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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMO

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Atitude , Análise Fatorial , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Psicometria
2.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e711-e720, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010243

RESUMO

Despite a large and growing body of literature on sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV integration, the drivers of integration of SRH and HIV services, from a health systems perspective, are not well understood. These drivers include complex so-called hardware (structural and resource) and software (values and norms, and human relations and interactions) factors. Two groups of software factors emerge as essential enablers of effective integration of SRH and HIV services that often interact with systems hardware: (1) leadership, management, and governance processes and (2) provider motivation, agency, and relationships. Evidence suggests the potential for software elements that are essential enablers to overcome some of the obstacles posed by the non-integration of health system hardware elements (eg, financing, guidelines, and commodity supplies). These enabling factors include flexible decision making, inclusive management, and support in motivating frontline staff who can work with agency as a team. Improved software, even within constrained hardware (especially in low-income and middle-income countries), can directly contribute to improved SRH and HIV service delivery.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Análise Fatorial , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Responsabilidade Social
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4946, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009409

RESUMO

Immune-related adverse events (irAEs), caused by anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies, can lead to fulminant and even fatal consequences and thus require early detection and aggressive management. However, a comprehensive approach to identify biomarkers of irAE is lacking. Here, we utilize a strategy that combines pharmacovigilance data and omics data, and evaluate associations between multi-omics factors and irAE reporting odds ratio across different cancer types. We identify a bivariate regression model of LCP1 and ADPGK that can accurately predict irAE. We further validate LCP1 and ADPGK as biomarkers in an independent patient-level cohort. Our approach provides a method for identifying potential biomarkers of irAE in cancer immunotherapy using both pharmacovigilance data and multi-omics data.


Assuntos
Genômica , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 665, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001326

RESUMO

With economic development and the acceleration of urbanization, China's energy demand has gradually increased and brought a lot of energy-related CO2 emissions. Energy-related CO2 emissions are affected by a variety of factors. Quantifying the correlation between energy-related CO2 and driving factors and constructing the driving factor system are conducive to predict the future energy-related CO2 emissions and analyze the impact of driving factors. In this paper, the improved grey relational analysis (IGRA) was proposed to screen the influencing factors of energy-related CO2 emissions considering the sample difference, and the factor analysis (FA) was used to reduce dimensionality of the influencing factors. Then, a carbon dioxide emission forecasting model based on the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFO) and the least square support vector machine (LSSVM) was proposed. Empirical analysis results of Hebei show that the LSSVM optimized BFO significantly improves the accuracy of energy-related CO2 emissions forecasting, and IGRA-FA-BFOLSSVM model is significantly better than BP, PSOBP, SVM, and LSSVM models. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the proposed model is 0.374%. The forecasting results of the supplementary case show that the model has better generalization ability. In addition, education and technological progress have proven to be important drivers of energy-related CO2 emissions. Simultaneously, the research results can also offer more breakthrough points for policy makers to control carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Análise Fatorial
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2824-2828, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018594

RESUMO

The brain functional connectivity network is complex, generally constructed using correlations between the regions of interest (ROIs) in the brain, corresponding to a parcellation atlas. The brain is known to exhibit a modular organization, referred to as "functional segregation." Generally, functional segregation is extracted from edge-filtered, and optionally, binarized network using community detection and clustering algorithms. Here, we propose the novel use of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the correlation matrix for extracting functional segregation, to avoid sparsifying the network by using a threshold for edge filtering. However, the direct usability of EFA is limited, owing to its inherent issues of replication, reliability, and generalizability. In order to avoid finding an optimal number of factors for EFA, we propose a multiscale approach using EFA for node-partitioning, and use consensus to aggregate the results of EFA across different scales. We define an appropriate scale, and discuss the influence of the "interval of scales" in the performance of our multiscale EFA. We compare our results with the state-of-the-art in our case study. Overall, we find that the multiscale consensus method using EFA performs at par with the state-of-the-art.Clinical relevance: Extracting modular brain regions allows practitioners to study spontaneous brain activity at resting state.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Consenso , Análise Fatorial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 123-128, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087601

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. World Diabetes Federation experts predict that the diabetes patients' number by 2035 will increase by 205 million to reach 592 million. For health care, this diabetes type is one of the highest priority problems. This disease is associated with many concomitant diseases leading to early disability and high cardiovascular risk. A severity disease indicator is the degree of carbohydrate metabolism compensation. Decompensated and subcompensated carbohydrate metabolism patients have increased cardiovascular risks. Therefore, it is important to be able to select the right therapy to control carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, we propose a new method for selecting the optimal therapy automatically. The method includes creating personal optimal therapies. This kind of therapy has the highest probability of compensating carbohydrate metabolism for a patient within a six-month. The method includes models for predicting the results of different therapies. It is based on data from the previous medical history and current medical indicators of patients. This method provides high-quality predictions and medical recommendations. Therefore, medical professionals can use this method as part of the Support and Decision-Making Systems for working with T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
7.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 247-253, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The GHQ-12 is one of the most widely used questionnaires in the adult population, but there are not as many studies exploring its applicability in adolescents. The main problem is the diversity of results on its factorial structure, as different studies have shown one, two or three dimensions. The purpose of this study was to explore the GHQ-12 factorial structure for adolescents. METHOD: An observational multicenter cross-sectional descriptive study was designed for schools in the city of Madrid. A random sample of n = 2,171, 14-16-year-olds was stratified by the school's development level and funding (public, private or mixed). Unrestricted factor analysis was applied based on the polychoric or tetrachoric correlations matrix (depending on the test scoring method). RESULTS: The optimized parallel analysis provided an unequivocal one-factor structure, confirmed by unidimensionality assessment. Around 30% of male and 42% of female adolescents were found to be at risk of developing mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: The GHQ-12 is a one-dimensional test for screening psychological distress, with excellent psychometric properties for its application in an adolescent population. The use of adequate statistical methods can overcome old controversies and promote proper application and interpretation of the results provided by the test


OBJETIVO: El General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) es de los cuestionarios más utilizados en la población adulta, pero hay pocos estudios que exploren su aplicabilidad en adolescentes. El principal problema es la diversidad de resultados en su estructura factorial, ya que diferentes estudios han encontrado una, dos o tres dimensiones. El propósito de este estudio fue explorar la estructura factorial del GHQ-12 en adolescentes. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo observacional multicéntrico transversal para centros educativos de la ciudad de Madrid. Se estratificó una muestra aleatoria de n = 2171 jóvenes de 14-16 años según el nivel de desarrollo y financiación de la escuela (pública, privada o mixta). Se aplicó un análisis factorial sin restricciones basado en la matriz de correlaciones policóricas o tetracóricas (dependiendo del método de puntuación de la prueba). RESULTADOS: El análisis paralelo optimizado proporcionó una estructura inequívocamente unifactorial. El 30% de los varones y el 42% de las adolescentes presentaban riesgo de mala salud mental. CONCLUSIONES: El GHQ-12 es un test uni-dimensional para el cribado del riesgo de mala salud mental, con excelentes propiedades psicométricas para su aplicación en población adolescente. El uso de métodos estadísticos adecuados puede superar viejas controversias y promover la correcta interpretación de los resultados de la prueba


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce
8.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 313-319, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192068

RESUMO

The quality of learning in Higher Education is particularly dependent on students' skills in regulating their cognition. This regulation requires cognitive and metacognitive skills as well as motivational dimensions. Due to its relevance in explaining students' academic achievement and developing lifelong learning skills, it´s important to increase research in the area. This study aims to adapt and validate a short version of the Regulation of Cognition of Metacognitive Awareness Inventory to first-year Portuguese university students. A sample of 360 students was considered and was identified a three-dimensional structure (Planning, 4 items; Strategies, 7 items; and Monitoring and evaluation, 7 items) with a second-order factor (Regulation of Cognition). The internal consistency values of the reduced scale are within the acceptable parameters for a self-report scale and the correlations with academic achievement at the end of the first year of the university guarantee the predictive validity of the scale. This short version of regulation of cognition measure allows its use in research with other instruments in larger studies and can function as a diagnostic / screening tool to help students in higher education learning challenges


La calidad del aprendizaje en la Educación Superior depende, especialmente, de las habilidades de los estudiantes para regular su cognición. Esta regulación requiere habilidades cognitivas y metacognitivas, así como dimensiones motivacionales. Dada su relevancia en el rendimiento académico y el desarrollo de habilidades para el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida, es importante aumentar la investigación en el campo. Este estudio pretende adaptar y validar una versión abreviada de la dimensión Regulación de la Cognición del Metacognitive Awareness Inventory para estudiantes universitarios portugueses de primer año. Se empleó una muestra de 360 estudiantes y se identificó una estructura tridimensional (Planificación, 4 ítems; Estrategias, 7 ítems; y Monitoreo y evaluación, 7 ítems) con un factor de segundo orden (Regulación de la cognición). Los valores de consistencia interna de la escala reducida son aceptables para una escala de auto-informe y las correlaciones con el logro académico al final del primer año de la universidad garantizan su validez predictiva. Esta versión abreviada para medir la regulación de la cognición puede usarse en investigación junto con otros instrumentos en estudios más amplios y puede funcionar como una herramienta de diagnóstico para ayudar a los estudiantes en los desafíos del aprendizaje en la enseñanza superior


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cognição , Estudantes/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Autocontrole/psicologia , Logro , Desempenho Acadêmico , Autorrelato , Portugal , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 361-369, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192073

RESUMO

Las organizaciones están implementando acciones para la mejora de la salud y calidad de vida de sus empleados. Este hecho repercute por tanto en las empresas y en sus empleados, caracterizándose éstos últimos por disponer de cinco fortalezas como son el engagement, la resiliencia, la autoeficacia, el optimismo y la esperanza. El cuestionario del empleado saludable mide ocho dimensiones, por lo que el objetivo del trabajo es validar el instrumento reduciendo el constructo del empleado saludable de ocho dimensiones a cinco dimensiones y constatar la fiabilidad del mismo como medio de evaluación del empleado saludable. 287 empleados (208 hombres y 79 mujeres) de edades comprendidas entre 20-59 años participaron en es-te estudio. Se analizó el ajuste de los modelos de cinco y ocho dimensiones mediante un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC), utilizando el método de estimación de Máxima Verosimilitud Robusto. Los índices incrementa-les (CFI y NNFI) y el absoluto SRMR mostraron un buen ajuste en ambos modelos al ser superiores a ,90 e inferior a ,08 respectivamente. En cuanto a la comparación de modelos se observa un aumento significativo del estadístico de contraste Chi Cuadrado de Satorra-Bentler en el modelo de cinco frente al de ocho dimensiones, aunque la reducción del CFI en el modelo de cinco dimensiones no superó el criterio de ,01, lo que permitió considerar ambos modelos como similares en cuanto a ajuste. Ambos modelos mostraron resultados satisfactorios en cuanto al ajuste, este hecho confirma el uso del cuestionario del empleado saludable de ocho dimensiones a cinco dimensiones


Organisations are implementing actions to improve the health and quality of life of their employees. This fact therefore has an impact on companies and their employees, the latter being characterised by five strengths: engagement, resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and hope. The Healthy Employee Questionnaire measures eight dimensions, so the aim of the work is to validate the instrument by reducing the construct of the healthy employee from eight dimensions to five dimensions and to ascer-tain the reliability of the instrument as a means of evaluating the healthy employee. 287 employees (208 men and 79 women) aged 20-59 participat-ed in this study. The fit of the five- and eight-dimensional models was ana-lysed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), using the Robust Maximum Likelihood estimation method. The incremental indices (CFI and NNFI) and the absolute SRMR showed a good fit in both models being higher than .90 and lower than .08, respectively. In terms of model comparison, a significant increase in the Satorra-Bentler Chi Square contrast statistic was observed in the five versus eight-dimensional model, although the reduc-tion of the CFI in the five-dimensional model did not exceed the criterion of .01, which allowed both models to be considered as similar in terms of fit. The two models showed satisfactory results in terms of fit, this fact confirming the reduction of the healthy employee questionnaire from eight dimensions to five dimensions


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , 16054/psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Resiliência Psicológica , Análise Fatorial , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 370-377, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Political Skills Inventory (PSI) is a measurement tool for assessing four dimensions associated with political skills: social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability and apparent sincerity (Ferris, 2005). METHOD: In the present study, multi-sample and multi-method, we developed and analyzed the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the (PSI), by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally, a longitudinal reliability test and a sex factorial invariance test were performed. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha and omega indices revealed satisfactory reliability and exploratory factor analyses extracted the four original factors as reported in other studies (N = 309). Confirmatory factorial analyses confirmed that the four-factor solution presented the best fit to our data (N = 248). CONCLUSIONS: We add new evidence for time and sex invariance of the measure, showing that the PSI can be considered a stable and valid measure over time and across sex


INTRODUCCIÓN: El inventario de habilidades políticas (PSI, siglas en inglés) es una medida para calibrar cuatro dimensiones relacionadas con es-te constructo: la astucia social, la capacidad de influencia interpersonal, la habilidad para establecer contactos y la sinceridad aparente (Ferris, David-son & Perrewé, 2005). MÉTODO: En el presente estudio, multi-muestra y multimétodo, sendos análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio se han llevado a cabo sobre dos muestras, una primera compuesta por trabajadores de varios ramos (recogido en tres etapas, con una edad media comprendida entre 43.66 y 44.70 años, DT = 9.42 - 10.22, y un porcentaje de mujeres entre 57.3 - 58.4%) y una segunda por trabajadores del sector salud (Mage = 35.56, SD = 7.23; 80.6% women), para desarrollar y testar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española del PSI. Adicionalmente, se llevó a cabo una prueba de fiabilidad longitudinal y un análisis de invarianza relativo al género. RESULTADOS: Los índices alpha de Cronbach (cuyos valores oscilaron entre 0.83-0.90 en nuestros datos, y entre 0.73-0.87 en la versión original) y omega (0.85 para el total de la escala) revelaron un grado de fiabilidad satisfactoria. El análisis factorial exploratorio extrajo los cuatro factores de la versión original, tal y como ya ha sido reportado en otros estudios (N = 309). El análisis factorial confirmatorio confirmó que el ajuste de dicha estructura fue el mejor frente a los datos (N = 248). CONCLUSIONES: Con este estudio se añade evidencia al estudio de la invarianza de género y la estabilidad temporal de esta medida, mostrando que la versión española del PSI puede ser considerada una medida estable y válida a través del tiempo y relativa al género


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Aptidão , Política , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/normas , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários , 16054/psicologia , Traduções , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Poder Psicológico
11.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(3): 259-271, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876554

RESUMO

Measurement invariance and normative data of the 8-item short form of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D-8) Objectives: Female gender is a risk factor for depression. It is questionable whether a given psychometric instrument depicts depressive symptom severity in men and women alike. Therefore, we examined measurement invariance of the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-8 (CES-D-8) between women, men and different age groups. Additionally, we aimed providing normative data for CES-D-8. Methods: We assessed depressive symptoms in a German population-based sample (N = 2,507) with the CES-D-8. Gender-distorted items were excluded in the short form. Results: Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found good model fit for men, women and the overall sample. A multi-group CFA confirmed measurement invariance of CES-D-8 regarding the tested factors and their interaction. Gender- and age-group-specific norms were computed. Conclusion: The use of the CES-D-8 can be recommended in epidemiological contexts, for practice and research. Different values between women and men of different age groups can be compared appropriately from a psychometric perspective.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1201-1206, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913157

RESUMO

Background: Self-efficacy has become a cross-disciplinary concept. In the field of healthcare, this concept is considered crucial for nurses; who play an important role in improving the health and well-being of the community. Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a "Relationship-with-the-patient self-efficacy scale" (RPSES). Methodology: A sample of 331 university students (310 females and 21 males; 168 from the midwifery and 162 from the nursing departments) were enrolled in the study. Out of 24 items, 8 behavior items with the highest factor loadings were selected regarding the nurse-patient-relationship self-efficacy according to the results of the preliminary exploratory factor analysis. Results: The final exploratory factor analysis revealed that the selected 8 items of RPSES had a single factor, explaining 83.28% of the total variance. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was c alculated as 0.97. Conclusion: This scale has beendemonstrated to be a valid and reliable instrument.The analyses unfolded that RPSES scores of the students were not different between men and womenand did not differ by the departments the students attended; however, the RPSES scores were different by the grade levels of the students (juniors and seniors). The fourth graders' RPSES scores were higher than those of third graders.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras Obstétricas/psicologia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Autoeficácia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 645, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq that started in 2015, the course of the disease and the treatment were not consistent with the available literature. Physicians, particularly dermatologists, faced challenges with treating the cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions with high rates of treatment failure and resistance to treatment. We used Q-methodology to understand the range and diversities of opinions and the practical experiences of dermatologists about the treatment difficulties of cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: This Q-methodology study was carried out in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and involved 37 dermatologists. A set of 40 statements related to different aspects of difficulties and uncertainties of treating cutaneous leishmaniasis was prepared. The dermatologists were requested to distribute the 40 statements into a scaled grid of nine piles from least agree to most agree. We applied by-person factor analysis using PQMethod 2.35 for the data analysis. RESULTS: The analysis revealed two different viewpoints about the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and a consensus viewpoint. The first viewpoint emphasized the use of sodium stibogluconate-based combination therapy, concerns with treatment failure, and lack of compliance with the treatment. The second viewpoint emphasized the lack of standard treatment and advances in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. There was a consensus between both groups of respondents about many aspects of the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, including considering sodium stibogluconate the first drug of choice for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a diversity of viewpoints and uncertainties about the effectiveness of the available treatment modalities and treatment difficulties and failure. Interrupted supply and poor quality of the available drugs and lack of a standard and advanced treatment are the main problems facing the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. More research is required to determine the best treatment modalities for the different types of cutaneous leishmaniasis. There is a need for the development of treatment guidelines specific to the Iraqi context with a particular focus on the treatment of the resistant and atypical cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Atitude , Consenso , Dermatologistas/psicologia , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Falha de Tratamento
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19716, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people who experience a potentially traumatic event (PTE) recover on their own. A small group of individuals develops psychological complaints, but this is often not detected in time or guidance to care is suboptimal. To identify these individuals and encourage them to seek help, a web-based self-help test called Mobile Insight in Risk, Resilience, and Online Referral (MIRROR) was developed. MIRROR takes an innovative approach since it integrates both negative and positive outcomes of PTEs and time since the event and provides direct feedback to the user. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess MIRROR's use, examine its psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity), and evaluate how well it classifies respondents into different outcome categories compared with reference measures. METHODS: MIRROR was embedded in the website of Victim Support Netherlands so visitors could use it. We compared MIRROR's outcomes to reference measures of PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), depression, anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21), psychological resilience (Resilience Evaluation Scale), and positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum Short Form). RESULTS: In 6 months, 1112 respondents completed MIRROR, of whom 663 also completed the reference measures. Results showed good internal consistency (interitem correlations range .24 to .55, corrected item-total correlations range .30 to .54, and Cronbach alpha coefficient range .62 to .68), and convergent and divergent validity (Pearson correlations range -.259 to .665). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA+CFA) yielded a 2-factor model with good model fit (CFA model fit indices: χ219=107.8, P<.001, CFI=.965, TLI=.948, RMSEA=.065), conceptual meaning, and parsimony. MIRROR correctly classified respondents into different outcome categories compared with the reference measures. CONCLUSIONS: MIRROR is a valid and reliable self-help test to identify negative (PTSD complaints) and positive outcomes (psychosocial functioning and resilience) of PTEs. MIRROR is an easily accessible online tool that can help people who have experienced a PTE to timely identify psychological complaints and find appropriate support, a tool that might be highly needed in times like the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Aplicativos Móveis , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Resiliência Psicológica , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/normas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Lista de Checagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Defining Issues Test (DIT) aimed to measure one's moral judgment development in terms of moral reasoning. The Neo-Kohlbergian approach, which is an elaboration of Kohlbergian theory, focuses on the continuous development of postconventional moral reasoning, which constitutes the theoretical basis of the DIT. However, very few studies have directly tested the internal structure of the DIT, which would indicate its construct validity. OBJECTIVES: Using the DIT-2, a later revision of the DIT, we examined whether a bi-factor model or 3-factor CFA model showed a better model fit. The Neo-Kohlbergian theory of moral judgment development, which constitutes the theoretical basis for the DIT-2, proposes that moral judgment development occurs continuously and that it can be better explained with a soft-stage model. Given these assertions, we assumed that the bi-factor model, which considers the Schema-General Moral Judgment (SGMJ), might be more consistent with Neo-Kohlbergian theory. METHODS: We analyzed a large dataset collected from undergraduate students. We performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) via weighted least squares. A 3-factor CFA based on the DIT-2 manual and a bi-factor model were compared for model fit. The three factors in the 3-factor CFA were labeled as moral development schemas in Neo-Kohlbergian theory (i.e., personal interests, maintaining norms, and postconventional schemas). The bi-factor model included the SGMJ in addition to the three factors. RESULTS: In general, the bi-factor model showed a better model fit compared with the 3-factor CFA model although both models reported acceptable model fit indices. CONCLUSION: We found that the DIT-2 scale is a valid measure of the internal structure of moral reasoning development using both CFA and bi-factor models. In addition, we conclude that the soft-stage model, posited by the Neo-Kohlbergian approach to moral judgment development, can be better supported with the bi-factor model that was tested in the present study.


Assuntos
Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866184

RESUMO

The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is one of the most widely used instruments for assessing the ability to recognize emotion. To examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the RMET and to explore the possible implications of poor performance on this task, 200 adults aged 19-32 years completed the RMET and the Korean version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20K), the cognitive empathy domain of the Korean version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI-C), and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Aggression (BDHI-A). In the present study, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that the hypothesized three-factor solution based on three different emotional valences of the items (positive, negative, or neutral) had a good fit to the data. The Korean version of the RMET also showed good test-retest reliability over a 4-week time interval. Convergent validity was also supported by significant correlations with subscales of the TAS-20K, and discriminant validity was identified by nonsignificant associations with IRI-C scores. In addition, no difference was found in RMET performance according to the sex of the photographed individuals or the sex or educational attainment of the participants. Individuals with poor RMET performance were more likely to experience alexithymia and aggression. The current findings will facilitate not only future research on emotion processing but also the assessment of conditions related to the decreased ability to decode emotional stimuli.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Emoções/fisiologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Leitura , República da Coreia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify the patterns of multimorbidity among a group of patients who visited primary care in Singapore. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of electronic medical records was conducted on 437,849 individuals aged 0-99 years who visited National Healthcare Group Polyclinics from 1 Jul 2015 to 30 Jun 2016 for the management of chronic conditions. Patients' health conditions were coded with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), and patient records were extracted for analysis. Patients' diagnosis codes were grouped by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and patterns of multimorbidity were then identified by latent class analysis (LCA). RESULTS: EFA identified 19 groups of chronic conditions. Patients with at least three chronic conditions were further separated into eight classes based on demographics and probabilities of various diagnoses. We found that older patients had higher probabilities of comorbid hypertension, kidney disease and ischaemic heart disease (IHD), while younger patients had a higher probability of comorbid obesity. Female patients had higher probabilities of comorbid arthritis and anaemia, while male patients had higher probabilities of comorbid kidney diseases and IHD. Indian patients presented with a higher probability of comorbid diabetes than Chinese and Malay patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that patients with multimorbidity in primary care could be classified into eight patterns. This knowledge could be useful for more precise management of these patients in the multiethnic Asian population of Singapore. Programmes for early intervention for at-risk groups can be developed based on the findings.


Assuntos
Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867323

RESUMO

The emergence of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had rapidly spread since FEB/MAR 2020. Policy to prevent transmission of COVDI-19 resulted in multi-dimensional impact on social interaction. We aimed to develop a beneficial survey tool with favorable quality and availability, the Societal Influences Survey Questionnaire (SISQ), to evaluate social influences on people during this pandemic. The SISQ was developed with 15 items and 4-point Likert scales consisting of five factors. These include social distance, social anxiety, social desirability, social information, and social adaptation. Construct validity and reliability were performed to verify the SISQ. A total of 1912 Taiwanese were recruited. The results demonstrated that the SISQ has acceptable reliability, with Cronbach's alphas ranging between 0.57 and 0.76. The SISQ accounted for 58.86% and satisfied the requirement of Kaiser-Mayer-Olkinvalues (0.78) and significant Bartlett's Test of sphericity. Moreover, the confirmatory factor analysis fit indices also indicated the adequacy of the model. As for multiple comparison, females scored higher than males in factor of social distance. Unemployed participants and those without partners scored higher in several domains of factors. The survey method and survey instrument prove reliable and valuable, also providing different categories of assessment results regarding social influences and their impacts. Further studies are warranted to extend the applicability of SISQ.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Betacoronavirus , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taiwan
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19716, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people who experience a potentially traumatic event (PTE) recover on their own. A small group of individuals develops psychological complaints, but this is often not detected in time or guidance to care is suboptimal. To identify these individuals and encourage them to seek help, a web-based self-help test called Mobile Insight in Risk, Resilience, and Online Referral (MIRROR) was developed. MIRROR takes an innovative approach since it integrates both negative and positive outcomes of PTEs and time since the event and provides direct feedback to the user. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess MIRROR's use, examine its psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity), and evaluate how well it classifies respondents into different outcome categories compared with reference measures. METHODS: MIRROR was embedded in the website of Victim Support Netherlands so visitors could use it. We compared MIRROR's outcomes to reference measures of PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), depression, anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21), psychological resilience (Resilience Evaluation Scale), and positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum Short Form). RESULTS: In 6 months, 1112 respondents completed MIRROR, of whom 663 also completed the reference measures. Results showed good internal consistency (interitem correlations range .24 to .55, corrected item-total correlations range .30 to .54, and Cronbach alpha coefficient range .62 to .68), and convergent and divergent validity (Pearson correlations range -.259 to .665). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA+CFA) yielded a 2-factor model with good model fit (CFA model fit indices: χ219=107.8, P<.001, CFI=.965, TLI=.948, RMSEA=.065), conceptual meaning, and parsimony. MIRROR correctly classified respondents into different outcome categories compared with the reference measures. CONCLUSIONS: MIRROR is a valid and reliable self-help test to identify negative (PTSD complaints) and positive outcomes (psychosocial functioning and resilience) of PTEs. MIRROR is an easily accessible online tool that can help people who have experienced a PTE to timely identify psychological complaints and find appropriate support, a tool that might be highly needed in times like the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Aplicativos Móveis , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Resiliência Psicológica , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/normas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Lista de Checagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738400

RESUMO

The emergence of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had rapidly spread since FEB/MAR 2020. Policy to prevent transmission of COVDI-19 resulted in multi-dimensional impact on social interaction. We aimed to develop a beneficial survey tool with favorable quality and availability, the Societal Influences Survey Questionnaire (SISQ), to evaluate social influences on people during this pandemic. The SISQ was developed with 15 items and 4-point Likert scales consisting of five factors. These include social distance, social anxiety, social desirability, social information, and social adaptation. Construct validity and reliability were performed to verify the SISQ. A total of 1912 Taiwanese were recruited. The results demonstrated that the SISQ has acceptable reliability, with Cronbach's alphas ranging between 0.57 and 0.76. The SISQ accounted for 58.86% and satisfied the requirement of Kaiser-Mayer-Olkinvalues (0.78) and significant Bartlett's Test of sphericity. Moreover, the confirmatory factor analysis fit indices also indicated the adequacy of the model. As for multiple comparison, females scored higher than males in factor of social distance. Unemployed participants and those without partners scored higher in several domains of factors. The survey method and survey instrument prove reliable and valuable, also providing different categories of assessment results regarding social influences and their impacts. Further studies are warranted to extend the applicability of SISQ.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Betacoronavirus , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taiwan
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