids over time. Applying this methodology, we found that IELs lacking CD103 (i.e., integrin alpha E, ITGAE) surface expression usually functioning as a retention receptor for IELs through binding to E-cadherin (CD324) expressing IECs displayed aberrant mobility and migration patterns. Specifically, CD103 deficiency affected the ability of IELs to migrate and reduced their speed during crawling within organoids. In summary, we report a new technology to monitor and quantitatively assess especially migratory characteristics of IELs communicating with IEC ex vivo. This approach is hence readily applicable to study the effects of targeted therapeutic interventions on IEL-IEC cross-talk.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Imunofluorescência , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/citologia , Camundongos , Organoides/citologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074030

RESUMO

The ability of organisms to quickly sense and transduce signals of environmental stresses is critical for their survival. Ca2+ is a versatile intracellular messenger involved in sensing a wide variety of stresses and regulating the subsequent cellular responses. So far, our understanding for calcium signaling was mostly obtained from ex vivo tissues and cultured cell lines, and the in vivo spatiotemporal dynamics of stress-triggered calcium signaling in a vertebrate remains to be characterized. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a transgenic zebrafish line with ubiquitous expression of GCaMP6s, a genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI). We developed a method to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of Ca2+ events induced by heat stress. Exposure to heat stress elicited immediate and transient calcium signaling in developing zebrafish. Cells extensively distributed in the integument of the head and body trunk were the first batch of responders and different cell populations demonstrated distinct response patterns upon heat stress. Activity of the heat stress-induced calcium signaling peaked at 30 s and swiftly decreased to near the basal level at 120 s after the beginning of exposure. Inhibition of the heat-induced calcium signaling by LaCl3 and capsazepine and treatment with the inhibitors for CaMKII (Ca²2/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) and HSF1 (Heat shock factor 1) all significantly depressed the enhanced heat shock response (HSR). Together, we delineated the spatiotemporal dynamics of heat-induced calcium signaling and confirmed functions of the Ca2+-CaMKII-HSF1 pathway in regulating the HSR in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Calmodulina/genética , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Hibridização In Situ , Lantânio/farmacologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3537, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112791

RESUMO

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a defining clinical feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). RRBs are highly heterogeneous with variable expression of circumscribed interests (CI), insistence of sameness (IS) and repetitive motor actions (RM), which are major impediments to effective functioning in individuals with ASD; yet, the neurobiological basis of CI, IS and RM is unknown. Here we evaluate a unified functional brain circuit model of RRBs and test the hypothesis that CI and IS are associated with aberrant cognitive control circuit dynamics, whereas RM is associated with aberrant motor circuit dynamics. Using task-free fMRI data from 96 children, we first demonstrate that time-varying cross-network interactions in cognitive control circuit are significantly reduced and inflexible in children with ASD, and predict CI and IS symptoms, but not RM symptoms. Furthermore, we show that time-varying cross-network interactions in motor circuit are significantly greater in children with ASD, and predict RM symptoms, but not CI or IS symptoms. We confirmed these results using cross-validation analyses. Moreover, we show that brain-clinical symptom relations are not detected with time-averaged functional connectivity analysis. Our findings provide neurobiological support for the validity of RRB subtypes and identify dissociable brain circuit dynamics as a candidate biomarker for a key clinical feature of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Análise Espaço-Temporal
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...