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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108792, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491373

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an important toxic chemical due to its increasing levels in the environment and bioaccumulation in humans and animals. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to 1, 10, or 100 µg/L Cd in drinking water on the development, reproduction and neurotoxicity of offspring when administered to mice from parental puberty to postnatal 10 weeks in offspring. The development parameters measured in offspring included physical development, reflex ontogeny, body weight and body size. The reproductive indices measured consisted of anogenital distances (AGDs), estrous cycle, sperm quality, specific gene expression in Leydig or Sertoli cells, seminiferous epithelium cycle, sex hormone levels, histological morphology and apoptosis in testis or ovary, and the levels of oxidative stress. The determination of neurotoxicity included learning and memory ability, anxiety, and related serum indicators. In addition, blood lipid level, liver and kidney function were also determined by serum biochemical assays. The results showed that exposure to Cd in the present model had no adverse effects on development, but had some reproductive toxicity and neurotoxicity, including alteration of spermatogenic epithelial staging in testis and inducing anxiety in offspring. Furthermore, the levels of total protein, globulins, total bile acid and direct bilirubin were also significantly altered, especially in female offspring. The present study suggested that long-term exposure to low doses of Cd had adverse effects on the health of the next generation, and some harmful effects showed gender differences in offspring. The present study demonstrated that attention should be paid to Cd pollution in the environment, especially before pregnancy.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Feminino , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia
2.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 29(3): 030703, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379461

RESUMO

Introduction: Communication of laboratory critical risk results is essential for patient safety, as it allows early decision making. Our aims were: 1) to retrospectively evaluate the current protocol for telephone notification of critical risk results in terms of rates, efficiency and recipient satisfaction, 2) to assess their use in clinical decision making and 3) to suggest alternative tools for a better assessment of notification protocols. Materials and methods: The biochemical critical risk result notifications reported during 12 months by routine and STAT laboratories in a tertiary care hospital were reviewed. Total number of reports, time for the notification and main magnitudes with critical risk results were calculated. The use of notifications in clinical decision making was assessed by reviewing medical records. Satisfaction with the notification protocol was assessed through an online questionnaire to requesting physicians and nurses. Results: Critical result was yielded by 0.1% of total laboratory tests. Median time for notification was 3.2 min (STAT) and 16.9 min (routine). The magnitudes with a greater number of critical results were glucose and potassium for routine analyses, and troponin, sodium for STAT. Most notifications were not reflected in the medical records. Overall mean satisfaction with the protocol was 4.2/5. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that the current protocol is appropriate. Nevertheless, there are some limitations that hamper the evaluation of the impact on clinical decision making. Alternatives were proposed for a proper and precise evaluation.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Análise Química do Sangue , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Registros Médicos/normas , Potássio/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio/sangue , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 567-571, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267895

RESUMO

In the past 30 years, opioid prescription rates have quadrupled and hospital admissions for overdose are rising. Previous studies have focused on alcohol use and trauma recidivism, however rarely evaluating recidivism and opioid use. We hypothesized there is an association between opioid use and trauma recidivism. This is a retrospective review of patients with multiple admissions for traumatic injury. Demographics, opioid toxicology screen (TS) results, and injury characteristics were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-squared and Poisson regression models. One thousand six hundred forty-nine patients (age ≥18 years) had multiple trauma admissions. Seven hundred nine patients had TS data for both admissions. Thirty-one per cent (218) were TS positive on the 1st admission compared with 34 per cent (244) on their 2nd admission. Fifty-five per cent of patients who were TS positive on the 1st admission were positive on their 2nd admission, whereas 25 per cent who were TS negative on the 1st admission were subsequently positive on their 2nd admission (P < 0.0001). Patients who were TS positive on the subsequent admission were less severely injured than TS negative patients (Injury Severity Score > 15, 26.3% vs 22.3%, P = 0.04). The only significant risk factor for being TS positive on the 2nd admission was being TS positive on the 1st admission (relative risk = 2.18, P < 0.001). A previous history of opioid use is the strongest predictor of recurrent use in recidivists.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/induzido quimicamente , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Análise Química do Sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo Múltiplo/induzido quimicamente , Traumatismo Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Traumatismo Múltiplo/terapia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107726, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299264

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to evaluate if the use of copper oxide wire particles, isolated or in association with closantel, in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus enhances the anthelmintic efficacy of closantel, as well as to evaluate the effects of treatment in hepatic energy metabolism, inflammatory markers and hematological and biochemical tests. The lambs were randomly divided into five groups (6 animals each), as follows: uninfected animals (Control); animals infected with H. contortus (HC); infected and treated with closantel (HC + CL); infected and treated with copper oxide wire particles (HC + Cu); and infected and treated with closantel plus copper oxide wire particles (HC + CL + Cu). The animals of infected groups were infected orally with H. contortus (5,000 L3 -larvae) and on day 14 post infection (p.i) the treatments were initiated. The egg per gram of feces (EPG), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), adenylate kinase (AK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities and hematological and biochemical tests were evaluated. Treatments with copper oxide (isolated and associated) were able to reduce the EPG count on days 28, 35, 42 and 49 p.i when compared to HC group, while closantel was able to reduce EPG only from day 35 p.i. Moreover, treatment with closantel (isolated or associated) was able to prevent the inhibition of hepatic AK and PK activities caused by H. contortus infection, which may contribute to efficient intracellular energetic communication in order to maintain the balance between cellular ATP consumption and production. Butyrylcholinesterase and MPO activities were higher in infected lambs compared to uninfected, while treated groups showed lower enzymatic activity compared to the group HC. The use of all therapeutic protocols was able to reduce the EPG count. Based on these evidences, the use of copper oxide plus closantel may be considered an alternative to treat lambs infected by H. contortus.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Hemoncose/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Salicilanilidas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Abomaso/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Cápsulas , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoncose/complicações , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/metabolismo , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Peroxidase/sangue , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Salicilanilidas/farmacologia , Salicilanilidas/uso terapêutico , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
6.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 34, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331378

RESUMO

Ceruloplasmin (Cp) plays an important role in copper transport and iron metabolism, as well as Cp is also an indicator for the health status of dairy cows. The present study reports the validation of an automated assay to assess the plasma Cp in dairy cows. Plasma Cp levels were determined in 40 Holstein cows and intra- and inter-assay precision, accuracy, detection limit, and clinical validation of the assay were determined. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were < 2% and < 7%, respectively. The results were linear when serial sample dilutions were tested (r = 0.999, P < 0.001). The detection limit was lower than what could be measured in plasma from healthy cows. Increased plasma Cp levels were found in cows with inflammatory diseases. The method validated in this study is precise, simple, and fast and can be easily adapted to biochemical automated analysers. Furthermore, the promising results obtained with this protein will contribute to a wider use of Cp determination in bovine practice.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Ceruloplasmina/análise , Animais , Automação Laboratorial , Bovinos , Feminino , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(3): 279-287, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146535

RESUMO

1. This study analysed whether in ovo injection of ascorbic acid before incubation and at high incubation temperature influenced blood characteristics and performance in broilers reared in different temperature conditions. 2. A total of 3,000 fertile eggs from broiler breeders (Cobb®) were randomly divided into three incubation treatments: no ascorbic acid injection and egg incubation at 37.5°C (control); no ascorbic acid injection and egg incubation at 39°C; in ovo ascorbic acid injection prior to incubation (6 µg AA/100 µl water) and egg incubation at 39°C. 3. Male chicks hatched from the three incubation treatments were submitted to three distinct rearing temperatures (control, cold and hot) from the third week of age onwards (540 chicks were divided into 6 treatments with 5 replicates per treatment). 4. Measurements at 42 d showed that, after egg incubation at 39°C, the haematocrit, haemoglobin values, ionised calcium and glucose concentrations were increased and base excess values were reduced. However, in ovo injection of ascorbic acid normalised all these parameters. 5. Partial CO2 and O2 pressure were higher with increased rearing temperature. Blood pH was lower when eggs were incubated at 39°C and injected with ascorbic acid. In ovo injection of ascorbic acid induced leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis and heterophilia, restored basophils rate and led to monocytopoenia. Leucocytosis was triggered by hot rearing temperature due to lymphocytosis, eosinophilia and heterophilia. 6. The results obtained in this study showed that in ovo injection of ascorbic acid before incubation may serve as a long-term stimulator and modulator of the broiler immune system, and that high incubation temperatures induce adaptations in the electrolytic balance, minimising or avoiding the occurrence of respiratory alkalosis under hot rearing temperature.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Óvulo/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Análise Química do Sangue , Galinhas/sangue , Testes Hematológicos , Injeções/veterinária , Masculino
9.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 May 15.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192381

RESUMO

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown that there is little justification for vitamin D supplements to prevent infections, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Despite the limited evidence of effectiveness, the total number of ordered serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) tests has increased considerably in recent years. There seems to be an overuse of this test that does not provide meaningful benefit for patients. A passive introduction of new tests leads generally to a slow initiation of value-based diagnostics, as well as overuse and underuse of diagnostic tests. In this study, in Region Östergötland, we applied a ¼Choosing wisely« model that reversed a rising trend of 25(OH)D tests and reduced the number of unnecessary tests. The findings point to the need for strategic plans for introducing new analyses and approaches to counteract misuse of laboratory diagnostics. We recommend ¼Choosing wisely« models for the introduction of new analyses to facilitate appropriate laboratory diagnostics and to counteract long-term overuse.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/normas , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Análise Química do Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia , Procedimentos Desnecessários/normas , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina D/sangue
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1073: 57-76, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236839

RESUMO

Blood serum or plasma proteome is a gold mine of disease biomarkers. However, complexity and a huge dynamic range of their components, combined with multiple mechanisms of degradation and posttranslational modifications, further complicated by the presence of lipids, salts, and other metabolites, represent a real challenge for analytical sensitivity, resolution, and reproducibility. This problem exists particularly in the case of potential disease-specific markers, most typically represented by low-abundant proteins (LAPs), whose detection is usually impaired by the dominance of albumins, immunoglobulins, and other high-abundant serum/plasma proteins (HAPs). Hence, analysis of biomarker candidates in serum/plasma samples frequently requires separation of their components, usually including depletion of albumin in a fraction of interest. Such "preprocessing" of serum/plasma specimens is critical in proteomic analysis based on mass spectrometry. This approach is very potent; nevertheless a wide range of protein concentrations in serum/plasma represents a particular challenge, since high-abundant proteins (mostly albumin) dominate in a sample subjected to mass spectrometry and suppress peptide ions originating from low-abundant proteins, thus limiting probability and reliability of their detection. An emerging approach in serum-/plasma-based biomarker-oriented studies is the proteome component of exosomes - nanovesicles secreted by cells and involved in multiple aspects of intercellular communication. However, the presence of albumin, frequent contaminant of exosomes isolated from human serum/plasma, represents a real challenge also in this type of study. A similar problem is encountered in proteomic studies based on exosomes obtained in in vitro experiments where culture media are normally supplemented with fetal bovine serum containing growth factors and hormones. In this case exosomes are frequently contaminated with bovine serum albumin and other bovine serum proteins which should be removed before proteomic analysis of exosome cargo.


Assuntos
Albuminas/isolamento & purificação , Análise Química do Sangue , Espectrometria de Massas , Plasma/química , Proteômica , Soro/química , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Bovinos , Exossomos , Humanos , Proteoma , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(8): 2071-2082, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154543

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using tumor tissue is the gold standard for detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, this method often is not repeatable due to difficulties in the acquisition of tumor tissues. Blood-based liquid biopsy using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is expected to be useful to overcome this limitation. Here, we investigated the feasibility of liquid biopsy using plasma and platelets for detection of ALK rearrangement and prediction of ALK inhibitor treatment outcomes. METHODS: ALK-FISH assays were performed in 1128 tumor specimens of NSCLC between January 2015 and June 2018. We retrospectively analyzed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from previously confirmed FISH-positive (n = 199) and -negative (n = 920) cases. We recruited patients who had available tissue specimens and agreed to venous sampling. RNA was extracted from FFPE blocks, plasma, and platelets. Fusion RNA of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK was detected by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Thirty-three FISH-positive and 28 FISH-negative patients were enrolled. In validation, data compared with FISH, RT-PCR using FFPE tissues showed 54.5% sensitivity, 78.6% specificity, and 75.5% accuracy. Liquid biopsy had higher sensitivity (78.8%), specificity (89.3%) and accuracy (83.6%). Higher positivity for liquid biopsy was shown in subgroups with delayed (≥ 6 months from diagnosis) blood sampling (plasma, 85.7%; platelets, 87.0%). In 26 patients treated with crizotinib, the platelet-positive subgroup showed longer median duration of treatment (7.2 versus 1.5 months), longer median progression-free survival (5.7 months versus 1.7 months), a higher overall response rate (70.6% versus 11.1%), and a higher disease control rate (88.2% versus 44.4%) than the platelet-negative subgroup. CONCLUSION: Liquid biopsy could have applications in the diagnosis of ALK-positive NSCLC, even when using RT-PCR, and platelets can be useful for predicting treatment outcomes of ALK inhibitors.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Plaquetas/química , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Plasma/química , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Plaquetas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Plasma/citologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(5): 334-344, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible long-term health effects of the defoamer used in seawater desalination by sub-chronic toxicity testing. METHODS: Blood analysis, internal organ assessment, and histopathological examination were carried out in rats exposed to low, medium, and high (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg BW, respectively) doses of defoamer for 90 days through oral administration. RESULTS: The high dose group showed decreased blood alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05). All doses resulted in a significant increase in albumin and decrease in globulin (P < 0.05). The direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin were decreased in the medium and high dose groups (P < 0.05). All dose groups showed significant induction of alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.05). Pathological examination revealed a case of liver mononuclear cell infiltration in the medium dose group and three cases of liver congestion, steatosis of hepatic cells around the central vein, and punctate necrosis with multiple focal mononuclear cell infiltration in male rats administered the high dose. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level was 0.5 g/kg BW in rats, with albumin and total bilirubin as health effect indices. CONCLUSION: Long-term defoamer exposure may cause liver injury but has no significant impact on renal function in rats. The effect on blood cells in female rats was more prominent than that in male rats.


Assuntos
Antiespumantes/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
13.
Talanta ; 202: 237-243, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171176

RESUMO

In this work, a newly designed multifunctional adsorbent material, octadecyl-modified ordered mesoporous carbon (C18-CMK-8), was synthesized and employed for simultaneous analysis of multiple small molecules by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The C18-CMK-8 was facilely prepared by one-step chemical binding of octadecyltrimethoxysilane to an ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-8. The nanosized pore structure of C18-CMK-8 can selectively enrich low-mass molecules while excluding interferences from large molecules in whole blood; meanwhile, the C18 chain can greatly enhance the affinity for a wide range of small molecules. Then, the C18-CMK-8-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with MALDI-TOF MS measurement was applied in rapid and high-throughput screening of six doping agents (triamterene, trenbolone, testosterone, methyltestosterone, clenbuterol, and strychnine)) in single-drop human whole blood samples. The method showed high analytical sensitivity (detection limit 0.05-0.1 ng mL-1), good recoveries (67.2-114.3%), minimal sample requirement (∼20 µL), and robust anti-interference ability. With distinct advantages such as high throughput, rapidness, minimal sample requirement, and high sensitivity, this study not only offers a versatile enrichment material for complex sample preparation, but also demonstrates a promising tool for minimal whole blood analysis.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue , Carbono/sangue , Silanos/sangue , Adsorção , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Peso Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 270: 31-39, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213239

RESUMO

Breeding for resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep relies largely on the use of worm egg counts (WEC) to identify animals that are able to resist infection. As an alternative to such measures of parasite load we aimed to develop a method to identify animals showing resistance to GIN infection based on the impact of the infection on blood parameters. We hypothesized that blood parameters may provide a measure of infection level with a blood-feeding parasite through perturbation of red blood cell parameters due to feeding behaviour of the parasite, and white blood cell parameters through the mounting of an immune response in the host animal. We measured a set of blood parameters in 390 sheep that had been exposed to an artificial regime of repeated challenges with Trichostrongylus colubriformis followed by Haemonchus contortus. A simple analysis revealed strong relationships between single blood parameters and WECs with correlation coefficients -0.54 to -0.60. We then used more complex multi-variate methods based on supervised classifier models (including Bayesian Network) as well as regression models (Lasso and Elastic Net) to study the relationships between WECs and blood parameters, and derived algorithms describing the relationships. The ability of these algorithms to classify sheep GIN resistance status was tested using the WEC and blood parameters collected from a different group of 418 sheep that had acquired natural infections of H. contortus from pasture. We identified the most resistant and most susceptible animals (10% percentiles) of this group based on WECs, and then compared the identities of these animals to the identities of animals that were predicted to be most resistant and most susceptible by our algorithms. The models showed varying abilities to predict susceptible and resistant sheep, with up to 65% of the most susceptible animals and 30% of the most resistant animals identified by the Elastic Net model algorithms. The prediction algorithms derived from female sheep data performed better than those for male sheep in some cases, with the predicted animals accounting for up to 50-60% of the actual resistant and susceptible female animals. Heritability values were calculated for blood parameters and the aggregate trait descriptions defined by the novel prediction algorithms. The aggregate trait descriptions were moderately heritable and may therefore be suitable for use in genetic selection strategies. The present study indicates that multivariate models based on blood parameter data showed some ability to predict the resistance status of sheep to infection with H. contortus.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Modelos Biológicos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides/sangue , Infecções por Nematoides/imunologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia
15.
Ultrasonics ; 98: 1-6, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121515

RESUMO

The purpose of this work is to investigate whether imaging sequences of flash-replenishment contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the kidney result in chronic or acute bioeffects. Kidneys of female Fischer 344 rats were imaged using the flash-replenishment technique. Animals were separated into four groups (N = 31). Imaging was conducted with a 4C1 probe, driven by an Acuson Sequoia system with Definity microbubbles as the ultrasound contrast agent. During the flash phase of the imaging sequence, one kidney in each animal was exposed to either a mechanical index (MI) of 1.0 or 1.9. For each MI, half of the animals were sacrificed shortly after imaging (4 h) or after 2 weeks. A blinded veterinary nephropathologist reviewed the histopathology of both the imaged and control (non-imaged) kidney. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was measured for each animal prior to imaging and at the time of necropsy. Histopathology assessments in both the 1.0 and 1.9 MI groups revealed no signs of hemorrhage at either the 4-h or 2-week time point. BUN showed minor but statistically significant elevations in both the 1.0 and 1.9 MI groups, but no significant difference was present at the 2-week time point in the 1.0 MI group. All BUN levels (at both time points) remained in the normal range. In conclusion, CEUS with flash-replenishment imaging sequences did not result in kidney bioeffects observable with histology at early or late time points. Increases in BUN levels were observed after imaging, but were minimized when using a moderate MI (1.0).


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Feminino , Microbolhas , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 55-61, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120662

RESUMO

Ill and anorectic captive sharks present a unique challenge for husbandry and veterinary staff. Providing adequate fluid and nutritional support to sharks while minimizing handling remains difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a nutrient enema to alter blood analyte concentrations. Thirty-six healthy, fasted white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) were enrolled in the study with 18 sharks receiving a nutrient enema and 18 sharks receiving a non-nutrient saline enema. The metabolic state of sharks was evaluated via measurement of blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and ß-hydroxybutyrate as well as other serum biochemistry parameters. Changes in sodium, chloride, calcium, ß-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, total protein, and triglyceride concentrations were seen across time in both groups. Blood glucose absolute concentrations and changes over time differed between the nutrient and nonnutrient groups. This pilot study indicates that it is possible to influence the glucose metabolism of healthy sharks via nutrient enema. Further study is needed to better understand potential therapeutics for ill and anorectic sharks.


Assuntos
Enema/veterinária , Nutrientes/sangue , Tubarões/sangue , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/sangue , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Enema/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 69-81, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120664

RESUMO

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) are unique because hatchlings and pelagic juveniles are carnivorous, whereas later life stages become primarily herbivorous. Although this dietary shift is well understood, nutritional requirements at each developmental stage are not. Diet selection during rehabilitation is challenging, because turtles are often fed high-protein, low-fiber diets to counteract poor appetite and emaciation, which can result in gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to analyze hematology, plasma biochemistry, and nutritional analytes to determine the effect of diet on rehabilitating green turtle health and recovery. Turtles in rehabilitation at the Georgia Sea Turtle Center (GSTC) on Jekyll Island, Georgia (n = 21) were sampled at admission, mid-rehabilitation, and recovery. Duration of rehabilitation ranged from 48 to 233 days (mean = 117) and included a shift from a mixed seafood-vegetable diet at admission to a primarily herbivorous diet at recovery. For comparison, free-ranging turtles captured during an ongoing monitoring project in St. Lucie County, Florida (n = 34) were evaluated for the same variables. Several analytes improved during rehabilitation, including total protein, uric acid, potassium, and vitamins A and E. Others were significantly different, including higher cholesterol and triglycerides, but lower calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium in recovery compared with freeranging turtles. These variations illustrate the benefits of appropriate supportive care during rehabilitation as well as the importance of a species-specific diet for green turtles, and may facilitate formulation of nutritionally complete gel diets for this species under human care.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Nutrientes/análise , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Georgia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Tartarugas/sangue
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 127-136, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120671

RESUMO

Tarantulas are a commonly kept species that are occasionally presented to veterinarians in exotic practice. A recent study on Grammastola rosea hemolymph biochemistry has been performed with nonanesthetized adult theraphosids. The objective of this study was to produce reference intervals for biochemistry biomarkers in hemolymph of chemically restrained G. rosea for use diagnostically by exotic veterinarians. Cardiac hemolymph collection was performed on 20 subadult tarantulas under general anesthesia with isoflurane. Samples were processed by a commercial laboratory. Statistics performed on the data include outlier exclusion, descriptive statistics, normality tests, and Pearson correlations. Reference intervals were made for total protein, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, uric acid (UA), calcium, and phosphorus. No cortisol was detected. The majority of the intervals produced were normally distributed with the exceptions of UA, phosphorus, and CK. Pearson correlation tests found several significant (P = <0.05) correlations between variables. The majority of the data displayed a normal distribution, unlike the previous study, with a greater number of replicates. The total protein, glucose, UA, calcium, and AST values generated were similar to those reported in the previous study. Conversely several variables such as phosphorus, CK, and albumin were not consistent with those previously reported. Evidence is presented for a lack of albumin, CK, and AST in Arachnida and thus previous data for these proteins is likely to be artifactual.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Gerais/administração & dosagem , Hemolinfa/química , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Aranhas/química , Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Valores de Referência , Aranhas/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 199-204, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120679

RESUMO

The black-fronted piping-guan (Aburria jacutinga) is and an endangered cracid species and little is known about its health. Hematology allows researchers to assess the health and physiological status of a population, but, to our knowledge, reference intervals are not available in the literature for A. jacutinga. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the hematological reference intervals of 31 captive black-fronted pipingguan adults in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from brachial vein and stored in heparinized tubes to be processed. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts were performed in a hemocytometer, and hemoglobin (HGB) concentration was obtained by the spectrophotometric cyanmethemoglobin method; packed cell volume (PCV) was determined by microhematocrit technique, and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated according to a previously established formula. The heterophil : lymphocyte ratio was calculated by dividing the number of heterophils by the number of lymphocytes. Determination of the 95% reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals were performed in accordance with American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines using Reference Value Advisor (version 2.0). The results obtained were as follows: RBC, 1.4-2.8 × 106/µl; PCV, 34.3-51.2%; HGB, 8.0-12.6 g/dl; MCV, 157.3-261.4 fl; MCHC, 22.0-26.7 g/dl; WBC, 2.3-33.1 × 103/µl; heterophils, 12.1-16.3%, 0.5-14.4 × 103/µl; lymphocytes, 19.8-69.0%, 1.4-16.4 × 103/µl; monocytes, 0.7-17.3%, 0.1-2.8×103/µl; eosinophils, 0.4-12.8%, 0.0-3.9 × 103/µl; basophils, 0.8-12.0%, 0.0-1.9 × 103/µl; and the heterophil : lymphocyte ratio, 0.2-3.0. The present study fills gaps in the literature on hematological values for A. jacutinga, which can be used to assess the health of the species populations. In addition, it contributed to establishing the health status of captive black-fronted piping-guans, indicating the possible welfare of the birds.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Galliformes/sangue , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/sangue , Brasil , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Masculino , Valores de Referência
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 152: 111-118, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121275

RESUMO

AIMS: In 2016 intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) became the first reimbursed CGM system in Belgium. Many children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with multiple daily injections as well as with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) switched from self-monitoring of blood glucose to isCGM to monitor their treatment. In 2017 the Enlite® real-time CGM (rtCGM) system was reimbursed enabling its use with the Minimed® 640G insulin pump with integrated SmartGuard technology. In this study we compared the metabolic control during CSII with isCGM with that during rtCGM. Patient's satisfaction and side effects of the rtCGM system were also evaluated. METHODS: 20 children with T1D, aged 5-16 years, were included. Metabolic control during the last month of isCGM use was compared to that during the 3rd and 6th month of rtCGM. RESULTS: Three patients stopped early rtCGM mainly due to calibration burden. The HbA1c level and the mean glucose value in the other patients did not change after switching to the rtCGM system. Glucose variability was smaller (46.2% vs 38.4% and 36.4%, p = 0.000). Time in hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dl) was lower (7.4% vs 1.6% and 1.5%, p = 0.000). The main patient inconvenience was the sensor calibration. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that during Enlite® rtCGM with the Minimed® 640G pump system glucose variability was smaller and the patients spent less time in hypoglycemia than during isCGM. The need for timely calibrations is considered as the main drawback of the system.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Bélgica , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino
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