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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1066-1073, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a severe respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In Brazil the highest infection rates are associated with socially vulnerable populations. This study therefore sought to analyze the spatial distribution of the disease and its relation with geographic, socioeconomic and public health policy characteristics associated with quilombola communities in Salvaterra municipality, state of Pará, for the period of March to September, 2020. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional and ecological study used data from the Disease Notification System and the National Registry of Health Establishments of the Ministry of Health, the Income Transfer Registry of the Ministry of Citizenship and the 2010 census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Statistical and spatial analysis of the data was done through percentages of cases and Flow and Kernel map techniques. RESULTS: Seventy-five notified cases of COVID-19 distributed among 7 quilombola communities in the municipality were analyzed. The epidemiological profile followed a national trend, with a higher percentage of cases among persons who were female, adults with low schooling levels, working as family farmers and with an outcome ending in recovery. The spatial distribution of the disease was not homogenous and showed clusters of cases and high incidence rates, especially in communities close to the municipal seat or to highways. CONCLUSIONS: The use of data analysis techniques was satisfactory for providing an understanding of the socioeconomic production of the disease in the areas studied. Accordingly, the need for intensifying epidemiological survey actions in the quilombola communities of the municipality is emphasized.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3623-3633, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468657

RESUMO

The scope of this study was to analyze the relationship of an instrument of family vulnerability with sociodemographic, dental, and spatial distribution in a given territory. The dependent variable was the classification of family vulnerability, proposed by Coelho and Savassi. The independent variables were selected on the basis of the theoretical model proposed by Andersen. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were estimated. Kernel density estimation was used for spatial analysis. Subjects who lived with more than 4 people (OR = 3.46; 95% CI), who were dissatisfied with their oral health (OR = 2.38; 95% CI), who were ashamed to smile and talk (OR = 3.03, 95% CI) were more likely to be "at risk" in the family. Spatial analysis enabled the visualization of an area of ​​higher concentration of families "at risk". The relationship of the instrument of vulnerability analyzed with sociodemographic and dental factors, as well as the assistance in the visualization and identification of more vulnerable areas, are useful in the knowledge of the territory for the planning of actions in oral health, and the conclusion drawn is that the tool can be adopted for more equitable access by the oral health teams.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Organizações , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Espacial
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3733-3742, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468667

RESUMO

The spatial analysis of syphilis constitutes a tool capable of contributing to the establishment of guidelines for action in priority geographic areas for preventive intervention. The scope of the article was to describe the scientific evidence that used geoprocessing as a tool to identify risk areas for syphilis. This is an integrative review of the literature, carried out in the Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, Ibecs, Cochrane Library Portal, SciELO, Cuiden and Bdenf databases through cross-referencing between the key words "syphilis," "spatial analysis," "geographical information system," "health education" and "geographical mapping." A total of 13 articles were analyzed and in most of them syphilis cases were distributed in a heterogeneous manner, not obeying a unique epidemiological profile in relation to the units of analysis. Discordant ecological and spatial effects between syphilis and HIV and the viability of the integrated screening of syphilis with other diseases was revealed. Efficacy and ability of spatial analysis to target specific educational interventions for each reality were revealed, avoiding investment in geographically non-priority areas for syphilis control.


Assuntos
Sífilis , Humanos , Análise Espacial , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/prevenção & controle
5.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(6): 2163-2166, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516071

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To comprehensively assess changes in temporomandibular joint and mandibular condyle morphology in Robin sequence (RS) patients undergoing mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO). A retrospective analysis of pediatric patients with RS and functional temporomandibular joints who underwent MDO by a single surgeon was performed. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans were morphometrically analyzed three-dimensional in 3-matic and Mimics (Materialise). Comparative analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Fourteen RS patients were included (28 condyles, 56 CT scans), 78% male and 22% females. The mean age at surgery was 9.4 weeks (range 1.6-46.7 weeks). The average age at initial CT was 5.3 days (range 0-11 days). The mean time interval for CT scan before MDO and after hardware removal were 8.8 ±â€Š6.4 days and 11.2 ±â€Š25.8 days, respectively. Rotatory changes of the condyle revealed a significantly decreased horizontal angle following MDO (-7.55°, 95% confidence interval -11.13° to -3.41°; P < 0.001). Anteroposteriorly, the angle between condylar process and ramus (incline) increased significantly (14.14°, 95% confidence interval 10.71°-19.59°; P < 0.001). Intragroup analysis revealed no difference between left versus right condylar position measurements. The condyle itself increased in size and length and the intercondylion distance increased post-MDO. There were no complications and all patients achieved relief of airway obstruction without tracheostomy. Morphologic and positional changes of the mandibular condyle following MDO in RS patients parallel changes that occur during normal development in non-RS patients. As a result, MDO may facilitate normal condylar morphology and function in RS patients.


Assuntos
Osteogênese por Distração , Síndrome de Pierre Robin , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mandíbula , Côndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Côndilo Mandibular/cirurgia , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Espacial , Articulação Temporomandibular , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 660, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535809

RESUMO

Prediction of soil depth for larger areas provides primary information on soil depth and its spatial distribution that becomes vital for land resource management, crop, nutrient, and ecosystem modeling. The present study assessed the spatial distribution of soil depth over 160,205 km2 of Andhra Pradesh, India, using 20 covariables by quantile regression forest (QRF). An aggregate of 2854 soil datasets compiled from various physiographic units were randomly partitioned into 80:20 ratio for calibration (2283 samples) and validation (571 samples). Landsat imagery, terrain datasets (8), and bioclimatic factors (11) were utilized as covariates. The QRF model outputs signified that precipitation, multi-resolution index of valley bottom flatness (MrVBF), mean diurnal range, isothermality, and elevation were the most important variables influencing soil depth variability across the landscape. Spatial prediction of soil depth by QRF model yielded a ME of - 1.81 cm, RMSE of 34 cm, PICP of 90.2, and a R2 value of 42% as compared to ordinary kriging which results in a ME of - 0.14 cm, a RMSE of 37 cm, and a R2 value of 32%. As soil depth is spatially dynamic and has significant correlation with terrain and environmental covariates, better prediction was possible by the QRF model. However, high-density bioclimatic variables could be utilized along with high-resolution terrain variables to improve the predictive accuracy.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Análise Espacial
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 867, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a mosquito born disease associated with self-limited to life threatening illness. First detected in Senegal in the nineteenth century, and despite its growing incidence this last decade, significant knowledge gaps exist in our knowledge of genetic diversity of circulating strains. This study highlights the circulating serotypes and genotypes between January 2017 and December 2018 and their spatial and temporal distribution throughout all regions of Senegal. METHODS: We used 56 dengue virus (DENV) strains for the analysis collected from 11 sampling areas: 39 from all regions of Senegal, and 17 isolates from Thiès, a particular area of the country. Two real time RT-qPCR systems were used to confirm dengue infection and corresponding serotypes. For molecular characterization, CprM gene was sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis for serotypes and genotypes assignment. RESULTS: Three dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-3) were detected by all used methods. DENV-3 was detected in 50% (28/56) of the isolates, followed by DENV-1 and DENV-2, each representing 25% (14/56) of the isolates. DENV-3 belongs to genotype III, DENV-1 to genotype V and DENV-2 to Cosmopolitan genotype. Serotype 3 was detected in 7 sampling locations and a co-circulation of different serotypes was observed in Thiès, Fatick and Richard-toll. CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the need of continuous DENV surveillance in Senegal to detect DENV cases, to define circulating serotypes/genotypes and to prevent the spread and the occurrence of severe cases.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Senegal/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Análise Espacial
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444545

RESUMO

The Chinese government has made great efforts to improve the scale efficiency of land through various measures during recent years, hoping to realize the coordinated developing goal of promoting agricultural benefits and protecting the environment. Statistics show that China's land scale efficiency has steadily increased, but agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has also increased, which seems contrary to the expected outcome. Can increasing scale efficiency really curb agricultural NPS pollution? This study uses provincial-level data from China, together with a panel model and spatial econometric model, to investigate the relationship between scale efficiency and agricultural NPS pollution. It is found that the increase of scale efficiency aggravates the agricultural NPS pollution, and the conclusion still holds after considering spatial effect. The results of spatial analysis shows that the agricultural NPS pollution is spatially dependent. Further decomposition of the spatial effect shows that the scale efficiency not only intensifies the local agricultural NPS pollution, but also has a spillover effect (though not statistically significant) on agricultural NPS pollution in the surrounding areas. It is worth noting that financial policy, raising wage income and upgrading industrial structure can effectively curb agricultural NPS pollution in this region and adjacent areas, which also deserves our attention in the control of agricultural NPS pollution. In addition, it is necessary to make financial and fiscal support policies specifically for the governance of agricultural NPS pollution, adjust the distorted prices of input factors such as chemicals and pesticide, and accelerate the transformation of small-sized farmers to family farms, in order to maximize the inhibitory effect of scale efficiency on relieving agricultural NPS pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição Difusa , Agricultura , China , Eficiência , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Análise Espacial
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e188, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338179

RESUMO

In 2015-2016, simultaneous circulation of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) was reported. We conducted an ecological study to analyse the spatial distribution of dengue, Zika and chikungunya cases and to investigate socioeconomic factors associated with individual and combined disease incidence in 2015-2016. We then constructed thematic maps and analysed the bivariate global Moran indices. Classical and spatial models were used. A distinct spatial distribution pattern for dengue, Zika and chikungunya was identified in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The bivariate global Moran indices (P < 0.05) revealed negative spatial correlations between rates of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and combined arboviruses incidence and social development index and mean income. The regression models (P < 0.05) identified a negative relationship between mean income and each of these rates and between sewage and Zika incidence rates, as well as a positive relationship between urban areas and chikungunya incidence rates. In our study, spatial analysis techniques helped to identify high-risk and social determinants at the local level for the three arboviruses. Our findings may aid in backing effective interventions for the prevention and control of epidemics of these diseases.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/transmissão , Epidemias , Humanos , Incidência , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Espacial , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444070

RESUMO

In the past 30 years, China's industrialization level has developed rapidly, and agricultural green development (AGD) is facing severe challenges. The research on the temporal and spatial features of the coupling and coordination of industrialization and agricultural green development is a key issue to promote the sustainable development of agriculture. This paper takes China's industrialization and AGD level as the research object, and uses panel data from 31 provinces in China from 1990 to 2019 to construct an evaluation index system for industrialization and AGD. This paper uses the coupling coordination degree model and spatial autocorrelation analysis method to calculate, test and analyze the temporal and spatial features of the coupling coordination level of industrialization and AGD. The results show that: this paper compares the industrialization and AGD levels during the study period and finds that China's industrialization development level is on the rise as a whole, and the AGD level shows a downward trend first and then rises later. Through the horizontal comparison of different regions, this paper finds that there is a large regional imbalance in the level of industrialization and AGD. The coupling and coordination level of industrialization and AGD has always been primary. From the time point of view, coupling coordination degree shows a trend of first decline and then rise. From a spatial point of view, coupling coordination degree varies greatly among provinces, with the eastern, central and western regions decreasing successively. The level of coupling coordination has obvious positive autocorrelation in spatial distribution, and presents significant spatial agglomeration characteristics in space. The research results can provide a theoretical basis for regionally differentiated governance of the coordinated development of industrialization and AGD, and promote coordinated development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Industrial , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura , China , Análise Espacial
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444132

RESUMO

The process of rapid urbanization causes so many water security issues such as urban waterlogging, environmental water pollution, water shortages, etc. It is, therefore, necessary for us to integrate a variety of theories, methods, measures, and means to conduct ecological problem diagnosis, ecological function demand assessment, and ecological security pattern planning. Here, EC (Edge Computing) technology is applied to analyze the hydrological spatial structure characteristics and ecological planning method of waterfront green space. First, various information is collected and scientifically analyzed around the core element of ecological planning: water. Then, in-depth research is conducted on the previous hydrological spatial analysis methods to identify their defects. Subsequently, given these defects, the EC technology is introduced to design a bottom-up overall architecture of intelligent ecological planning gateway, which can be divided into field devices, EC intelligent planning gateway, transmission system, and cloud processing platform. Finally, the performance of the overall architecture of the intelligent ecological planning gateway is tested. The study aims to optimize the performance of the hydrological spatial analysis method and ecological planning method in Xianglan town of Jiamusi city. The results show that the system can detect the flood control safety system planning, analysis of water source pollution. Additionally, the system also can use the EC technology, depending on the types, hydrological characteristics, pollutants to predict treatment sludge need to put in the pollutant treatment medicament composition and dosage, protection of water source nearby residents public health security. Compared with previous hydrological spatial analysis and ecological planning methods, the system is more scientific, efficient, and expandable. The results provide a technical basis for the research in related fields.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Hidrologia , China , Análise Espacial , Tecnologia , Urbanização
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27092, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449513

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Geographic information systems (GIS) tools can be used to understand the spatial distribution of local HIV epidemics but are often underutilized, especially in low-middle income countries. We present characteristics of an HIV epidemic within Hyderabad, a large city in southern India, as a case study to highlight the utility of such data in program planning.Cross-sectional sample recruited using respondent-driven sampling in a cluster-randomized trial.We analyzed data from 2 cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling surveys of MSM in Hyderabad, which were conducted as part of a cluster-randomized trial. All participants were tested for HIV and those positive underwent viral load quantification. ArcGIS was used to create heat maps of MSM distribution using self-reported postal code of residence and combined into larger zones containing at least 200 MSM.Postal code data was available for 661 MSM (66.2%) in the baseline and 978 MSM (97.8%) in the follow-up survey. The proportion of HIV-positive MSM (12.7-15.7%) and prevalence of virally suppressed persons (2.6-8.2%) increased between the 2 surveys. The distribution of all MSM, HIV-positive MSM, and HIV-viremic MSM differed significantly by geographic zone with several zones having higher numbers of HIV-positive and viremic individuals than would be expected based on the distribution of all MSM.The prevalence of HIV and HIV viremia among MSM differed by geographic zones within a city and evolved over time. Such data could be critical to improving program implementation efficiency by accurately targeting resources to population characteristics.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Saúde/métodos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga Viral
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 19, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394810

RESUMO

Introduction: the spread and diffusion of COVID-19 undoubtedly shows strong spatial connotations and alignment with the physical indices of civilization and globalization. Several spatial risk factors have possible influence on its dispersal trajectory. Understanding their influence is critical for mobilization, sensitization and managing non-pharmaceutical interventions at the appropriate spatial-administrative units. Methods: on 01 April 2020, we constructed a rapid spatial diagnostics and generated vulnerability map for COVID-19 infection spread at state level using 12 core spatial drivers. The risk factors used include established COVID-19 cases (as at 01 April 2020), population, proximity to the airports, inter-state road traffic, intra-state road traffic, intra city traffic, international road traffic, possible influx of elites from abroad, preponderance of high risk political elite, likelihood of religious gathering, likelihood of other social gatherings, and proximity to existing COVID-19 test centers. These were also tested as predictors of COVID-19 spread using multiple regression analysis. Results: the results show that 6 States - Lagos, Kano, Katsina, Kaduna, Oyo and Rivers - and the Federal Capital Territory have very high vulnerability, 17 states have high vulnerability and 13 states have medium vulnerability to COVID-19 transmission. Several drivers show a strong association with COVID-19 with the coefficient of correlation ranging from 0.983 - 0.995. The regression analysis indicates that between 96.6 and 99.0 percent of the total variation in the COVID-19 infections across Nigeria can be explained by the predictors. Conclusion: the spatial pattern of infection across the states are substantially consistent with the predicted pattern of vulnerability.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Populações Vulneráveis , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200407, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between quality of basic health care and social vulnerability in municipalities of the Brazilian northeast. METHOD: Ecological study with spatial analysis using univariate global and local Moran's indexes. Bivariate analyses were employed to examine the relationship between the quality of basic health care and the Social Vulnerability Index in the Northeast. The dependent variable corresponded to the final scores of certifications of teams of basic health care in the Northeast that had participated in the third cycle of the Brazilian Program for the Improvement of Access and Quality of Basic Health Care. The independent variable was the Social Vulnerability Index of the municipality. RESULTS: The bivariate analysis has pointed out the presence of areas of low vulnerability with high quality basic health care in the municipalities in the states of Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, and Bahia. The state of Maranhão is emphasized for its low performance in basic health care in a large number of municipalities with high vulnerability. CONCLUSION: The study has revealed a spatial relation between the indicators of social vulnerability and quality of basic health care in the Northeast, suggesting that limitations in access to health resources and services may be related to social and health determinants.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Cidades , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1570, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the four pillars of the initiative for safe motherhood. ANC helps to improve the health of pregnant women and reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. First ANC is used to know the health status of the mothers and the fetus, to estimate the gestational age and expected date of delivery. Our research aims to investigate the Spatio-temporal distribution of delayed first ANC visit and its predictors using multilevel binary logistic regression analysis. METHOD: A total of 10,184 women (2061 in 2005, 3366 in 2011, and 4757 in 2016) were included for this study. The data were cleaned and weighted using STATA version 14. A multilevel binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify significant predictors of delayed first ANC visit. ArcGIS software was used to explore the spatial distribution of delayed first ANC visits and a Bernoulli model was fitted using SaTScan software to identify significant clusters of delayed first ANC visits. RESULTS: Overall, 77.69, 73.95, and 67.61% of women had delayed their first ANC visit in 2005, 2011, and 2016 EDHSs respectively. Women education [AOR = 0.71; 95%CI; 0.60, 0.84], unwanted pregnancy [AOR = 1.41;95%CI; 1.04, 1.89], and rural residence [AOR = 1.68;95%CI; 1.19, 2.38] have significantly associated with delayed first ANC visit. The spatial analysis revealed that delayed first ANC visit varies in each EDHS period. The SaTScan analysis result of EDHS 2005 data identified 122 primary clusters located between the border of Oromia and Eastern SNNPR regions (RR = 1.30, LLR = 32.31, P-value< 0.001), whereas in 2011 EDHS, 145 primary clusters were identified in entire Tigray, B/Gumuz, Amhara western part of Afar and northwest Oromia regions (RR = 1.30, LLR = 40.79, P-value< 0.001). Besides in 2016 EDHS,198 primary clusters were located in the entire SNNPR, Gambella, Northen B/Gumuz, and western Oromia regions. (RR = 1.35, LLR = 83.21, P-value< 0.001). CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia delayed first ANC visit was significantly varied across the country over time Women's education, wanted the last child, and residence were significantly associated with delayed first ANC booking. The effect of each predictor was found to be different across regions of Ethiopia. Therefore, a targeted intervention program is required in highly affected areas of Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Natal , Reprodução , Criança , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multinível , Gravidez , Análise Espacial
16.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200538, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatiality of completeness of the Information System on Diseases of Compulsory Declaration of tuberculosis in Paraná state, focusing on the border region. METHOD: A study composed by the notified cases of the disease treated in Paraná between 2008 and 2017. The variable completeness was classified as excellent (<5% of incompleteness), good (5 to <10%), regular (10 to <20%), poor (20% to 50%), and very poor (>50%). Moran global was used for the spatial correlation and local association was analyzed. Logistic regression was employed to assess the spatial association of the variables with the border and, for the significant variables, multiple logistic regression was used. The study abides by the resolution 510/2016 of the National Health Council. RESULTS: There was a "high-high" correlation for education level, 2- and 6-month sputum smear in the Eastern health macroregional and "high-high" correlation in the Northwestern macroregional for 2-month sputum smear and antibiotic sensitivity testing. There was no spatial association with the border. CONCLUSION: Unsatisfactory completeness was identified in the database and conglomerates, indicating spatial association of incompleteness of some variables, but with no relation with the border. There was no worsening of completeness nor of the case outcomes related to these regions.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Análise Espacial , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
17.
J Environ Radioact ; 237: 106706, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333300

RESUMO

Several statistical techniques have been adopted in the analysis and interpretation of radiometric survey data set with little attention to the geostatistical approach. In this study, the geostatistical technique was used to analyse an airborne uranium data set in the North-western part of Ogun state to deduce the autocorrelation level of uranium with the corresponding geological composition through the geostatistical model fitting. Twelve uranium lithological (UL) units were identified and analysed using variogram and kriging. Three variogram models namely; spherical, exponential and gaussian, were utilised. The variogram results showed that the three models fit in the interpretation of uranium data in the order of Spherical < Gaussian < Exponential models for all the UL units except at UL6 which had range (R) values of 4227.3 m, 5318.2 m and 5636.4 m for Gaussian, Spherical and Exponential models, respectively. The Nugget-Sill ratios (NSR) were in the range of 3.57-18.97% for the three models across the 12 UL units. These results indicate strong spatial autocorrelation/dependency of uranium concentration on geological composition. The ordinary kriging estimator revealed that the weathered basement formation has the highest uranium concentration compared to basement and sedimentary formations across the study area. The coefficient of variation results also revealed homogeneity in the uranium source across the UL units. The geostatistics technique is a useful mathematical tool in the analysis and interpretation of uranium concentration in the North-western part of Ogun State.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Urânio , Nigéria , Análise Espacial , Urânio/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360223

RESUMO

With the increasing application of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technology in the field of meteorology, satellite-derived zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) data have been used to explore the spatial coverage pattern of PM2.5 concentrations. In this study, the PM2.5 concentration data obtained from 340 PM2.5 ground stations in south-central China were used to analyze the variation patterns of PM2.5 in south-central China at different time periods, and six PM2.5 interpolation models were developed in the region. The spatial and temporal PM2.5 variation patterns in central and southern China were analyzed from the perspectives of time series variations and spatial distribution characteristics, and six types of interpolation models were established in central and southern China. (1) Through correlation analysis, and exploratory regression and geographical detector methods, the correlation analysis of PM2.5-related variables showed that the GNSS-derived PWV and ZTD were negatively correlated with PM2.5, and that their significances and contributions to the spatial analysis were good. (2) Three types of suitable variable combinations were selected for modeling through a collinearity diagnosis, and six types of models (geographically weighted regression (GWR), geographically weighted regression kriging (GWRK), geographically weighted regression-empirical bayesian kriging (GWR-EBK), multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR), multiscale geographically weighted regression kriging (MGWRK), and multiscale geographically weighted regression-empirical bayesian kriging (MGWR-EBK)) were constructed. The overall R2 of the GWR-EBK model construction was the best (annual: 0.962, winter: 0.966, spring: 0.926, summer: 0.873, and autumn: 0.908), and the interpolation accuracy of the GWR-EBK model constructed by inputting ZTD was the best overall, with an average RMSE of 3.22 µg/m3 recorded, while the GWR-EBK model constructed by inputting PWV had the highest interpolation accuracy in winter, with an RMSE of 4.5 µg/m3 recorded; these values were 2.17% and 4.26% higher than the RMSE values of the other two types of models (ZTD and temperature) in winter, respectively. (3) The introduction of the empirical Bayesian kriging method to interpolate the residuals of the models (GWR and MGWR) and to then correct the original interpolation results of the models was the most effective, and the accuracy improvement percentage was better than that of the ordinary kriging method. The average improvement ratios of the GWRK and GWR-EBK models compared with that of the GWR model were 5.04% and 14.74%, respectively, and the average improvement ratios of the MGWRK and MGWR-EBK models compared with that of the MGWR model were 2.79% and 12.66%, respectively. (4) Elevation intervals and provinces were classified, and the influence of the elevation and the spatial distribution of the plane on the accuracy of the PM2.5 regional model was discussed. The experiments showed that the accuracy of the constructed regional model decreased as the elevation increased. The accuracies of the models in representing Henan, Hubei and Hunan provinces were lower than those of the models in representing Guangdong and Guangxi provinces.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Vapor , Teorema de Bayes , China , Ingestão de Alimentos , Material Particulado/análise , Análise Espacial , Regressão Espacial
19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 397, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise of spatial transcriptomics technologies is leading to new insights about how gene regulation happens in a spatial context. Determining which genes are expressed in similar spatial patterns can reveal gene regulatory relationships across cell types in a tissue. However, many current analysis methods do not take full advantage of the spatial organization of the data, instead treating pixels as independent features. Here, we present CoSTA: a novel approach to learn spatial similarities between gene expression matrices via convolutional neural network (ConvNet) clustering. RESULTS: By analyzing simulated and previously published spatial transcriptomics data, we demonstrate that CoSTA learns spatial relationships between genes in a way that emphasizes broader spatial patterns rather than pixel-level correlation. CoSTA provides a quantitative measure of expression pattern similarity between each pair of genes rather than only classifying genes into categories. We find that CoSTA identifies narrower, but biologically relevant, sets of significantly related genes as compared to other approaches. CONCLUSIONS: The deep learning CoSTA approach provides a different angle to spatial transcriptomics analysis by focusing on the shape of expression patterns, using more information about the positions of neighboring pixels than would an overlap or pixel correlation approach. CoSTA can be applied to any spatial transcriptomics data represented in matrix form and may have future applications to datasets such as histology in which images of different genes are from similar but not identical biological sections.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Transcriptoma , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Espacial
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360355

RESUMO

Multifunctional state assessment was the basis of time sequence design of territory spatial development and overall utilisation. This study aimed to identify the ecological-production-living (PLE) territory spatial function to provide a basis for territory spatial planning. It took Henan Province as the research area. This study developed a methodology to assess differentiation characteristics for PLE function, a method that integrates functional merging and geographic information technology. We used the coordination degree model and spatial autocorrelation analysis to reveal the coordination of spatial functions of the province. The results were as follows: (1) During the study period, the land production function of main grain-producing areas decreased slowly, and production and living function values of the Central Plains urban agglomeration with Zhengzhou as the centre were in an upward trend. The characteristics of urban-rural dualization were prominent, and ecological function value decreased year by year. (2) The laws of territorial spatial functions had different manifestations in different stages (1990-2005 and 2005-2018). By different characteristic laws, the change in production function in the later period was bigger than that in the previous period. The living function maintained a good continuity expansion characteristic before and after. The spatial regularity distribution characteristics of ecological function were weak, and the overall environment became worse than before. (3) The territory space of middle and low coordination function types was the most important type, and the aggregation was relatively weak. Xuchang County and Weihui City showed better states of functional coordination aggregation. Lushi County, Xinxian County, and Shangcheng County, which were in the western and southern mountainous and hilly areas, showed low-low aggregation characteristics. Thus, the government will strengthen targeted control over territorial space. This study provides a reference for the overall deployment of the development and utilisation of territory space in Henan Province.


Assuntos
Análise Espacial , China , Cidades
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