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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207281

RESUMO

Silica-based electrodes which permanently include a graphite/Au nanoparticles composite were tested for non-enzymatic detection of glucose and fructose. The composite material showed an effective electrocatalytic activity, to achieve the oxidation of the two analytes at quite low potential values and with good linearity. Reduced surface passivation was observed even in presence of organic species normally constituting real samples. Electrochemical responses were systematically recorded in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry by analysing 99 solutions containing glucose and fructose at different concentration values. The analysed samples consisted both in glucose and fructose aqueous solutions at pH 12 and in solutions of synthetic musts of red grapes, to test the feasibility of the approach in a real frame. Multivariate exploratory analyses of the electrochemical signals were performed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This gave evidence of the effectiveness of the chemometric approach to study the electrochemical sensor responses. Thanks to PCA, it was possible to highlight the different contributions of glucose and fructose to the voltammetric signal, allowing their selective determination.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Frutose , Glucose , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Análise Multivariada , Dióxido de Silício
2.
Talanta ; 233: 122525, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215028

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) combined with Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis to detect changes in hydration properties of nineteen genotypes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds during the imbibition process. The Hybrid hard and Soft modelling version of MCR-ALS (HS-MCR) applied to raw TD-NMR data allowed the introduction of kinetic models to elucidate underlying biological mechanisms. The imbibition process of all investigated hydrated Arabidopsis seeds could be described with a kinetic model based on two consecutive first-order reactions related to an initial absorption of water from the bulk around the seed and a posteriori hydration of the internal seed tissues, respectively. Good data fit was achieved (LOF % = 0.98 and r2% = 99.9), indicating that the hypothesis of the selected kinetic model was correct. An interpretation of the mucilage characteristics of the studied Arabidopsis seeds was also provided. The presented methodology offers a novel and general strategy to describe in a comprehensive way the kinetic process of plant tissue hydration in a screening objective. This work also proves the potential of the MCR methods to analyse raw TD-NMR signals as alternative to the controversial and time-consuming pre-processing techniques of this kind of data, known to be an ill-conditioned and ill-posed problem.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Cinética , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Análise Multivariada , Sementes , Água
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 96, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transmission dynamics and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is different across countries or regions. Differences in governments' policy responses may explain some of these differences. We aimed to compare worldwide government responses to the spread of COVID-19, to examine the relationship between response level, response timing and the epidemic trajectory. METHODS: Free publicly-accessible data collected by the Coronavirus Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) were used. Nine sub-indicators reflecting government response from 148 countries were collected systematically from January 1 to May 1, 2020. The sub-indicators were scored and were aggregated into a common Stringency Index (SI, a value between 0 and 100) that reflects the overall stringency of the government's response in a daily basis. Group-based trajectory modelling method was used to identify trajectories of SI. Multivariable linear regression models were used to analyse the association between time to reach a high-level SI and time to the peak number of daily new cases. RESULTS: Our results identified four trajectories of response in the spread of COVID-19 based on when the response was initiated: before January 13, from January 13 to February 12, from February 12 to March 11, and the last stage-from March 11 (the day WHO declared a pandemic of COVID-19) on going. Governments' responses were upgraded with further spread of COVID-19 but varied substantially across countries. After the adjustment of SI level, geographical region and initiation stages, each day earlier to a high SI level (SI > 80) from the start of response was associated with 0.44 (standard error: 0.08, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.65) days earlier to the peak number of daily new case. Also, each day earlier to a high SI level from the date of first reported case was associated with 0.65 (standard error: 0.08, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.42) days earlier to the peak number of daily new case. CONCLUSIONS: Early start of a high-level response to COVID-19 is associated with early arrival of the peak number of daily new cases. This may help to reduce the delays in flattening the epidemic curve to the low spread level.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Governo , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Quarentena , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202045

RESUMO

Factors associated with frailty, particularly dietary patterns, are not fully understood in Mediterranean countries. This study aimed to investigate the association of data-driven dietary patterns with frailty prevalence in older Lebanese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional national study that included 352 participants above 60 years of age. Sociodemographic and health-related data were collected. Food frequency questionnaires were used to elaborate dietary patterns via the K-mean cluster analysis method. Frailty that accounted for 15% of the sample was twice as much in women (20%) than men (10%). Identified dietary patterns included a Westernized-type dietary pattern (WDP), a high intake/Mediterranean-type dietary pattern (HI-MEDDP), and a moderate intake/Mediterranean-type dietary pattern (MOD-MEDDP). In the multivariate analysis, age, waist to height ratio, polypharmacy, age-related conditions, and WDP were independently associated with frailty. In comparison to MOD-MEDDP, and after adjusting for covariates, adopting a WDP was strongly associated with a higher frailty prevalence in men (OR = 6.63, 95% (CI) (1.82-24.21) and in women (OR = 11.54, 95% (CI) (2.02-65.85). In conclusion, MOD-MEDDP was associated with the least prevalence of frailty, and WDP had the strongest association with frailty in this sample. In the Mediterranean sample, a diet far from the traditional one appears as the key deleterious determinant of frailty.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fragilidade/etiologia , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205057

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an unprecedented global pandemic. On 12 March 2020, a lockdown order was issued in Italy in attempt to contain the health crisis. The study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on diet, physical activity, sleep quality, and distress in an Italian cohort. An online anonymous interview, which included validated questionnaires was created to compare lifestyle habits pre- and during the lockdown. Data analysis from 604 subjects with a mean age of 29.8 years was carried out using multivariate analysis. Compared to pre-COVID-19 times, 67% of people changed their eating habits and increased consumption of foods containing added sugars. Women and men with low adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) were more likely to be physically inactive (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Results from logistic regression showed a three times higher risk of being inactive if adherence to the MedDiet was low (p < 0.0001), especially in men between 26 and 35 years. Lower levels of distress were reported in males who were physically active (89%) (p < 0.001). Our findings may help to identify effective lifestyle interventions during restrictive conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Adulto , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Distanciamento Físico , Angústia Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207320

RESUMO

We evaluated mycophenolic acid (MPA) limited sampling strategies (LSSs) established using multiple linear regression (MLR) in children with nephrotic syndrome treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). MLR-LSS is an easy-to-determine approach of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). We assessed the practicability of different LSSs for the estimation of MPA exposure as well as the optimal time points for MPA TDM. The literature search returned 29 studies dated 1998-2020. We applied 53 LSSs (n = 48 for MPA, n = 5 for free MPA [fMPA]) to predict the area under the time-concentration curve (AUCpred) in 24 children with nephrotic syndrome, for whom we previously determined MPA and fMPA concentrations, and compare the results with the determined AUC (AUCtotal). Nine equations met the requirements for bias and precision ±15%. The MPA AUC in children with nephrotic syndrome was predicted the best by four time-point LSSs developed for renal transplant recipients. Out of five LSSs evaluated for fMPA, none fulfilled the ±15% criteria for bias and precision probably due to very high percentage of bound MPA (99.64%). MPA LSS for children with nephrotic syndrome should include blood samples collected 1 h, 2 h and near the second MPA maximum concentration. MPA concentrations determined with the high performance liquid chromatography after multiplying by 1.175 may be used in LSSs based on MPA concentrations determined with the immunoassay technique. MPA LSS may facilitate TDM in the case of MMF, however, more studies on fMPA LSS are required for children with nephrotic syndrome.


Assuntos
Ácido Micofenólico/metabolismo , Síndrome Nefrótica/metabolismo , Adolescente , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198491

RESUMO

Rare germline pathogenic TP53 missense variants often predispose to a wide spectrum of tumors characterized by Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) but a subset of variants is also seen in families with exclusively hereditary breast cancer (HBC) outcomes. We have developed a logistic regression model with the aim of predicting LFS and HBC outcomes, based on the predicted effects of individual TP53 variants on aspects of protein conformation. A total of 48 missense variants either unique for LFS (n = 24) or exclusively reported in HBC (n = 24) were included. LFS-variants were over-represented in residues tending to be buried in the core of the tertiary structure of TP53 (p = 0.0014). The favored logistic regression model describes disease outcome in terms of explanatory variables related to the surface or buried status of residues as well as their propensity to contribute to protein compactness or protein-protein interactions. Reduced, internally validated models discriminated well between LFS and HBC (C-statistic = 0.78-0.84; equivalent to the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve), had a low risk for over-fitting and were well calibrated in relation to the known outcome risk. In conclusion, this study presents a phenotypic prediction model of LFS and HBC risk for germline TP53 missense variants, in an attempt to provide a complementary tool for future decision making and clinical handling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/química , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205185

RESUMO

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It affects ~10% of the world's population of children, and about 30-50% of those diagnosed in childhood continue to show ADHD symptoms later, with 2-5% of adults having the condition. Current diagnosis of ADHD is based on the clinical evaluation of the patient, and on interviews performed by clinicians with parents and teachers of the children, which, together with the fact that it shares common symptoms and frequent comorbidities with other neurodevelopmental disorders, makes the accurate and timely diagnosis of the disorder a difficult task. Despite the large effort to identify reliable biomarkers that can be used in a clinical environment to support clinical diagnosis, this goal has never been achieved hitherto. In the present study, infrared spectroscopy was used together with multivariate statistical methods (hierarchical clustering and partial least-squares discriminant analysis) to develop a model based on the spectra of blood serum samples that is able to distinguish ADHD patients from healthy individuals. The developed model used an approach where the whole infrared spectrum (in the 3700-900 cm-1 range) was taken as a holistic imprint of the biochemical blood serum environment (spectroscopic biomarker), overcoming the need for the search of any particular chemical substance associated with the disorder (molecular biomarker). The developed model is based on a sensitive and reliable technique, which is cheap and fast, thus appearing promising to use as a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical environment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Análise Discriminante , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
9.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have reported an association between atherosclerosis-related diseases and COVID-19, the relationship between COVID-19 severity and atherosclerosis progression remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) prognostic value in patients with COVID-19 using indices such as deterioration in oxygenation and CT images of the chest. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study of 53 consecutive patients with COVID-19 in Narita who were admitted to our hospital between March 2020 and August 2020. CACS was calculated based on non-gated CT scans of the chest performed on admission day. The patients were divided into the following two groups based on CACS: group 1 (CACS ≥180, n=11) and group 2 (CACS <180, n=42). Following univariate analysis of the main variables, multivariate analysis of variables that may be associated with COVID-19 progression was performed. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression analysis of age, sex, smoking history, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, number of days from symptom onset to hospitalisation and CACS of ≥180 was performed. It revealed that unlike CACS of <180, CACS of ≥180 is associated with exacerbation of oxygenation or CT images of the chest during hospitalisation (OR: 12.879, 95% CI: 1.399 to 380.401). Furthermore, this model of eight variables showed good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow p=0.119). CONCLUSION: CACS may be a prognosis marker of COVID-19 severity. Although coronary artery calcification is not typically assessed in pneumonia cases, it may provide a valuable clinical indicator for predicting severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia
10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 181, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to appraise the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measured by the five-level EuroQol-5 dimensions (EQ-5D-5L) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and to explore the associations between non-motor symptoms (mood changes, cognitive disturbances and sleep disturbances). METHODS: EQ-5D-5L descriptive scores were converted into a single aggregated "health utility" score. A calibrated visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) was used for self-rating of current health status. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with HRQoL. RESULTS: Among the 547 enrolled ALS patients who were assessed using EQ-5D-5L, the highest frequency of reported problems was with usual activities (76.7%), followed by self-care (68.8%) and anxiety/depression (62.0%). The median health utility score was 0.78 and the median EQ-VAS score was 70. Clinical factors corresponding to differences in the EQ-5D-5L health utility score included age of onset, onset region, the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) score, and King's College stages. Patients with depression, anxiety, and poor sleep had lower health utility scores. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder had lower EQ-VAS scores. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that ALSFRS-R scores, depression, and anxiety were associated with health utility scores. After adjusting other parameters, ALSFRS-R score, stages, and depression were significantly associated with EQ-VAS scores (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study examined HRQoL in ALS patients using the Chinese version of the EQ-5D-5L scale across different stages of the disease. We found that HRQoL is related to disease severity and to mood disturbances. Management of non-motor symptoms may help improve HRQoL in ALS patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Ansiedade , Disfunção Cognitiva , Depressão , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Medição da Dor , Autocuidado , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala Visual Analógica
11.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211029812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260295

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of all including university students. With the preventive measures to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, all face-to-face teaching and learning are converted to e-learning. The COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of e-learning may influence these students' mental conditions. This study aimed to determine the association of factors with mental health status (depression, anxiety and stress) among university students in Malaysia. Study participants were tertiary education students from both the private and public universities in Malaysia. Participants were recruited via university emails and social media. The survey was administered via the online REDCap platform, from April to June 2020, during the movement control order period in the country. The questionnaire captured data on socio-demographic characteristics, academic information, implementation of e-learning, perception towards e-learning and COVID-19; as well as DASS 21 to screen for depression, anxiety and stress. The levels of stress, anxiety and depression were 56.5% (95% CI: 50.7%, 62.1%), 51.3% (95% CI: 45.6%, 57.0%) and 29.4% (95% CI: 24.3%, 34.8%) respectively. Most participants had good perception towards e-learning but negative perception on COVID-19. From the multivariate analysis, participants with positive perception on COVID-19 were protective towards stress (aOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.99), anxiety (aOR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98) and depression (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). Older students were 14% (aOR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.94) and 11% (aOR: 0.89: 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) less likely for anxiety and depression, respectively. Students originated from the Malay ethnicity had higher odds (aOR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.56) for depression. These findings demonstrated that the mental status of university students was greatly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Timely and credible information should be disseminated to alleviate their negative perception towards COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Depressão/psicologia , Educação à Distância/organização & administração , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Percepção Social/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
12.
J Clin Neurosci ; 90: 39-47, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275579

RESUMO

The optimal timing of adjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) in glioblastoma (GBM) patients remains unknown and the paradigm of 'the sooner, the better' has been challenged by many recent publications. In this study, we present unique data on the outcomes of patients with significant treatment delays. The study group consisted of 346 GBM patients (median age 56.8 years) who received surgical treatment (total or subtotal resection) and then underwent adjuvant concurrent RCT at one institution. The main endpoint was overall survival (OS). The Univariate and multivariate Cox Proportional-Hazard Model, log-rank test, and Kaplan-Meier method were used for the analysis. The median OS was 18.7 months and the 5-year overall survival was 8.5%. The median time interval from surgery to RCT was 9.8 weeks. The Cox regression showed that the time interval had no statistically significant impact on OS both in uni- and multivariate analysis. The explorative analysis suggested a positive trend for improved survival for patients in the 1st quartile of the time interval, especially for patients with residual disease or local recurrence prior to RCT, However, considering the 6.9 weeks median interval in the 1st quartile, this subgroup should still be regarded as 'moderate delay' compared with other literature data. The results indicate that the time interval is not a clear prognostic factor in the treatment of GBM. Prospective trials are highly warranted, as data suggest that moderate delays in the initiation of adjuvant treatment might be associated with survival benefit.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Glioblastoma/terapia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
13.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 282, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281518

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a refractory disease with a poor prognosis and various methods, including maximum resection and immunotherapy, have been tested to improve outcomes. In this retrospective study we analyzed the prognostic factors of 277 newly diagnosed GBM patients over 11 years of consecutive cases at our institution to evaluate the effect of these methods on prognosis. Various data, including the extent of removal (EOR) and type of adjuvant therapy, were examined and prognostic relationships were analyzed. The median overall survival (OS) of the entire 277-case cohort, 200 non-biopsy cases, and 77 biopsy cases was 16.6 months, 19.7 months, and 9.7 months, respectively. Gross total removal (GTR; 100% of EOR) was achieved in 32.9% of the cases. Univariate analysis revealed younger age, right side, higher Karnofsky performance status, GTR, intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for removal, proton therapy, combination immunotherapy, and discharge to home as good prognostic factors. Intraoperative MRI use and EOR were closely related. In the multivariate analysis, GTR, proton therapy, and a combination of immunotherapies, including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine, were the significant prognostic factors. A multivariate analysis of 91 GTR cases showed that immunotherapy contributed to prognostic improvements. The median OS and 5-year OS % values were 36.9 months and 43.3% in GTR cases receiving immunotherapy. In conclusion, GTR, proton therapy, and immunotherapy were good prognostic factors in single-center GBM cases. Tumor vaccine therapy for GTR cases achieved a notably high median survival time and long-term survival ratio, indicating its usefulness in GTR cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/terapia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Vacinas Anticâncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Terapia com Prótons , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200558

RESUMO

(1) Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are frequent pathologies among the geriatric population. The interlink between these two diseases is supported by their common pathophysiology. The aim is to explore the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in women aged 75 or older. (2) From January 2016 to December 2019, women aged 75 or older of Caucasian ethnicity, who were addressed to perform a biphoton absorptiometry (DXA), were included in this observational study. Femoral neck T-score, lean mass, fat mass, and physical performances were measured. (3) The mean age of 101 patients included was 84.8 (±4.9) years old. Osteoporosis was present in 72% of patients. According to EWGSOP criteria, 37% of patients were sarcopenic. Osteosarcopenia was present in 34% of patients. The femoral neck T-score was significantly associated with fat mass (ß = 0.02, 95% CI (0.01; 0.03), p < 0.05) in multivariable analysis. Osteosarcopenic patients had significantly lower fat mass (16.2 kg (±6.8) vs. 23.1 kg (±10.8), p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (20.7 kg/m2 (±2.8) vs. 26.7 kg/m2 (±5.6), p < 0.001). (4) In postmenopausal women, fat mass is estimated to provide hormonal protection. While osteosarcopenia is described as a lipotoxic disease, fat mass and BMI would appear to protect against the risk of osteosarcopenia. This raises questions about the relevance of BMI and DXA.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201489

RESUMO

Dairy products (DP) are part of a food group that may contribute to the prevention of physical frailty. We aimed to investigate DP exposure, including total DP, milk, fresh DP and cheese, and their cross-sectional and prospective associations with physical frailty in community-dwelling older adults. The cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 1490 participants from the Three-City Bordeaux cohort. The 10-year frailty risk was examined in 823 initially non-frail participants. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess DP exposure. Physical frailty was defined as the presence of at least 3 out of 5 criteria of the frailty phenotype: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Among others, diet quality and protein intake were considered as confounders. The baseline mean age of participants was 74.1 y and 61% were females. Frailty prevalence and incidence were 4.2% and 18.2%, respectively. No significant associations were observed between consumption of total DP or DP sub-types and frailty prevalence or incidence (OR = 1.40, 95%CI 0.65-3.01 and OR = 1.75, 95%CI 0.42-1.32, for a total DP consumption >4 times/d, respectively). Despite the absence of beneficial associations of higher DP consumption on frailty, older adults are encouraged to follow the national recommendations regarding DP.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Idoso , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0252658, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of testing and tracing programs to reduce COVID-19 transmission hinges not only on widespread access to testing, but also on the public's willingness to participate in them. To the extent that testing intentions are patterned by social determinants of health, this constitutes an understudied mechanism of disparities in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Using data from a representative household probability sample, the Person to Person Health Interview Study (n = 935), sociodemographic, economic, and psychological determinants of testing considerations were evaluated across six domains: treatment affordability, ability to work if positive, hospital effectiveness, symptom severity, proximity to infected, and risk of transmitting to others. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated significant differences in testing motivations across race/ethnicity, education level, socioeconomic status, and worry about self and loved ones. Notably, Black (p<0.01) and Latino (p<0.05) respondents and those experiencing financial strain (p<0.001) were disproportionately likely to indicate that resource factors would influence their decision to get tested. Desire to reduce transmission and concern about proximity to the infected were reported among those who expressed COVID-19 worries (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Public health efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic must address social, economic, and psychological factors that enable and constrain individual behavior. Increasing access to preventative interventions and technologies, including vaccines, is unlikely to markedly reduce morbidity and mortality without effective messaging and economic support to improve uptake in vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Saúde Pública , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253510, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whilst evidence of use of face masks in reducing COVID-19 cases is increasing, the impact of mandatory use across a large population has been difficult to assess. Introduction of mandatory mask use on July 22, 2020 during a resurgence of COVID-19 in Melbourne, Australia created a situation that facilitated an assessment of the impact of the policy on the epidemic growth rate as its introduction occurred in the absence of other changes to restrictions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Exponential epidemic growth or decay rates in daily COVID-19 diagnoses were estimated using a non-weighted linear regression of the natural logarithm of the daily cases against time, using a linear spline model with one knot (lspline package in R v 3.6.3). The model's two linear segments pivot around the hinge day, on which the mask policy began to take effect, 8 days following the introduction of the policy. We used two forms of data to assess change in mask usage: images of people wearing masks in public places obtained from a major media outlet and population-based survey data. Potential confounding factors (including daily COVID-19 tests, number of COVID-19 cases among population subsets affected differentially by the mask policy-e.g., healthcare workers) were examined for their impact on the results. Daily cases fitted an exponential growth in the first log-linear segment (k = +0.042, s.e. = 0.007), and fitted an exponential decay in the second (k = -0.023, s.e. = 0.017) log-linear segment. Over a range of reported serial intervals for SARS-CoV-2 infection, these growth rates correspond to a 22-33% reduction in an effective reproduction ratio before and after mandatory mask use. Analysis of images of people in public spaces showed mask usage rose from approximately 43% to 97%. Analysis of survey data found that on the third day before policy introduction, 44% of participants reported "often" or "always" wearing a mask; on the fourth day after, 100% reported "always" doing so. No potentially confounding factors were associated with the observed change in growth rates. CONCLUSIONS: The mandatory mask use policy substantially increased public use of masks and was associated with a significant decline in new COVID-19 cases after introduction of the policy. This study strongly supports the use of masks for controlling epidemics in the broader community.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Políticas , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208862

RESUMO

This study's objective was to depict sugar-sweetened food (SSF) consumption in medical college students stratified by sex from Shanghai, China, and to explore the association between the Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) and SSF intake. The data were obtained from 1121 medical college students from the Fudan University, Shanghai, China, who took an online questionnaire investigation in December 2020. Data included demographics, the MPAI, the Nutrition Literacy Assessment Questionnaire (NLAQ), total and food expenditure per month, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a food frequency questionnaire (carbonated beverages (CB), other sugar-based beverages (OSBB), sugar/chocolate). We evaluated the association between the MPAI and three types of SSF intake according to multivariate logistic regression analysis stratified by sex. The mean CB, OSBB, and sugar/chocolate intakes were, respectively, 65.66 mL/d, 74.20 mL/d, and 4.96 g/d in men and 30.42 mL/d, 71.48 mL/d, and 4.99 g/d in women. The MPAI was positively associated with SSF intake, regardless of sex. In men, the CB and OSBB odds ratios (ORs) were, respectively, 1.023 (95% CI: 1.004-1.042), 1.019 (95% CI: 1.001-1.038); and in women, the CB, OSBB, and sugar/chocolate ORs were, respectively, 1.026 (95% CI: 1.013-1.039), 1.020 (95% CI: 1.007-1.033), and 1.019 (95% CI: 1.006-1.032). Age, NLAQ, total expenditure, food expenditure, and total physical activity also were related to SSF intake. Age and the application capacity of the NLAQ were negatively associated with SSF intake, whereas comprehension capacity of the NLAQ, total and food expenditure, and total physical activity were positively associated with SSF intake. This study confirmed that SSF intake is widespread among medical college students from Shanghai, China, even if they have relatively high nutrition health literacy. From a public health perspective, it is necessary to reduce SSF intake in medical college students by decreasing the MPAI, controlling the total and food expenditure per month in high-consumption areas, and improving the application ability of the NLAQ. Further studies are needed to explore the MPAI and other potential factors that may influence SSF intake of college students by expanding the sample size of college students throughout China, and the causal association between them.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Telefone Celular , Comportamento Alimentar , Caracteres Sexuais , Estudantes de Medicina , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208982

RESUMO

Concerns have been raised that an overconsumption of baby food fruit pouches among toddlers might increase the risk of childhood obesity. This study aimed to quantify the consumption of fruit pouches and other fruit containing food products and to explore potential correlations between the consumption of these products and body-mass index z-score (BMIz) at 18 months, taking other predictive factors into consideration. The study was based on 1499 children and one-month-recall food frequency questionnaires from the Swedish population-based birth cohort NorthPop. Anthropometric outcome data were retrieved from child health care records. BMIz at 18 months of age was correlated to maternal BMI and gestational weight gain and inversely correlated to fruit juice consumption and breastfeeding. BMIz at 18 months of age was not correlated to consumption of fruit pouches, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole fruit or milk cereal drink. Overweight at 18 months of age was correlated to maternal BMI and inversely correlated to breastfeeding duration. To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates possible associations between baby food fruit pouch consumption and overweight in toddlers. We found that moderate fruit pouch consumption is not associated with excess weight at 18 months of age.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Grão Comestível , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Masculino , Leite , Análise Multivariada , Pais , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Ganho de Peso
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209004

RESUMO

This investigation aimed to compare the effects of suspension training versus traditional resistance exercise using a combination of bands and bodyweight on body composition, bioimpedance vector patterns, and handgrip strength in older men. Thirty-six older men (age 67.4 ± 5.1 years, BMI 27.1 ± 3.3 kg/m2) were randomly allocated into suspension training (n = 12), traditional training (n = 13), or non-exercise (n = 11) groups over a 12-week study period. Body composition was assessed using conventional bioelectrical impedance analysis and classic and specific bioelectric impedance vector analysis, and handgrip strength was measured with a dynamometer. Results showed a significant (p < 0.05) group by time interaction for fat mass, fat-free mass, total body water, skeletal muscle index, classic and specific bioelectrical resistance, classic bioelectrical reactance, phase angle, and dominant handgrip strength. Classic and specific vector displacements from baseline to post 12 weeks for the three groups were observed. Handgrip strength increased in the suspension training group (p < 0.01, ES: 1.50), remained stable in the traditional training group, and decreased in the control group (p < 0.01, ES: -0.86). Although bodyweight and elastic band training helps to prevent a decline in muscle mass and handgrip strength, suspension training proved more effective in counteracting the effects of aging in older men under the specific conditions studied.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
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