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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9793-9799, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284419

RESUMO

The development of pastoralism transformed human diets and societies in grasslands worldwide. The long-term success of cattle herding in Africa has been sustained by dynamic food systems, consumption of a broad range of primary and secondary livestock products, and the evolution of lactase persistence (LP), which allows digestion of lactose into adulthood and enables the milk-based, high-protein, low-calorie diets characteristic of contemporary pastoralists. Despite the presence of multiple alleles associated with LP in ancient and present-day eastern African populations, the contexts for selection for LP and the long-term development of pastoralist foodways in this region remain unclear. Pastoral Neolithic (c 5000 to 1200 BP) faunas indicate that herders relied on cattle, sheep, and goats and some hunting, but direct information on milk consumption, plant use, and broader culinary patterns is rare. Combined chemical and isotopic analysis of ceramic sherds (n = 125) from Pastoral Neolithic archaeological contexts in Kenya and Tanzania, using compound-specific δ13C and Δ13C values of the major fatty acids, provides chemical evidence for milk, meat, and plant processing by ancient herding societies in eastern Africa. These data provide the earliest direct evidence for milk product consumption and reveal a history of reliance on animal products and other nutrients, likely extracted through soups or stews, and plant foods. They document a 5,000-y temporal framework for eastern Africa pastoralist cuisines and cultural contexts for selection for alleles distinctive of LP in eastern Africa.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Dieta , Análise de Alimentos/história , Leite/química , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Bovinos , Cerâmica/história , Dieta/história , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Cabras , História Antiga , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Lactase/química , Lactose/química , Gado , Carne/análise , Ovinos
3.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 33(12): 1097-1106, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919538

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Foodcrust, the charred deposit adhering to the surface of containers, is a possible source of information on the function of ancient vessels and the subsistence of prehistoric humans. While the carbon isotope ratios in those materials are useful in detecting the usage of C4 plants, the reliability of nitrogen isotopic signatures has not been fully investigated. METHODS: The validity of bulk nitrogen isotope ratios has previously been investigated in coastal or riverine environments, where multiple resources from terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were available, but not in terrestrial settings which provide a simpler mixing of terrestrial animals and plants. Hence, we conducted an exhaustive study on charred deposits on potsherds at two inland archaeological sites belonging to prehistoric Jomon hunter-gathers in central Japan, focusing on δ15 N values and atomic N/C ratios determined using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and an elemental analyzer, respectively. RESULTS: For both sites, the δ15 N values showed significant correlations with the N/C ratios among samples from the inner surface, suggesting that these have recorded animal contribution. Furthermore, previous studies of Neolithic pottery from North Europe and Far East Russia bearing strong marine signatures had shown reasonably higher δ15 N values and N/C ratios in comparison with our data from terrestrial settings. On the other hand, some charred materials probably originating from plant starch showed lower values with both parameters. Samples from the outer surface produced less meaningful isotopic and elemental ratios altered by a thermal effect and/or contamination from soot. CONCLUSIONS: When the samples of foodcrusts were selected carefully from the inner surface, bulk nitrogen isotopes and N/C ratios reflect the composition of what was cooked or processed in containers. This will provide useful information for understanding the human adaptation from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene in conjunction with residual lipid analyses.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Culinária/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Animais , Arqueologia , Cerâmica/química , Cerâmica/história , Culinária/história , Europa (Continente) , Análise de Alimentos/história , História Antiga , Utensílios Domésticos/história , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Plantas/química , Federação Russa
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 100(12): 9966-9986, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29153183

RESUMO

Evaluation of the sensory characteristics of food products has been, and will continue to be, the ultimate method for evaluating product quality. Sensory quality is a parameter that can be evaluated only by humans and consists of a series of tests or tools that can be applied objectively or subjectively within the constructs of carefully selected testing procedures and parameters. Depending on the chosen test, evaluators are able to probe areas of interest that are intrinsic product attributes (e.g., flavor profiles and off-flavors) as well as extrinsic measures (e.g., market penetration and consumer perception). This review outlines the literature pertaining to relevant testing procedures and studies of the history of sensory analysis of fluid milk. In addition, evaluation methods outside of traditional sensory techniques and future outlooks on the subject of sensory analysis of fluid milk are explored and presented.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/história , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Leite/história , Paladar , Animais , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Leite/química , Estados Unidos
5.
Dynamis (Granada) ; 37(2): 413-434, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168865

RESUMO

In the late-nineteenth century the regulation of food quality and safety experienced a clear turning point with the establishment of new sites for food controls, the emergence of new experts and the passing of food laws. One of the main changes in the regulation came with a reconceptualization of quality based on composition; a change which was in accordance with the standardizing trends then applied in each and every area of knowledge. In Spain, the Royal Academy of Medicine was one of the main authorities quoted in the search for official definitions of edible foodstuffs and for standardized compositions. The paper will focus on the assessment activity fulfilled by the Royal Academy between 1877 and 1902. Taking into account four relevant controversies on food regulation (those dealing with foodstuffs such as oil, wine, saccharin and paprika) it shall address its contribution to the establishment of food quality standards. The paper shows that this task was carried out very poorly and discusses the different factors which can explain this type of contribution. In order to fulfil this latter discussion, the training as well as the social and political activities of the main academicians involved in food quality assessments (such as Gabriel de la Puerta, Ángel Pulido, Juan Ramón Gómez Pamo, and Ángel Fernández-Caro) deserves special attention (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Higiene dos Alimentos/história , Inspeção de Alimentos/história , Controle e Fiscalização de Alimentos e Bebidas , Análise de Alimentos/história , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Legislação de Medicamentos/história
6.
J AOAC Int ; 99(1): 7-11, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26811237

RESUMO

Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/história , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Fórmulas Infantis/história , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Lactente , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência
9.
Nutr. hosp ; 27(supl.2): 18-25, nov. 2012. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-144156

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar la institucionalización de las ciencias de la nutrición en la España de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, y evaluar la actividad desarrollada por la revista Anales de Bromatología. Método: Estudio bibliométrico descriptivo de los artículos originales. Se recogió el nombre y apellidos de los autores y el título completo. A partir de las palabras clave, por consenso entre los autores del estudio, se asignó a cada artículo una sola materia principal de acuerdo con la agrupación de las trece temáticas que seguía la Sociedad Española de Bromatología en sus reuniones. Se ha analizado la distribución y tendencia de los indicadores generales de producción y sus características. Resultados: Se publicaron un total de 917 artículos originales con una media de 20,8 trabajos/año. Las materias que registraron mayor porcentaje de artículos fueron: sustancias extrañas a los alimentos, alimentos de origen vegetal y nutrición. Participaron un total de 874 autores, con un índice de colaboración de 2,43 y de transitoriedad del 70,1%. La distribución del número de firmantes por artículo se acerca bastante a lo que indica la ley de productividad de Lotka. Doce máximos productores, con presencia mayoritaria de mujeres, participaron en el 49,9% de los artículos publicados. Conclusión: La Revista mostró una baja productividad y un carácter endogámico, con un protagonismo destacado de los autores relacionados con la Escuela de Bromatología de la Facultad de Farmacia de la Universidad Complutense. Las temáticas abordadas respondían a los retos de la transición alimentaria y nutricional de la población española (AU)


Objective: To analyse the institutionalisation of nutrition sciences in Spain in the second half of the twentieth century, and evaluate the activities of the journal Anales de Bromatología. Method: Descriptive bibliometric study of the original articles. Full names of the authors and the complete article title were recorded. Using key words, each article was assigned by consensus of the researchers to a single main subject in accordance with the thirteen subject areas addressed by the Spanish Society of Bromatology in its meetings. An analysis was conducted of the distribution and trends of general productivity indicators and their characteristics. Results: A total of 917 original articles were published, with a mean of 20.8 papers/year. The subjects for which the highest percentage of articles was recorded were foreign substances in foods, foods of plant origin and nutrition. A total of 874 authors contributed, with a collaboration rate of 2.43 and a transience rate of 70.1%. Distribution of the number of authors per article was close to that indicated by Lotka’s law of scientific productivity. The top twelve producers, predominantly women, participated in 49.9% of the articles published. Conclusion: The journal showed low productivity and was of an endogamous nature, with a predominance of authors related to the School of Bromatology in the Faculty of Pharmacy, at the Complutense University. The subjects addressed reflected the demands of the nutrition transition in Spain (AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Ciências da Nutrição/história , Ciências da Nutrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciências da Nutrição/normas , 52503 , Bibliometria , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Análise de Alimentos/história , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Indicadores Bibliométricos
10.
Ars pharm ; 53(1): 23-27, ene.-mar. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-101557

RESUMO

Se describen las fórmulas magistrales elaboradas exclusivamente con alimentos incluidas en el Formulario de Bouchardat (1809 - 1866) del año 1885. Sobre un total de aproximadamente 136 fórmulas, los principales "grupos terapéuticos" representados correspondían a los antiflogísticos (26,4 %), estimulantes (20,6 %), tónicos (12,5 %), purgantes (12,5 %) y atemperantes (8,8 %). Así mismo se valora el impacto posterior de dichas preparaciones por lo que al desarrollo de productos dietéticos y alimentos funcionales se refiere(AU)


We describe the master formulas made exclusively with foods included in the Form Bouchardat (1809 - 1866) from 1885. Of a total of approximately 136 formulas, the main "therapeutic groups" corresponded to the antiphlogistic (26.4%), stimulants (20.6%), tonic (12.5%), laxatives (12.5%) and tempering (8.8%). It also assesses the subsequent impact of these preparations to the development of functional food products and dietary concerns(AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , Análise de Alimentos/história , Análise de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Formulados/história , Alimentos Formulados/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/história , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Alimento Funcional/história , Alimento Funcional/microbiologia , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimento Funcional/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimento Funcional/normas , Alimento Funcional
12.
Endeavour ; 35(2-3): 66-73, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21704377

RESUMO

A disputed butter competition in Pennsylvania in 1895 brought the cultural, environmental, and scientific character of the Era of Adulteration to the fore. The incident put a spotlight on the confusing character of adulteration and the increasingly prominent role of chemical analysts in arbitrating that confusion. This article uses the case to explore the role scientific analysts played on the border between pure food products and adulterated ones, arguing that the scientists fighting adulteration gained credibility within a cultural environment where trust and confidence were problematic and an agricultural environment where spatial connections between producers and consumers were difficult to see. They were not just detectors of chemical impurities, but participants in a vital cultural arbitration. Characterizing them for their cultural role helps demonstrate that their practices and identity were (and remain) relevant for more than just detection and eradication, then and in the future.


Assuntos
Manteiga/história , Análise de Alimentos/história , Contaminação de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/história , Tecnologia de Alimentos/história , Alimentos/história , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Indústria Alimentícia/história , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Pennsylvania , Saúde Pública/história , Percepção Social , Confiança
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(18): 8098-108, 2009 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19719127

RESUMO

Over the past century, advances in analytical chemistry have played a significant role in understanding wine chemistry and flavor. Whereas the focus in the 19th and early 20th centuries was on determining major components (ethanol, organic acids, sugars) and detecting fraud, more recently the emphasis has been on quantifying trace compounds including those that may be related to varietal flavors. In addition, over the past 15 years, applications of combined analytical and sensory techniques (e.g., gas chromatography-olfactometry) have improved the ability to relate chemical composition to sensory properties, whether identifying impact compounds or elucidating matrix effects. Many challenges remain, however. This paper discusses some of the recent research aimed at understanding how viticultural and enological practices influence grape and wine volatiles. In addition, the challenges in linking composition to sensory properties will also be reviewed. Finally, future advances in linking grape, yeast, and human genomics to wine chemistry and flavor will be briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/história , Paladar , Vinho/história , Técnicas de Química Analítica/tendências , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/história , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/microbiologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Olfato , Vitis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(18): 8180-6, 2009 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19719129

RESUMO

The Agriculture and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) was founded in 1908 shortly after passage of the first U.S. food regulations in 1906. Modern food regulations started with the passage of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act in 1938. This Act has been amended several times to keep pace with developments in food chemistry. In 1958 the Food Additives Amendment was enacted to control substances added to food. Since 1958 scientific techniques have been developed to evaluate the safety and carcinogenicity of substances in the food supply. In the 1970s and 1980s AGFD symposia and books addressed compounds of concern in foods. In the 1990s food safety and nutrition regulations followed new developments in food and nutrition chemistry. Recently, the well-studied toxin acrylamide was discovered in food and presented regulators with new questions on safety and control in the food supply. Discoveries and developments in chemistry such as those in nanotechnology will continue to present challenges to food regulators.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/história , Alimentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos/história , Acrilamida/análise , Agricultura/história , Técnicas de Química Analítica/história , Alimentos/história , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/história , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/história , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/história
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(18): 8161-70, 2009 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19719131

RESUMO

Considerable advances have been made over the past century in the understanding of the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. At the turn of the 20th century, many Americans were exposed to foods adulterated with toxic compounds. In the 1920s the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930s, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used, and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940s and 1950s advances were made in toxicology, and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, both invented in the 1950s and 1960s, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chemical food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of natural toxins, processing-produced toxins (e.g., acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and furan), food allergens, heavy metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), industrial chemicals (e.g., benzene, perchlorate), contaminants from packaging materials, and unconventional contaminants (melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry, and consumers in the future.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Alimentos/história , Segurança/história , Agroquímicos/análise , Agroquímicos/história , Alérgenos/análise , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Análise de Alimentos/história , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos/história , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Estados Unidos
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(18): 8076-88, 2009 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19719137

RESUMO

Food and agricultural products comprise complex and diverse chemical mixtures that historically have presented challenges for assessing food safety, nutrient content, stability, and sensory qualities. The analysis of food composition has significantly evolved over the past 100 years, progressing from reliance on predominantly "wet chemistry" laboratory methods from the early to mid-20th century to their gradual replacement by modern instrumental techniques. Pioneering developments in pH instruments, spectrophotometry, chromatography/separations, and spectrometry often had immediate applications to food analysis. Continuous improvements in methodology over this period have led to significant enhancements in analytical accuracy, precision, detection limits, and sample throughput, thereby expanding the practical range of food applications. The growth and infrastructure of the modern global food distribution system heavily relies on food analysis-beyond simple characterization-as a tool for new product development, quality control, regulatory enforcement, and problem-solving.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/história , Química Agrícola/história , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Legislação sobre Alimentos/história , Sociedades Científicas/história , Estados Unidos
20.
J Nutr ; 139(1): 178-84, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19056813

RESUMO

The systematic chemical analysis of foods for human consumption in the United States had its origin with Wilbur O. Atwater. This activity began in the 1860s while Atwater was a student at Yale University and continued through his tenures at Wesleyan University and the Storrs (Connecticut) Experiment Station. These activities moved with Atwater to the USDA in Washington, DC and ultimately to the Henry D. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, MD early in the 1900s. During the first half of the 20th century, food composition activities were guided by the discovery of new essential nutrients and the need to measure and tabulate their levels in foods. Later in the century, the association between diet and chronic diseases was recognized. As a result, collaborations were established between other food- and health-related government agencies, the food industry, and many universities. At the same time, computer and communication technology greatly advanced, which became integral to laboratory instrumentation and allowed data in the National Nutrient Databank System to be available electronically. Simultaneously, accuracy of analytical data came under scrutiny and a new paradigm was established in collaboration with governmental metrology units worldwide. Advances in computer technology and the increased focus on accuracy of analytical data subsequently led to the development of quality indicators for all food composition data. Recently, increased consumption of dietary supplements resulted in the broadening of food composition efforts and development of new collaborations with government agencies, several industries, and universities.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Análise de Alimentos/história , Ciências da Nutrição/história , United States Department of Agriculture/história , Suplementos Nutricionais/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/organização & administração
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