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1.
Se Pu ; 39(9): 958-967, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486835

RESUMO

Dried fruit foods, including nuts and preserved fruits, are favored by consumers and are rich in protein, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. However, these food products can be contaminated by pesticide residues, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and additives during growth, processing, storage, and transportation. The presence of such pollutants in excess of a certain limit will lead to food safety problems. Therefore, it is of great economic and social significance to strengthen the quality supervision of dried fruit foods. However, these foods have a complex matrix and low concentrations of various harmful substances, which necessitates efficient and appropriate sample preparation methods as well as rapid, accurate detection methods. In the present article, the sample preparation and analytical methods for harmful substances in dried fruit foods since 2010 are reviewed. The sample preparation methods are classified as field-assisted extraction, phase separation, and derivatization and extraction methods. The field-assisted extraction method is based on the action of an external field (synergistic) such as ultrasonic or microwave fields to increase the dissolution rate of hazardous substances in dried fruits and improve the extraction efficiency. Phase separation methods such as solid-phase extraction, dispersive solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction are commonly used as sample preparation methods for dried fruit samples, because of the advantages of low solvent consumption and wide analysis range. Moreover, this paper discusses the progress of various analytical methods for these hazardous substances in dried fruits, including conventional laboratory methods such as chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, inorganic mass spectrometry, and electrochemical analysis, as well as rapid detection techniques suitable for field analysis. Laboratory testing has the advantages of high accuracy, high sensitivity, and low detection limits. However, it has the disadvantages of complicated preparation, long analysis time, and difficult operation. Rapid detection technology speeds up the analytical speed, has operational simplicity, and saves analysis time. The complexity of the food matrix, which easily interferes with the sample matrix, low selectivity, and difficulty in accurate quantification, it is necessary to minimize cases of incorrect or erroneous detection. Therefore, rapid detection of harmful substances in dried fruit foods is possible by optimizing the sample pretreatment methods and detection technologies, and by seeking new (especially, on-site) detection technologies. Prospects on the development of selective and non-destructive sample preparation methods and automated, high-throughput, rapid detection methods in dried fruit food analysis are presented. The development of new, green rapid sample pretreatment methods and technical products that integrate separation, enrichment, and detection as well as the construction of accurate and sensitive rapid detection methods are expected to become the development trend in the analysis of harmful substances in dried fruit foods.


Assuntos
Frutas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Análise de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Microextração em Fase Sólida
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361551

RESUMO

Honey is a well-known natural sweetener and is rich in natural antioxidants that prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress, which is responsible for many human diseases. Some of the biochemical compounds in honey that contribute to this property are vitamins and phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. However, the extent to which these molecules contribute towards the antioxidant capacity in vitro is inconsistently reported, especially with the different analytical methods used, as well as other extrinsic factors that influence these molecules' availability. Therefore, by reviewing recently published works correlating the vitamin, total phenolic, and flavonoid content in honey with its antioxidant activities in vitro, this paper will establish a relationship between these parameters. Based on the literature, vitamins do not contribute to honey's antioxidant capacity; however, the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids has an impact on honey's antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Mel/análise , Fenóis/análise , Vitaminas/análise , Humanos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444894

RESUMO

Nutritional intake has important impacts on human health. A sufficient supply of nutrients is required to ensure high-level nutrition in a population. Assessment of nutrient supply adequacy can help to develop evidence-based policies and thereby promote public health. This study estimates the supply adequacy of nutrients in China's food system from 1965 to 2018 at the national level, aiming to reveal whether the supply of nutrients meets the demand. The results show that the nutrient supply in China's food system has experienced a sharp increase in the past five decades, and the deficiency in nutrient supply has been greatly mitigated. Although most nutrients such as potassium are already sufficiently supplied in China's current food system, some nutrients, especially calcium and zinc, still need a further enlarged supply to improve the nutrition condition of the Chinese population. Besides encouraging a healthy diet, supply-side regulation, e.g., fortification and enrichment, is also needed to improve nutrient availability. This study helps people better understand the development and current situation of nutrient adequacy in China's food supply, thereby providing information and implications for policymakers.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/tendências , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , China , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444959

RESUMO

The rapid rise in prevalence of overweight/obesity, as well as high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and other nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases, has led the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to propose a front-of-package labeling (FOPL) regulation. An effective FOPL system applies a nutrient profile model that identifies foods high in sugar, sodium, and saturated fat that would receive a warning label for consumers to effectively discern between more and less healthy foods. Previous Nutrition Alchemy data collected by the food industry (n = 1306 products) estimated that approximately 96% of foods in India would have at least one warning label based on the FSSAI proposed FOPL. This near universal coverage of warning labels may be inaccurate and misleading. To address this, the current study compared two nutrient profile models, the WHO South-East Asia Region Organization (SEARO) and the Chilean Warning Octagon (CWO) Phase 3, applied to food products available in the Indian market from 2015-2020, collected through Mintel Global New Products Database (n = 10,501 products). Results suggest that 68% of foods and beverages would have at least one ' high-in' level warning label. This study highlights the need to include a more comprehensive sample of food products for assessing the value of warning labels.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Chile , Comportamento do Consumidor , Bases de Dados Factuais , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Índia , Valor Nutritivo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361713

RESUMO

The textural properties of butter are influenced by its fat content and implicitly by the fatty acids composition. The impact of butter's chemical composition variation was studied in accordance with texture and color properties. From 37 fatty acids examined, only 18 were quantified in the analyzed butter fat samples, and approximately 69.120% were saturated, 25.482% were monounsaturated, and 5.301% were polyunsaturated. The butter samples' viscosity ranged between 0.24 and 2.12 N, while the adhesiveness ranged between 0.286 to 18.19 N·mm. The principal component analysis (PCA) separated the butter samples based on texture parameters, fatty acids concentration, and fat content, which were in contrast with water content. Of the measured color parameters, the yellowness b* color parameter is a relevant indicator that differentiated the analyzed sample into seven statistical groups; the ANOVA statistics highlighted this difference at a level of p < 0.001.


Assuntos
Manteiga/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Água/análise , Animais , Cor , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar/fisiologia , Viscosidade
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443558

RESUMO

The volatile profiles of 51 samples from 12 monofloral-labelled Portuguese honey types were assessed. Honeys of bell heather, carob tree, chestnut, eucalyptus, incense, lavender, orange, rape, raspberry, rosemary, sunflower and strawberry tree were collected from several regions from mainland Portugal and from the Azores Islands. When available, the corresponding flower volatiles were comparatively evaluated. Honey volatiles were isolated using two different extraction methods, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and hydrodistillation (HD), with HD proving to be more effective in the number of volatiles extracted. Agglomerative cluster analysis of honey HD volatiles evidenced two main clusters, one of which had nine sub-clusters. Components grouped by biosynthetic pathway defined alkanes and fatty acids as dominant, namely n-nonadecane, n-heneicosane, n-tricosane and n-pentacosane and palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes, such as cis- and trans-linalool oxide (furanoid), hotrienol and the apocarotenoid α-isophorone, were also present in lower amounts. Aromatic amino acid derivatives were also identified, namely benzene acetaldehyde and 3,4,5-trimethylphenol. Fully grown classification tree analysis allowed the identification of the most relevant volatiles for discriminating the different honey types. Twelve volatile compounds were enough to fully discriminate eleven honey types (92%) according to the botanical origin.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443568

RESUMO

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), having reached a level of maturity during the last few years, is generally considered as a very powerful and efficient analytical tool, and it has been proposed for a broad range of applications, extending from space exploration down to terrestrial applications, from cultural heritage to food science and security. Over the last decade, there has been a rapidly growing sub-field concerning the application of LIBS for food analysis, safety, and security, which along with the implementation of machine learning and chemometric algorithms opens new perspectives and possibilities. The present review intends to provide a short overview of the current state-of-the-art research activities concerning the application of LIBS for the analysis of foodstuffs, with the emphasis given to olive oil, honey, and milk.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Mel/análise , Lasers , Leite/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Análise Espectral , Animais
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371969

RESUMO

The prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases is on the rise in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon. This study aimed to provide data on fatty acid profiles and ratios of Lebanese composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market foods. Methods: Thirty types of traditional dishes, collected from five different Lebanese governorates, thirty-seven types of Arabic sweets and forty-six market food products were considered for analysis. Food samples were chemically analyzed for total, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The range of total fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 1.2-11.7 g/100 g, 5.3-25.8 g/100 g, and 0.5-100 g/100 g, respectively. Additionally, the range of saturated fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 0.5-4.9 g/100 g, 2.5-23.6 g/100 g and 0.1-56.4 g/100 g, respectively. Furthermore, about 75% of these foods were poor in unsaturated fatty acids. Regarding saturated fatty acid, the polyunsaturated to monounsaturated (P.M.S) ratio was lower than the recommended ratio of 1:1:1 in 96% of samples. To conclude, there is a need to prioritize fat content in foods and consider processing modifications in the food production system with the aim of achieving a higher P:M:S ratio intake among the population.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cultura , Dieta Saudável , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Jordânia , Kuweit , Líbano , Oriente Médio , Arábia Saudita , Urbanização
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443389

RESUMO

Is it possible to characterize the types of honey based on their chemical composition, their content of bioactive substances, and their physicochemical properties? The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of four types of honey from the Carpathian Foothills area, located in south-east Poland, based on the content of the main phenolic acids and proline, the mineral composition, and selected physicochemical properties. Most analyses, such as those of phenolic acids, sugars, and proline content, in honey samples were performed using chromatographic methods. These experiments demonstrated that honeydew honeys were the richest in phenolic acids, minerals, as well as oligosaccharides, compared to other honeys. Dark-colored honeys were characterized by the highest proline content. The dominant elements in all types of honey were potassium and calcium. The results of the present study show that analyses of specific phenolic acids, minerals, proline, and sugar content, in combination with chemometrics analysis, may successfully differentiate between the biological origins of honey samples and allow the preliminary verification of the samples before performing time-consuming pollen analysis.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Mel/análise , Informática
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39905-39914, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374514

RESUMO

The lack of functional groups or binding sites largely hindered the broad application of microporous organic networks (MONs). Herein, we report the fabrication of the sulfonate group-enriched magnetic MON composite (MMON-SO3H@SO3Na) via the combination of the sulfonic acid group containing the monomer and thiol-yne click postmodification for efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of benzimidazole fungicides (BZDs) from complex sample matrices. The well-defined core-shell-structured MMON-SO3H@SO3Na was obtained and served as an advanced adsorbent for MSPE for concentrating and monitoring trace BZDs. The MMON-SO3H@SO3Na with numerous sulfonate groups provides plenty of ion-exchange, hydrogen-bonding, and π-π sites, leading to the favorable affinity to BZDs via multiple interaction mechanisms. The MMON-SO3H@SO3Na-based MSPE-high-performance liquid chromatography method afforded a wide linear range, low limits of detection, large enrichment factors, good precisions, and reusability for BZDs. Trace BZDs in complex vegetables and fruit samples were successfully detected by the established method. The MMON-SO3H@SO3Na also exhibited good selectivity toward multiple types of polar contaminants containing hydrogen-bonding sites and aromatic structures. This work provided a new postsynthesis strategy for constructing novel and multifunctioned magnetic MONs for preconcentration of trace analytes in a complex matrix.


Assuntos
Alcanossulfonatos/síntese química , Alcinos/química , Benzimidazóis/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Química Click , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Frutas/química , Limite de Detecção , Magnetismo/métodos , Microesferas , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Verduras/química
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361757

RESUMO

Detection of relevant contaminants using screening approaches is a key issue to ensure food safety and respect for the regulatory limits established. Electrochemical sensors present several advantages such as rapidity; ease of use; possibility of on-site analysis and low cost. The lack of selectivity for electrochemical sensors working in complex samples as food may be overcome by coupling them with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs are synthetic materials that mimic biological receptors and are produced by the polymerization of functional monomers in presence of a target analyte. This paper critically reviews and discusses the recent progress in MIP-based electrochemical sensors for food safety. A brief introduction on MIPs and electrochemical sensors is given; followed by a discussion of the recent achievements for various MIPs-based electrochemical sensors for food contaminants analysis. Both electropolymerization and chemical synthesis of MIP-based electrochemical sensing are discussed as well as the relevant applications of MIPs used in sample preparation and then coupled to electrochemical analysis. Future perspectives and challenges have been eventually given.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos/síntese química , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Micotoxinas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Polimerização , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361585

RESUMO

Bioactive molecules from the class of polyphenols are secondary metabolites from plants. They are present in honey from nectar and pollen of flowers from where honeybees collect the "raw material" to produce honey. Robinia pseudoacacia and Helianthus annuus are important sources of nectar for production of two monofloral honeys with specific characteristics and important biological activity. A high-performance liquid chromatography-electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) separation method was used to determine polyphenolic profile from the two types of Romanian unifloral honeys. Robinia and Helianthus honey showed a common flavonoid profile, where pinobanksin (1.61 and 1.94 mg/kg), pinocembrin (0.97 and 1.78 mg/kg) and chrysin (0.96 and 1.08 mg/kg) were identified in both honey types; a characteristic flavonoid profile in which acacetin (1.20 mg/kg), specific only for Robinia honey, was shown; and quercetin (1.85 mg/kg), luteolin (21.03 mg/kg), kaempferol (0.96 mg/kg) and galangin (1.89 mg/kg), specific for Helianthus honey, were shown. In addition, different phenolic acids were found in Robinia and Helianthus honey, while abscisic acid was found only in Robinia honey. Abscisic acid was correlated with geographical location; the samples collected from the south part of Romania had higher amounts, due to climatic conditions. Acacetin was proposed as a biochemical marker for Romanian Robinia honey and quercetin for Helianthus honey.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Helianthus , Mel/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Robinia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Flavonas/análise , Quercetina/análise
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444844

RESUMO

The implementation of REGULATION (EC) No 1924/2006 has led to the formation of a list of health claims that can be used in food supplements (EU 432/2012). However, such supplements are often composed of plant preparations with claims omitted from this list. The peculiarity of plants is related to their long history of use, that could allow claims based on traditionally recognized health effects. In addition, the scientific literature has been enriched over the years through clinical studies that have assessed the bioavailability and efficacy of bioactive components, and investigated their mechanisms of action. Based on existing recognized models which aim to classify research according to the level of scientific evidence, Synadiet developed a three-grade model (A, B or C) for assessing plants health claims. In this paper, the applicability of the model is illustrated through an example for which a Grade B health claim attesting the possible contribution of red clover isoflavones to the improvement of blood lipid levels in postmenopausal women has been attributed. The model appears able to be easily extrapolated to claims pertaining to other plants. If adopted by consensus at European level, this model could initiate the implementation of a positive list of health claims on plant preparations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Preparações de Plantas/normas , Plantas Comestíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Trifolium/química
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199457

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Benzopirenos/efeitos adversos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Adutos de DNA/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
15.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299609

RESUMO

In a global context where trading of wines involves considerable economic value, the requirement to guarantee wine authenticity can never be underestimated. With the ever-increasing advancements in analytical platforms, research into spectroscopic methods is thriving as they offer a powerful tool for rapid wine authentication. In particular, spectroscopic techniques have been identified as a user-friendly and economical alternative to traditional analyses involving more complex instrumentation that may not readily be deployable in an industry setting. Chemometrics plays an indispensable role in the interpretation and modelling of spectral data and is frequently used in conjunction with spectroscopy for sample classification. Considering the variety of available techniques under the banner of spectroscopy, this review aims to provide an update on the most popular spectroscopic approaches and chemometric data analysis procedures that are applicable to wine authentication.


Assuntos
Vinho/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Análise Multivariada , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
16.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299600

RESUMO

Amino acids present ergogenic action, helping to increase, protect, and restore the muscular system of young athletes. Moreover, the encapsulation of five relevant amino acids in chocolate pellet form will appeal to them, facilitating their daily consumption. A reliable HPLC fluorimetric method was developed to detect and quantitatively determine L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-Histidine, L-Valine, and ß-Alanine in chocolate using aniline as an internal standard. Experimental design methodology was used to investigate and optimize the clean-up procedure of the samples. Therefore, three extraction techniques (solid-phase extraction (by two different SPE cartridges) and liquid-solid extraction (LSE)) were compared and evaluated. The LOQ values in chocolate varied from 24 to 118 ng/g (recovery 89.7-95.6%, %RSD < 2.5). Amino acids were pre-column derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), while derivatization parameters were thoroughly investigated by experimental design methodology. The analysis was performed by HPLC-fluorescence (emission: λ = 455 nm, excitation: λ = 340 nm) method using a C18 column and a mixture of phosphate buffer (pH = 2.8; 20 mM)-methanol as a mobile phase in gradient elution. The method was validated (r2 > 0.999, %RSD < 2, LOD: 10 ng mL-1 for histidine and leucine, 2 ng mL-1 for alanine and valine, and 4 ng mL-1 for Isoleucine) according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Chocolate/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
17.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202027

RESUMO

At present, a wide variety of analytical methods is available to measure antioxidant capacity. However, this great diversity is not reflected in the analysis of meat and meat products, as there are a limited number of studies on determining this parameter in this complex food matrix. Despite this, and due to the interest in antioxidants that prevent oxidation reactions, the identification of antioxidants in meat and meat products is of special importance to the meat industry. For this reason, this review compiled the main antioxidant capacity assays employed in meat and meat products, to date, describing their foundations, and showing both their advantages and limitations. This review also looked at the different applications of antioxidant properties in meat and meat products. In this sense, the suitability of using these methodologies has been demonstrated in different investigations related to these foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Humanos
18.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210086

RESUMO

Mycotoxins represent a wide range of secondary, naturally occurring and practically unavoidable fungal metabolites. They contaminate various agricultural commodities like cereals, maize, peanuts, fruits, and feed at any stage in pre- or post-harvest conditions. Consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can cause acute or chronic toxicity in human and animals. The risk that is posed to public health have prompted the need to develop methods of analysis and detection of mycotoxins in food products. Mycotoxins wide range of structural diversity, high chemical stability, and low concentrations in tested samples require robust, effective, and comprehensible detection methods. This review summarizes current methods, such as chromatographic and immunochemical techniques, as well as novel, alternative approaches like biosensors, electronic noses, or molecularly imprinted polymers that have been successfully applied in detection and identification of various mycotoxins in food commodities. In order to highlight the significance of sampling and sample treatment in the analytical process, these steps have been comprehensively described.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Cromatografia , Humanos
19.
Se Pu ; 39(2): 162-172, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227349

RESUMO

Food safety is closely related to human health and life. Contaminated foods may result in illness or poisoning. For example, perfluorinated compounds can concentrate in the human body, or they can be transferred to the baby during breastfeeding, thus leading to serious health risks. Phthalate esters may cause damage to the liver, lungs, and kidneys. Therefore, food safety has become a hot topic at a global level. Poisonous and harmful substances in foods are derived from the environment, planting or breeding, food contacting materials, and food processing, or due to unsuitable storage conditions. Residues of pesticides and veterinary drugs, organic pollutants, additives, heavy metals, and biotoxins often hamper food safety, causing diseases or even death. The diversity of available food species, complexity of the sample matrix, and lack of information about the source of pollutants render the direct determination of food contaminants difficult. Pretreatment is vital for the accurate analysis of trace toxins in foods. Optimal pretreatment can not only improve the extract efficiency and determination sensitivity, but also prevent instrument contamination. Pretreatment techniques have played an important role in trace determination for complex matrices. Pretreatment methods can be classified as solvent-based and adsorption-based methods. Adsorption-based techniques such as solid-phase extraction, magnetic solid-phase extraction, and solid-phase microextraction are simple and efficient, and hence, are widely used. In these pretreatment techniques, adsorbents play a key role in the extraction effect. In the last few years, metal organic frameworks, metal oxide materials, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and magnetic nanoparticles, as well as a combination of these materials, have been used as adsorbents. These materials are porous and have a large surface area; they are used to enrich trace targets and eliminate interferents. Covalent organic polymers (COPs) are a class of organic porous materials constructed from organic monomers via covalent bonding. Given their excellent characteristics such as light density, good stability, high surface area, structural controllability, and ease of modification, COPs are potential adsorbents. COPs are often synthesized by solvent thermal methods. However, these methods are time-consuming and require toxic solvents and harsh reaction conditions. As alternatives, room-temperature methods, mechanical chemical methods, microwave-assisted methods, and UV-assisted methods have been developed. This has facilitated the synthesis of a wide range of COPs. In this article, the recent applications of COPs in sample pretreatment for food safety analysis are reviewed. COPs can be used in solid-phase extraction by simple packing into columns, polymerization, or chemical bonding in the capillary. Magnetic compounds have been prepared by one-pot synthesis, in situ growth, in situ reduction, or coprecipitation methods and used in magnetic solid-phase extraction. Coatings of solid-phase microextraction fibers are fabricated by physical methods, chemical bonding, sol-gel methods, or in situ growth. Toxic and harmful substances in foods and foodstuffs are efficiently extracted by exploiting the high adsorbent capacities and specificity of COPs. Future development prospects and challenges in sample pretreatment are also discussed herein. There is increased focus on the development of simple, efficient, and environment-friendly methods to synthesize COPs with specific functions; further, high-throughput, sensitive analytical methods may be established. In the future, more specific COPs will be prepared in a cost-effective manner for widespread use in sample pretreatment.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanotubos de Carbono , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Polímeros , Extração em Fase Sólida
20.
Se Pu ; 39(1): 96-103, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227363

RESUMO

In this study, a comprehensive analytical method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of nine N-nitrosamines in animal derived foods. There are many kinds of N-nitrosamines in foods that are harmful to human health. However, the national standard GB 5009.26-2016 pertains only to the detection of N-dimethylnitrosamine; there are many drawbacks of this method, such as complicated sample preparation, low recovery rate, and poor reproducibility. Hence, it is of practical significance to establish a method for the simultaneous determination of a variety of N-nitrosamines. The optimal extraction conditions for the developed method were as follows: 10.0 g aliquots of the sample were placed in a 50 mL centrifuge tube, followed by the addition of 10 mL acetonitrile and 200 µL internal working standard solutions. After 30 min of freezing treatment, 4 g magnesium sulfate and 1 g sodium chloride were added for dehydration, and the tube was centrifuged at 9000 r/min for 5 min. After vortex centrifugation, 5 mL of the clear supernatant was purified using 150 mg polystyrene divinylbenzene (PLS-A). The purified extracts were dewatered using 1.6 g MgSO4 and 0.4 g NaCl, and then filtered through a 0.22 µm membrane filter unit prior to GC-MS/MS analysis. Temperature-programmed was applied at an initial temperature of 50 ℃. After 0.16 min, the temperature was raised to 220 ℃ at the rate of 900 ℃/min for 5 min. N-Nitrosamines were separated on an HP-Innowax column (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 µm). Identification and quantification were achieved using an electron impact ion (EI) source in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The internal standard method was used to quantify the N-nitrosamines. Under the optimal conditions, the correlation coefficients of the standard calibration curves were not less than 0.99 in the range of 0.1-50.0 µg/L. The limits of detection were 0.03-0.30 µg/kg (S/N=3), and limits of quantification were 0.15-1.00 µg/kg (S/N=10). At spiked levels of 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 µg/kg, the average recoveries of N-nitrosamines in spiked samples ranged from 80.4% to 98.5%, with relative standard deviations between 2.41% and 12.50%. This method was used to determine animal derived food products, except N-itrosomethylethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine, others were founded. The results showed that N-nitrosamines levels in salted aquatic products were generally higher than those of the other samples. The method established in this study is simple to operate, and it does not require any time-consuming distillation extraction. Furthermore, there is minimal consumption of samples and reagents; consequently, the experiment cost is reduced, and the method is environmentally friendly. This method has theoretical and practical significance for the control of N-nitrosamines residues in animal derived foods, establishment of detection standards, and corresponding management measures.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Nitrosaminas , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Isótopos , Nitrosaminas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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