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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239649, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rate of Caesarean Section (CS) deliveries has shown an alarming rise in recent years. CS is a surgical procedure used when there is apprehension of risk to the life of mother or baby in case of vaginal delivery, but its rates higher than 10-15 per cent are not justifiable. It is well recognised that a CS delivery could have a large number of adverse impacts on women and infants. Several studies, especially in developing countries, have revealed that delivery in private hospitals is one of the most contributing factors in CS deliveries. The present study conceptualises a causal pathway in which the possible risk factors, socio-economic, maternal and pregnancy-related, as well as institutional, influence the chances of CS delivery. It is hypothesised that certain factors would contribute to CS deliveries largely indirectly through the place of delivery, that is, either a public or private institution. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the hypotheses, this study analysed 146,280 most recent live births delivered in hospitals during the five years preceding the fourth round of India's National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), carried out during 2015-2016. The analysis, using generalised structural equation modelling (GSEM), revealed that many exogenous variables considered in the path models influence CS deliveries significantly, directly and/or indirectly through the place of delivery factor. Prominent among these are wealth index and receiving ANC services at only private hospitals; the total effects of these variables are even higher than the direct/total effect of place of delivery. CONCLUSION: From this finding, it could be said that the place of delivery is a proximate determinant of a CS delivery or a mediator of other co-factors. Interventions to curb higher CS deliveries should be focused on improving the quality of public health sectors and on developing protocols for CS deliveries.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Privados , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/tendências , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parto , Gravidez , Probabilidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to define the threatened perception types of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and determine the correlations between the perception types and their demographic factors, their preventive knowledge of COVID-19 and their mental status in order to provide suggestions for pregnant women during pandemic. METHODS: Latent class analysis were used to explore the optimal numbers of clusters. Multinomial logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis were used to analyze the demographic variables of the latent categories. MANOVA was used to analyze the difference of knowledge of COVID-19 obtained among clusters and their psychological status, and chi-square test was used determine the relationship between the latent clusters and the participant's COVID-19 worry level. RESULTS: Five clusters were found: the first cluster (n = 120, 39%) was unthreatened and confident. Cluster 2(n = 84, 28%) was unthreatened but not confident. Cluster 3 (n = 49, 17%) was threatened but confident. Cluster 4 (n = 25, 9%) was threaten, not confident and knowledgeable, and Cluster 5 (n = 20, 7%) was threatened, not confident and lacking knowledge. Three demographic variables were shown an effect on the classification, they were support from work, family support and intrapartum and postpartum complications. CONCLUSION: This study can help assess the mental health risks of pregnant women during an epidemic. The results could be helpful for families, work units, communities and medical institutions to make targeted intervention decisions for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 63, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Need to a simple, available, accurate, comprehensive, and valid indicator is felt to assess thermal effects. Therefore, the present study was aimed to develop and validate the environmental heat strain risk assessment (EHSRA) index using structural equation modeling (SEM) based on empirical relations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 201 male workers in environments with various climatic conditions. The heart rate and tympanic temperature of the individuals were monitored at times of 30, 60, and 90 min after beginning the work. At these times, values of dry temperature, wet temperature, globe temperature, and air velocity were also measured and metabolism rate and clothing thermal insulation value were estimated. At the end, a theoretical model was depicted in AMOS software and obtained coefficients were applied to develop a novel index. The scores of this indicator were categorized into four risk levels via ROC curves and validate using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Indirect effect coefficients of the globe temperature, dry temperature, wet temperature, air velocity, metabolism, and clothing thermal insulation variables on the tympanic temperature were computed by 0.77, 0.75, 0.69, 0.24, 0.49, and 0.39, respectively. These coefficients were applied to develop the index. Optimal cut-off points of boundaries between risk levels included 12.02, 15.88, and 17.56. The results showed that the EHSRA index justified 75% of the variations of the tympanic temperature (R2 = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: The novel index possesses appropriate validity. It was suggested that this indicator is applied and validated in various environments in the next studies.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22776, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126316

RESUMO

Based on the Theory of Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model, this study aimed to investigate factors associated with condom use intention in Chinese adolescents.In 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional study using stratified cluster, convenience sampling method to assess condom use intention among senior high school students in Tianjin, China. One thousand eighty two senior high school students were anonymously surveyed through self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the pre-intentional phase of HAPA model.Among the participants, 41.5% (449/1082) were male, 54.1% (585/1082) were female, 4.4% (48/1082) were gender-deficient. The average age was 16.7 years. The final pre-intentional phase of HAPA model was acceptable (CFI = 0.95; GFI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.06). Action self-efficacy (r = 0.60) had a strong direct effect on condom use intention.The pre-intentional phase of HAPA model is valid to assess condom use intention among Chinese senior high school students. The pre-intention phase of the HAPA model could be applied to guide AIDS health educations of students, and further research is needed to evaluate the effect.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Intenção , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is increasing in incidence; this not-to-miss diagnosis can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly if diagnoses are delayed. While some risk factors for SEA and subsequent mortality have been identified, the SEA patient population is clinically heterogeneous and sub-populations have not yet been characterized in the literature. The primary objective of this project was to identify characteristics of subgroups of patients with SEA. The secondary objective was to identify associations between subgroups and three clinical outcomes: new onset paralysis, in-hospital mortality, and 180-day readmission. METHODS: Demographics and comorbid diagnoses were collected for patients diagnosed with SEA at an academic health center between 2015 and 2019. Latent class analysis was used to identify clinical subgroups. Chi-squared tests were used to compare identified subgroups with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified two subgroups of patients in our analysis. Group 1 had a high rate of medical comorbidities causing immunosuppression, requiring vascular access, or both. Group 2 was characterized by a high proportion of people with substance use disorders. Patients in Group 2 were more likely to be readmitted within 6 months than patients in Group 1 (p = 0.03). There was no difference between groups in new paralysis or mortality. DISCUSSION: While prior studies have examined the SEA patient population as a whole, our research indicates that there are at least two distinct subgroups of patients with SEA. Patients who are younger, with substance use disorder diagnoses, may have longer hospital courses and are at higher risk of readmission within six months. Future research should explore how to best support patients in both groups, and additional implications for subgroup classification on health outcomes, including engagement in care.


Assuntos
Abscesso Epidural/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Paralisia/mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comorbidade , Abscesso Epidural/complicações , Abscesso Epidural/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paralisia/etiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 390-396, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the convergence of individual findings relating to psychological distress, alcohol use and social network (SN) to identify their associated clusters within Australian mineworkers. METHODS: This study used cross-sectional survey data from 3,056 participants across 12 Australian mines. Latent class analysis used the scores of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Social Network Index. RESULTS: Class 1 (moderate to very high psychological distress, low SN score and low to moderate AUDIT) included 39% (n=1,178) participants and class 2 (low to moderate psychological distress and AUDIT and very high SN) composed of 61% (n=1,873) participants. Class 1 was associated with younger age (OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.53-0.81), being a current smoker (OR=1.45, 95%CI=1.18-1.79), and reporting a history of anxiety (OR=3.00, 95%CI=2.23-4.05) and/or depression (OR=2.18, 95%CI=1.65-2.90). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the challenges the mining sector faces regarding the welfare of its employees. Implications for public health: Modifiable work factors associated with lower social networks and higher psychological distress need addressing at an individual and industry level through targeted and specifically tailored multi-component interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Mineradores/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Rede Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Minas de Carvão/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237576, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881985

RESUMO

Attachment instruments vary substantially in practicability of administration, employment of categorical versus dimensional scoring, quality of scales, and applicability to different attachment figures. The Attachment Network Q-sort (ANQ) is a self-report, quasi-qualitative instrument that discriminates relationship-specific attachment styles for multiple attachment figures. The current study assesses the properties of the ANQ in psychotherapy patients and in non-patient respondents, using mother, father and romantic partner as possible attachment figures. Analyzing the ANQ-data with latent class analysis, we found four types or classes of participants: a group with an overall secure profile, a group only insecure for father, a group only insecure for mother, and a group insecure for mother as well as father but not for partner (if available). These profiles proved to have good concurrent, discriminant and construct validity. We conclude that the ANQ is potentially a useful alternative clinical self-report instrument to assess combinations of attachment styles for a range of attachment figures such as parents and a romantic partner.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Q-Sort , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Appl Psychol ; 105(10): 1073-1087, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866024

RESUMO

Employees around the world have experienced sudden, significant changes in their work and family roles due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, applied psychologists have limited understanding of how employee experiences of work-family conflict and enrichment have been affected by this event and what organizations can do to ensure better employee functioning during such societal crises. Adopting a person-centered approach, we examine transitions in employees' work-family interfaces from before COVID-19 to after its onset. First, in Study 1, using latent profile analysis (N = 379; nonpandemic data), we identify profiles of bidirectional conflict and enrichment, including beneficial (low conflict and high enrichment), active (medium conflict and enrichment), and passive (low conflict and enrichment). In Study 2, with data collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, we replicate Study 1 profiles and explore whether employees transition between work-family profiles during the pandemic. Results suggest that although many remain in prepandemic profiles, positive (from active/passive to beneficial) and negative (from beneficial to active/passive) transitions occurred for a meaningful proportion of respondents. People were more likely to go through negative transitions if they had high segmentation preferences, engaged in emotion-focused coping, experienced higher technostress, and had less compassionate supervisors. In turn, negative transitions were associated with negative employee consequences during the pandemic (e.g., lower job satisfaction and job performance, and higher turnover intent). We discuss implications for future research and for managing during societal crises, both present and future. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(12): 2459-2475, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955701

RESUMO

The long-term outcomes for adolescents who struggle in first-year university remain unexplored. This 7-year longitudinal study aimed to identify distinct groups of adolescents based on their characteristics/behaviors in first-year university, and then assess whether these groups differ in psychosocial adjustment trajectories (i.e., mental health, positive relationships) throughout the emerging adult period, as well as in graduation rates, employment characteristics, and reflections on time spent at university. Participants (N = 1017; 71% female; Year 1 Mage = 19 years) enrolled in a Canadian university completed a survey annually for 7 years. Four groups in Year 1 were identified: Good Students who exhibited no difficulties; Sensation-Seeking who prioritized social engagement and substance use over academic engagement but reported no psychological adjustment difficulties; Struggling Students who had the most difficulties; and Club Involved who exhibited high club involvement. The Struggling Students Group continued to have more psychosocial adjustment difficulties than the other groups during and after university, were more likely to drop out of university, and to later have less job satisfaction. This group requires the most support. Consideration also should be given to the Sensation-Seeking Group, as they reported a lack of academic motivation (and regret about that later) and also were more likely to drop out of university. At the same time, they may be more difficult to target given that they did not report psychosocial difficulties. Overall, the findings highlight the need for early support and discourage a 'one-size fits all' method for promoting psychosocial adjustment.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21767, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871897

RESUMO

Risk factors such as smoking and sugar intake threaten the health of human being at an individual national level as well as at a global level. The globalization affect health indirectly through macro and micro-level factors. This study aimed to identify the global trend of dental caries according to countries national income level, and to examine the role of globalization, health services, obesity, and sugar consumption on dental caries. Data for 160 countries were collected for the time period of the 1990s to 2010s. The final sample included 46 countries with complete data (21 high income countries (HIC) and 25 middle and low income countries (MLIC)). The main dependent variable was the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index of 12-year-olds as an indicator of dental caries. Globalization was a main independent variable which was measured by economic growth, urbanization and economic freedom. Other independent variables were health services, obesity and sugar consumption. The data were analyzed first using repeated measures analysis of variance to compare dental caries trends in HIC and MLIC. Then, using multiple linear regression and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the relationships between globalization, health services, obesity, sugar consumption, and dental caries were examined. The results of PLS-SEM revealed that globalization was associated with lower DMFT in HIC. The global dental caries trend had a declined pattern, but this pattern has been attenuated in MLIC after the new millennium. There is a need for policy change and regulations on sugar trade especially in MLIC to diminish the adverse consequences of globalization, and to improve population dental health.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Criança , Açúcares da Dieta , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Lineares , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Urbanização
11.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003245, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beverages, especially sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), have been increasingly subject to policies aimed at reducing their consumption as part of measures to tackle obesity. However, precision targeting of policies is difficult as information on what types of consumers they might affect, and to what degree, is missing. We fill this gap by creating a typology of beverage consumers in Great Britain (GB) based on observed beverage purchasing behaviour to determine what distinct types of beverage consumers exist, and what their socio-demographic (household) characteristics, dietary behaviours, and weight status are. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cross-sectional latent class analysis to characterise patterns of beverage purchases. We used data from the 2016 GB Kantar Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) panel, a large representative household purchase panel of food and beverages brought home, and restricted our analyses to consumers who purchase beverages regularly (i.e., >52 l per household member annually) (n = 8,675). Six categories of beverages were used to classify households into latent classes: SSBs; diet beverages; fruit juices and milk-based beverages; beer and cider; wine; and bottled water. Multinomial logistic regression and linear regression were used to relate class membership to household characteristics, self-reported weight status, and other dietary behaviours, derived from GB Kantar FMCG. Seven latent classes were identified, characterised primarily by higher purchases of 1 or 2 categories of beverages: 'SSB' (18% of the sample; median SSB volume = 49.4 l/household member/year; median diet beverage volume = 38.0 l), 'Diet' (16%; median diet beverage volume = 94.4 l), 'Fruit & Milk' (6%; median fruit juice/milk-based beverage volume = 30.0 l), 'Beer & Cider' (7%; median beer and cider volume = 36.3 l; median diet beverage volume = 55.6 l), 'Wine' (18%; median wine volume = 25.5 l; median diet beverage volume = 34.3 l), 'Water' (4%; median water volume = 46.9 l), and 'Diverse' (30%; diversity of purchases, including median SSB volume = 22.4 l). Income was positively associated with being classified in the Diverse class, whereas low social grade was more likely for households in the classes SSB, Diet, and Beer & Cider. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was more prevalent in the class Diet (41.2%, 95% CI 37.7%-44.7%) despite households obtaining little energy from beverages in that class (17.9 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 16.2-19.7). Overweight/obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) was above average in the class SSB (66.8%, 95% CI 63.7%-69.9%). When looking at all groceries, households from the class SSB had higher total energy purchases (1,943.6 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 1,901.7-1,985.6), a smaller proportion of energy from fruits and vegetables (6.0%, 95% CI 5.8%-6.3%), and a greater proportion of energy from less healthy food and beverages (54.6%, 95% CI 54.0%-55.1%) than other classes. A greater proportion of energy from sweet snacks was observed for households in the classes SSB (18.5%, 95% CI 18.1%-19.0%) and Diet (18.8%, 95% CI 18.3%-19.3%). The main limitation of our analyses, in common with other studies, is that our data do not include information on food and beverage purchases that are consumed outside the home. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst households that regularly purchase beverages, those that mainly purchased high volumes of SSBs or diet beverages were at greater risk of obesity and tended to purchase less healthy foods, including a high proportion of energy from sweet snacks. These households might additionally benefit from policies targeting unhealthy foods, such as sweet snacks, as a way of reducing excess energy intake.


Assuntos
Bebidas/economia , Comércio/tendências , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Adulto , Animais , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Cerveja , Peso Corporal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável , Características da Família , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Renda , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Leite , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/psicologia , Reino Unido , Vinho
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731381

RESUMO

The main aim of the present study was to analyze whether publications related to environmental sustainability in social media directly and positively influence user satisfaction with and trust in tourism businesses. Our second goal was to determine whether the influence of environmental sustainability and satisfaction is moderated by users' gender. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire. The questionnaire responses were analyzed using the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) methodology. The results have shown that there is a positive relationship between environmental sustainability, satisfaction, and trust generated by tourism companies through their publications on social media, and that this relationship is not conditioned by users' gender. The results of the present study contribute to the literature by bridging the gap in research on tourism enterprises and their strategies regarding social media publications. Our findings also provide important implications related to the content of environmental sustainability strategies and social media communication for tourism companies.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Viagem , Confiança
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822400

RESUMO

Derived from the social cognitive career theory (SCCT), the present study developed a model for the empirical examination of factors affecting the life satisfaction of university students. A random-effects meta-analysis of zero-order correlations observed the results of 16 studies (20 samples, n = 7,967), and associations among the SCCT variables were examined by using a meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) according to a pooled correlation matrix. An alternative model was offered and then assessed. The findings showed a satisfactory fit of the new model as compared to the original SCCT. The results demonstrated support for the alternative model of SCCT in predicting life satisfaction. The present study suggested that researchers should embrace this alternative model when synthesizing SCCT factors. Limitations and avenues for future research were put forward for further consideration.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Teoria Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Cognição , Objetivos , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Estatísticos , Motivação , Personalidade , Prognóstico , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Autoeficácia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades
15.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 75-84, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health of the population during COVID-19 quarantine could be at risk. Previous studies in short quarantines, found mood-related and anxiety symptomatology. Here we aimed to characterize the subtypes of psychological distress associated with quarantine, assess its prevalence, explore risk/protective factors, and possible mechanisms. METHODS: Online cross-sectional data (n = 4408) was collected during the Argentine quarantine, between 1st-17th April 2020 along a small replication study (n = 644). Psychological distress clusters were determined using latent profile analysis on a wide-range of symptoms using the complete Brief-Symptom Inventory-53. Multinomial and Elastic-net regression were performed to identify risk/protective factors among trait-measures (Personality and Resilience) and state-measures (COVID-19 related fear and coping-skills). RESULTS: Three latent-classes defined by symptom severity level were identified. The majority of individuals were classified in the mild (40.9%) and severe classes (41.0%). Participants reported elevated symptoms of Phobic-Anxiety (41.3%), Anxiety (31.8%), Depression (27.5%), General-Distress (27.1%), Obsession-Compulsion (25.1%) and Hostility (13.7%). Logistic-regressions analyses mainly revealed that women, young individuals, having a previous psychiatric diagnosis or trauma, having high levels of trait-neuroticism and COVID-related fear, were those at greater risk of psychological distress. In contrast, adults, being married, exercising, having upper-class income, having high levels of trait-resilience and coping-skills, were the most protected. Mediation analysis, showed that state-measures mediated the association between trait-measures and class-membership. CONCLUSIONS: Quarantine was associated intense psychological distress. Attention should be given to COVID-19-related fear and coping-skills as they act as potential mediators in emotional suffering during quarantine.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argentina , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Estado Civil , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Pandemias , Personalidade , Pneumonia Viral , Fatores de Proteção , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(4): 367-375, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768130

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to examine the trajectories of athlete burnout across a 2-month period characterized by high physical, psychological, and social demands to explore (1) whether several subgroups of athletes representing distinct burnout trajectories emerged from the analyses and (2) whether athlete burnout symptoms (reduced accomplishment, sport devaluation, and exhaustion) developed in tandem or whether some burnout dimensions predicted downstream changes in other dimensions (causal ordering model). METHODS: One hundred and fifty-nine table tennis players in intensive training centers completed a self-reported athlete burnout measure across 3 time points within a 2-month period characterized by high demands. Data were analyzed through latent class growth analysis. RESULTS: Results of latent class growth analysis showed 3 distinct trajectories for each athlete burnout dimension, indicating not only linear or quadratic change but also stability in longitudinal athlete burnout perceptions. Results also suggested that the 3 dimensions of athlete burnout did not develop in tandem. Rather, the likelihood of belonging to particular emerging trajectories of sport devaluation and physical/emotional exhaustion was significantly influenced by the athletes' perception of reduced accomplishment assessed at Time 1. Thus, reduced accomplishment predicted downstream changes in the 2 other athlete burnout dimensions. CONCLUSION: As a whole, these results highlighted that the multinomial heterogeneity in longitudinal athlete burnout symptoms needs to be accounted for in future research.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Tênis/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Autorrelato
17.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(12): 1772-1780, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Because of the spread of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019), preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors become important for individuals, especially those who are vulnerable. The present study proposes a model to explain the preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors among people with mental illness in Taiwan. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was carried out and 414 patients with mental illness (230 males [55.6%]; mean age = 46.32 [SD = 10.86]) agreed to participate in the study. All the participants completed the Preventive COVID-19 Infection Behaviors Scale, Self-Stigma Scale-Short, Believing COVID-19 Information Scale, Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Regression models and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to examine the factors associated with preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors. RESULTS: Both regression models and SEM showed that trust in COVID-19 information sources (standardized coefficient [ß] = 0.211 in regression; ß = 0.194 in SEM) and fear of COVID-19 (ß = -0.128 in regression; ß = -0.223 in SEM) significantly explained preventive behaviors among individuals with mental illness. The SEM further showed that fear of COVID-19 was significantly explained by trust in COVID-19 information sources (ß = 0.220) and self-stigma (ß = 0.454). CONCLUSION: Based on the results, healthcare providers should help individuals with mental illness reduce self-stigma and fear of COVID-19 which would consequently improve their preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors. Moreover, improving trust in COVID-19 information sources for individuals with mental illness may be another method to improve their preventive behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Estigma Social , Taiwan , Confiança
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1290, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-care behaviors and positive changes in lifestyle are essential for successful hypertension control. We used a behavioral model based on the theory of planned behavior to assess which factors influence self-care behaviors for controlling hypertension. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, five hundred patients with at leastaone-year history of diagnosed hypertension participated in this study. The data collection tool was designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the main parameters. RESULTS: For self-care behaviors, ninety-six (19.2%) and forty-five (9.1%) participants had good knowledge and acceptable behavior(≥8 out of 10 points). Having perceived behavioral control regarding quitting smoking and alcohol intake was associated with the patient's intention and behavior [b:1.283 ± .095 and b:1.59 ± .014 (p < .001)]. Having perceived behavioral control over the other self-care behaviors had a positive effect on the intention in female patients [b: .885 ± .442 (p = .045)]. Subjective norms had a positive effect on behavioral intention in younger patients [b:4.52 ± 2.24 (P = .04)]. CONCLUSIONS: Group-specific behavioral barriers are important when improving self-care behaviors in patients with hypertension. Perceived control over self-care behaviors is more important in vulnerable patients, such as the elderly and women.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/terapia , Teoria Psicológica , Autocuidado/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105666, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659489

RESUMO

Road crashes impose an important burden on health and the economy. Numerous efforts have been undertaken to understand the factors that affect road collisions in general, and the severity of crashes in particular. In this literature several strategies have been proposed to model interactions between parties in a crash, including the use of variables regarding the other party (or parties) in the collision, data subsetting, and estimating models with hierarchical components. Since no systematic assessment has been conducted of the performance of these strategies, they appear to be used in an ad-hoc fashion in the literature. The objective of this paper is to empirically evaluate ways to model party interactions in the context of crashes involving two parties. To this end, a series of models are estimated using data from Canada's National Collision Database. Three levels of crash severity (no injury/injury/fatality) are analyzed using ordered probit models and covariates for the parties in the crash and the conditions of the crash. The models are assessed using predicted shares and classes of outcomes, and the results highlight the importance of considering opponent effects in crash severity analysis. The study also suggests that hierarchical (i.e., multi-level) specifications and subsetting do not necessarily perform better than a relatively simple single-level model with opponent-related factors. The results of this study provide insights regarding the performance of different modelling strategies, and should be informative to researchers in the field of crash severity.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Estatísticos , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 92, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has suggested the positive impact of physical activity on health and wellbeing in older age, yet few studies have investigated the associations between physical activity and heterogeneous trajectories of healthy ageing. We aimed to identify how physical activity can influence healthy ageing trajectories using a harmonised dataset of eight ageing cohorts across the world. METHODS: Based on a harmonised dataset of eight ageing cohorts in Australia, USA, Mexico, Japan, South Korea, and Europe, comprising 130,521 older adults (Mage = 62.81, SDage = 10.06) followed-up up to 10 years (Mfollow-up = 5.47, SDfollow-up = 3.22), we employed growth mixture modelling to identify latent classes of people with different trajectories of healthy ageing scores, which incorporated 41 items of health and functioning. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to investigate the associations between physical activity and different types of trajectories adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and other lifestyle behaviours. RESULTS: Three latent classes of healthy ageing trajectories were identified: two with stable trajectories with high (71.4%) or low (25.2%) starting points and one with a high starting point but a fast decline over time (3.4%). Engagement in any level of physical activity was associated with decreased odds of being in the low stable (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.19) and fast decline trajectories groups (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.50) compared to the high stable trajectory group. These results were replicated with alternative physical activity operationalisations, as well as in sensitivity analyses using reduced samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a positive impact of physical activity on healthy ageing, attenuating declines in health and functioning. Physical activity promotion should be a key focus of healthy ageing policies to prevent disability and fast deterioration in health.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Envelhecimento Saudável , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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