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1.
N Engl J Med ; 383(10): 919-930, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol have been found to reduce neuronal death in experimental models. The efficacy and safety of a combination of the two compounds in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are not known. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial, we enrolled participants with definite ALS who had had an onset of symptoms within the previous 18 months. Participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol (3 g of sodium phenylbutyrate and 1 g of taurursodiol, administered once a day for 3 weeks and then twice a day) or placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of decline in the total score on the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R; range, 0 to 48, with higher scores indicating better function) through 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the rates of decline in isometric muscle strength, plasma phosphorylated axonal neurofilament H subunit levels, and the slow vital capacity; the time to death, tracheostomy, or permanent ventilation; and the time to death, tracheostomy, permanent ventilation, or hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 177 persons with ALS were screened for eligibility, and 137 were randomly assigned to receive sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol (89 participants) or placebo (48 participants). In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the mean rate of change in the ALSFRS-R score was -1.24 points per month with the active drug and -1.66 points per month with placebo (difference, 0.42 points per month; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.81; P = 0.03). Secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. Adverse events with the active drug were mainly gastrointestinal. CONCLUSIONS: Sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol resulted in slower functional decline than placebo as measured by the ALSFRS-R score over a period of 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups. Longer and larger trials are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol in persons with ALS. (Funded by Amylyx Pharmaceuticals and others; CENTAUR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03127514.).


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Fenilbutiratos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenilbutiratos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(10): 1405-1411, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993326

RESUMO

AIMS: This exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to determine the splint-related outcomes when using the novel biodegradable wood-composite splint (Woodcast) compared to standard synthetic fibreglass (Dynacast) for the immobilization of undisplaced upper limb fractures in children. METHODS: An exploratory RCT was performed at a tertiary paediatric referral hospital between 1 June 2018 and 30 September 2019. The intention-to-treat population consisted of 170 patients (mean age 8.42 years (SD 3.42); Woodcast (WCG), n = 84, 57 male (67.9%); Dynacast (DNG), n = 86, 58 male (67.4%)). Patients with undisplaced upper limb fractures were randomly assigned to WCG or DNG treatment groups. Primary outcome was the stress stability of the splint material, defined as absence of any deformations or fractures within the splint during study period. Secondary outcomes included patient satisfaction and medical staff opinion. Additionally, biomechanical and chemical analysis of the splint samples was carried out. RESULTS: Of the initial 170 patients, 168 (98.8%) completed at least one follow-up, and were included for analysis of the primary endpoint. Both treatment groups were well-matched regarding to age, sex, and type and localization of the fracture. Splint breakage occurred in three patients (3.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.007% to 0.102%) in the WCG and in three children (3.5%, 95% CI 0.007% to 0.09%) in the DNG (p > 0.99). The incidence of splint-related adverse events did not differ between the WCG (n = 21; 25.0%) and DNG (n = 24; 27.9%; p = 0.720). Under experimental conditions, the maximal tensile strength of Dynacast samples was higher than those deriving from Woodcast (mean 15.37 N/mm² (SD 1.37) vs 10.75 N/mm² (SD 1.20); p = 0.002). Chemical analysis revealed detection of polyisocyanate-prepolymer in Dynacast and polyester in Woodcast samples. CONCLUSION: Splint-related adverse events appear similar between WCG and DNG treatment groups during the treatment of undisplaced forearm fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1405-1411.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Braço/terapia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Contenções , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Vidro , Humanos , Imobilização , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Madeira
3.
BMJ ; 370: m3208, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether opportunistic screening in primary care increases the detection of atrial fibrillation compared with usual care. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 47 intention-to-screen and 49 usual care primary care practices in the Netherlands, not blinded for allocation; the study was carried out from September 2015 to August 2018. PARTICIPANTS: In each practice, a fixed sample of 200 eligible patients, aged 65 or older, with no known history of atrial fibrillation in the electronic medical record system, were randomly selected. In the intention-to-screen group, 9218 patients eligible for screening were included, 55.0% women, mean age 75.2 years. In the usual care group, 9526 patients were eligible for screening, 54.3% women, mean age 75.0 years. INTERVENTIONS: Opportunistic screening (that is, screening in patients visiting their general practice) consisted of three index tests: pulse palpation, electronic blood pressure measurement with an atrial fibrillation algorithm, and electrocardiography (ECG) with a handheld single lead electrocardiographic device. The reference standard was 12 lead ECG, performed in patients with at least one positive index test and in a sample of patients (10%) with three negative tests. If 12 lead ECG showed no atrial fibrillation, patients were invited for more screening by continuous monitoring with a Holter electrocardiograph for two weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Difference in the detection rate of newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation over one year in intention-to-screen versus usual care practices. RESULTS: Follow-up was complete for 8874 patients in the intention-to-screen practices and for 9102 patients in the usual care practices. 144 (1.62%) new diagnoses of atrial fibrillation in the intention-to-screen group versus 139 (1.53%) in the usual care group were found (adjusted odds ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.35)). Of 9218 eligible patients in the intention-to-screen group, 4106 (44.5%) participated in the screening protocol. In these patients, 12 lead ECG detected newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation in 26 patients (0.63%). In the 266 patients who continued with Holter monitoring, four more diagnoses of atrial fibrillation were found. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunistic screening for atrial fibrillation in primary care patients, aged 65 and over, did not increase the detection rate of atrial fibrillation, which implies that opportunistic screening for atrial fibrillation is not useful in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register No NL4776 (old NTR4914).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Seleção de Pacientes , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Análise por Conglomerados , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores de Risco
4.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1317-1330, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd) is a standard therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Carfilzomib, a next-generation proteasome inhibitor, in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd), has shown promising efficacy in phase 2 trials and might improve outcomes compared with VRd. We aimed to assess whether the KRd regimen is superior to the VRd regimen in the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in patients who were not being considered for immediate autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial (the ENDURANCE trial; E1A11), we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for, or did not intend to have, immediate ASCT. Participants were recruited from 272 community oncology practices or academic medical centres in the USA. Key inclusion criteria were the absence of high-risk multiple myeloma and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by use of permuted blocks to receive induction therapy with either the VRd regimen or the KRd regimen for 36 weeks. Patients who completed induction therapy were then randomly assigned (1:1) a second time to either indefinite maintenance or 2 years of maintenance with lenalidomide. Randomisation was stratified by intent for ASCT at disease progression for the first randomisation and by the induction therapy received for the second randomisation. Allocation was not masked to investigators or patients. For 12 cycles of 3 weeks, patients in the VRd group received 1·3 mg/m2 of bortezomib subcutaneously or intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of cycles 1-8, and day 1 and day 8 of cycles nine to twelve, 25 mg of oral lenalidomide on days 1-14, and 20 mg of oral dexamethasone on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12. For nine cycles of 4 weeks, patients in the KRd group received 36 mg/m2 of intravenous carfilzomib on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16, 25 mg of oral lenalidomide on days 1-21, and 40 mg of oral dexamethasone on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. The coprimary endpoints were progression-free survival in the induction phase, and overall survival in the maintenance phase. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01863550. Study recruitment is complete, and follow-up of the maintenance phase is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Dec 6, 2013, and Feb 6, 2019, 1087 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the VRd regimen (n=542) or the KRd regimen (n=545). At a median follow-up of 9 months (IQR 5-23), at a second planned interim analysis, the median progression-free survival was 34·6 months (95% CI 28·8-37·8) in the KRd group and 34·4 months (30·1-not estimable) in the VRd group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·04, 95% CI 0·83-1·31; p=0·74). Median overall survival has not been reached in either group. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related non-haematological adverse events included fatigue (34 [6%] of 527 patients in the VRd group vs 29 [6%] of 526 in the KRd group), hyperglycaemia (23 [4%] vs 34 [6%]), diarrhoea (23 [5%] vs 16 [3%]), peripheral neuropathy (44 [8%] vs four [<1%]), dyspnoea (nine [2%] vs 38 [7%]), and thromboembolic events (11 [2%] vs 26 [5%]). Treatment-related deaths occurred in two patients (<1%) in the VRd group (one cardiotoxicity and one secondary cancer) and 11 (2%) in the KRd group (four cardiotoxicity, two acute kidney failure, one liver toxicity, two respiratory failure, one thromboembolic event, and one sudden death). INTERPRETATION: The KRd regimen did not improve progression-free survival compared with the VRd regimen in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, and had more toxicity. The VRd triplet regimen remains the standard of care for induction therapy for patients with standard-risk and intermediate-risk newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, and is a suitable treatment backbone for the development of combinations of four drugs. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, and Amgen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteassoma/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postpyloric feeding tube placement is a time-consuming procedure associated with multiple attempts and radiation exposure. Our objective with this study is to compare the time, attempts, and radiation exposure using the electromagnetic versus blind method to place a postpyloric feeding tube in critically ill children. Our hypothesis is that using electromagnetic guidance decreases the procedure time, number of x-rays, and number of attempts, compared to the blind method. METHODS: Eleven pediatric nurses participated in a randomized controlled intention-to-treat study at an academic pediatric medical, surgical, and congenital cardiac ICU. University of Texas Health Epidemiology and Biostatistics generated a randomization sequence with sealed envelopes. A standard (2-sided) F-test of association between the electromagnetic and blind method yielded 40 subjects with 86% power. Data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon rank test for continuous variables, with data documented as median (interquartile range [IQR]). RESULTS: We randomly assigned 52 patients to either the electromagnetic (n = 28) or blind method (n = 24). The number of attempts and radiographs was at a median of 2 (IQR: 1-2.25) using the blind method, compared to the electromagnetic method at a median of 1 (IQR: 1.0-1.0; P = .001). Successful guidance was 96.4% with the electromagnetic method, compared to only 66.7% with the blind technique (P = .008). The total time required was 2.5 minutes (IQR: 2.0-7.25) with the electromagnetic method, compared to 19 minutes (IQR: 9.25-27.0) for the blind method (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Electromagnetic guidance is a superior, faster, and overall safer method to place a postpyloric feeding tube in critically ill children.


Assuntos
Intubação Gastrointestinal/métodos , Imãs , Piloro , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Intubação Gastrointestinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Piloro/diagnóstico por imagem , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Radiografia Abdominal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(11): 1009-1017, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When patients with a tracheostomy tube reach a stage in their care at which decannulation appears to be possible, it is common practice to cap the tracheostomy tube for 24 hours to see whether they can breathe on their own. Whether this approach to establishing patient readiness for decannulation leads to better outcomes than one based on the frequency of airway suctioning is unclear. METHODS: In five intensive care units (ICUs), we enrolled conscious, critically ill adults who had a tracheostomy tube; patients were eligible after weaning from mechanical ventilation. In this unblinded trial, patients were randomly assigned either to undergo a 24-hour capping trial plus intermittent high-flow oxygen therapy (control group) or to receive continuous high-flow oxygen therapy with frequency of suctioning being the indicator of readiness for decannulation (intervention group). The primary outcome was the time to decannulation, compared by means of the log-rank test. Secondary outcomes included decannulation failure, weaning failure, respiratory infections, sepsis, multiorgan failure, durations of stay in the ICU and hospital, and deaths in the ICU and hospital. RESULTS: The trial included 330 patients; the mean (±SD) age of the patients was 58.3±15.1 years, and 68.2% of the patients were men. A total of 161 patients were assigned to the control group and 169 to the intervention group. The time to decannulation was shorter in the intervention group than in the control group (median, 6 days [interquartile range, 5 to 7] vs. 13 days [interquartile range, 11 to 14]; absolute difference, 7 days [95% confidence interval, 5 to 9]). The incidence of pneumonia and tracheobronchitis was lower, and the duration of stay in the hospital shorter, in the intervention group than in the control group. Other secondary outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Basing the decision to decannulate on suctioning frequency plus continuous high-flow oxygen therapy rather than on 24-hour capping trials plus intermittent high-flow oxygen therapy reduced the time to decannulation, with no evidence of a between-group difference in the incidence of decannulation failure. (REDECAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02512744.).


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo , Oxigenoterapia , Sucção , Traqueostomia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Desmame do Respirador
7.
N Engl J Med ; 383(11): 1028-1039, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of combination therapy with eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in delaying disease progression in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the combination of eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in adults with familial adenomatous polyposis. The patients were stratified on the basis of anatomical site with the highest polyp burden and surgical status; the strata were precolectomy (shortest projected time to disease progression), rectal or ileal pouch polyposis after colectomy (longest projected time), and duodenal polyposis (intermediate projected time). The patients were then randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 750 mg of eflornithine, 150 mg of sulindac, or both once daily for up to 48 months. The primary end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was disease progression, defined as a composite of major surgery, endoscopic excision of advanced adenomas, diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia in the rectum or pouch, or progression of duodenal disease. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients underwent randomization. Disease progression occurred in 18 of 56 patients (32%) in the eflornithine-sulindac group, 22 of 58 (38%) in the sulindac group, and 23 of 57 (40%) in the eflornithine group, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 1.32) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with sulindac (P = 0.29) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.36 to 1.24) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with eflornithine. Among 37 precolectomy patients, the corresponding values in the treatment groups were 2 of 12 patients (17%), 6 of 13 (46%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.07 to 1.32] and 0.20 [95% CI, 0.03 to 1.32]); among 34 patients with rectal or ileal pouch polyposis, the values were 4 of 11 patients (36%), 2 of 11 (18%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 2.03 [95% CI, 0.43 to 9.62] and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.24 to 2.90]); and among 100 patients with duodenal polyposis, the values were 12 of 33 patients (36%), 14 of 34 (41%), and 13 of 33 (39%) (hazard ratios, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.34 to 1.52] and 0.76 [95% CI, 0.35 to 1.64]). Adverse and serious adverse events were similar across the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, the incidence of disease progression was not significantly lower with the combination of eflornithine and sulindac than with either drug alone. (Funded by Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01483144; EudraCT number, 2012-000427-41.).


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Eflornitina/uso terapêutico , Sulindaco/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eflornitina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Sulindaco/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1117-1128, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adults with active lupus nephritis, the efficacy and safety of intravenous belimumab as compared with placebo, when added to standard therapy (mycophenolate mofetil or cyclophosphamide-azathioprine), are unknown. METHODS: In a phase 3, multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 104-week trial conducted at 107 sites in 21 countries, we assigned adults with biopsy-proven, active lupus nephritis in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous belimumab (at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo, in addition to standard therapy. The primary end point at week 104 was a primary efficacy renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of ≤0.7, an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] that was no worse than 20% below the value before the renal flare (pre-flare value) or ≥60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area, and no use of rescue therapy), and the major secondary end point was a complete renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of <0.5, an eGFR that was no worse than 10% below the pre-flare value or ≥90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, and no use of rescue therapy). The time to a renal-related event or death was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 448 patients underwent randomization (224 to the belimumab group and 224 to the placebo group). At week 104, significantly more patients in the belimumab group than in the placebo group had a primary efficacy renal response (43% vs. 32%; odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 2.3; P = 0.03) and a complete renal response (30% vs. 20%; odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; P = 0.02). The risk of a renal-related event or death was lower among patients who received belimumab than among those who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.77; P = 0.001). The safety profile of belimumab was consistent with that in previous trials. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with active lupus nephritis, more patients who received belimumab plus standard therapy had a primary efficacy renal response than those who received standard therapy alone. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; BLISS-LN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01639339.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/urina , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Nefrite Lúpica/mortalidade , Masculino , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão
9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1129-1138, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term oxygen therapy improves survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic severe daytime hypoxemia. However, the efficacy of oxygen therapy for the management of isolated nocturnal hypoxemia is uncertain. METHODS: We designed this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to determine, in patients with COPD who have nocturnal arterial oxygen desaturation without qualifying for long-term oxygen therapy, whether nocturnal oxygen provided for a period of 3 to 4 years would decrease mortality or the worsening of disease such that patients meet current specifications for long-term oxygen therapy. Patients with an oxygen saturation of less than 90% for at least 30% of the recording time on nocturnal oximetry were assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either nocturnal oxygen or ambient air from a sham concentrator (placebo). The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause or a requirement for long-term oxygen therapy as defined by the Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial (NOTT) criteria in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: Recruitment was stopped prematurely because of recruitment and retention difficulties after 243 patients, of a projected 600, had undergone randomization at 28 centers. At 3 years of follow-up, 39.0% of the patients assigned to nocturnal oxygen (48 of 123) and 42.0% of those assigned to placebo (50 of 119) met the NOTT-defined criteria for long-term oxygen therapy or had died (difference, -3.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -15.1 to 9.1). CONCLUSIONS: Our underpowered trial provides no indication that nocturnal oxygen has a positive or negative effect on survival or progression to long-term oxygen therapy in patients with COPD. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; INOX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01044628.).


Assuntos
Oxigenoterapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipóxia/terapia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximetria , Oxigênio/sangue , Cooperação do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia
10.
N Engl J Med ; 383(9): 825-835, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RET mutations occur in 70% of medullary thyroid cancers, and RET fusions occur rarely in other thyroid cancers. In patients with RET-altered thyroid cancers, the efficacy and safety of selective RET inhibition are unknown. METHODS: We enrolled patients with RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer with or without previous vandetanib or cabozantinib treatment, as well as those with previously treated RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer, in a phase 1-2 trial of selpercatinib. The primary end point was an objective response (a complete or partial response), as determined by an independent review committee. Secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety. RESULTS: In the first 55 consecutively enrolled patients with RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer who had previously received vandetanib, cabozantinib, or both, the percentage who had a response was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55 to 81), and 1-year progression-free survival was 82% (95% CI, 69 to 90). In 88 patients with RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer who had not previously received vandetanib or cabozantinib, the percentage who had a response was 73% (95% CI, 62 to 82), and 1-year progression-free survival was 92% (95% CI, 82 to 97). In 19 patients with previously treated RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer, the percentage who had a response was 79% (95% CI, 54 to 94), and 1-year progression-free survival was 64% (95% CI, 37 to 82). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were hypertension (in 21% of the patients), increased alanine aminotransferase level (in 11%), increased aspartate aminotransferase level (in 9%), hyponatremia (in 8%), and diarrhea (in 6%). Of all 531 patients treated, 12 (2%) discontinued selpercatinib owing to drug-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In this phase 1-2 trial, selpercatinib showed durable efficacy with mainly low-grade toxic effects in patients with medullary thyroid cancer with and without previous vandetanib or cabozantinib treatment. (Funded by Loxo Oncology and others; LIBRETTO-001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03157128.).


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/análise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Transaminases/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
N Engl J Med ; 383(7): 617-629, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a dismal prognosis, even after treatment with a hypomethylating agent. Azacitidine added to venetoclax had promising efficacy in a previous phase 1b study. METHODS: We randomly assigned previously untreated patients with confirmed AML who were ineligible for standard induction therapy because of coexisting conditions, because they were 75 years of age or older, or both to azacitidine plus either venetoclax or placebo. All patients received a standard dose of azacitidine (75 mg per square meter of body-surface area subcutaneously or intravenously on days 1 through 7 every 28-day cycle); venetoclax (target dose, 400 mg) or matching placebo was administered orally, once daily, in 28-day cycles. The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 431 patients (286 in the azacitidine-venetoclax group and 145 in the azacitidine-placebo [control] group). The median age was 76 years in both groups (range, 49 to 91). At a median follow-up of 20.5 months, the median overall survival was 14.7 months in the azacitidine-venetoclax group and 9.6 months in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.85; P<0.001). The incidence of complete remission was higher with azacitidine-venetoclax than with the control regimen (36.7% vs. 17.9%; P<0.001), as was the composite complete remission (complete remission or complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery) (66.4% vs. 28.3%; P<0.001). Key adverse events included nausea of any grade (in 44% of the patients in the azacitidine-venetoclax group and 35% of those in the control group) and grade 3 or higher thrombocytopenia (in 45% and 38%, respectively), neutropenia (in 42% and 28%), and febrile neutropenia (in 42% and 19%). Infections of any grade occurred in 85% of the patients in the azacitidine-venetoclax group and 67% of those in the control group, and serious adverse events occurred in 83% and 73%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In previously untreated patients who were ineligible for intensive chemotherapy, overall survival was longer and the incidence of remission was higher among patients who received azacitidine plus venetoclax than among those who received azacitidine alone. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was higher in the venetoclax-azacitidine group than in the control group. (Funded by AbbVie and Genentech; VIALE-A ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02993523.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/etiologia , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente
12.
N Engl J Med ; 383(9): 813-824, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RET fusions are oncogenic drivers in 1 to 2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). In patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC, the efficacy and safety of selective RET inhibition are unknown. METHODS: We enrolled patients with advanced RET fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received platinum-based chemotherapy and those who were previously untreated separately in a phase 1-2 trial of selpercatinib. The primary end point was an objective response (a complete or partial response) as determined by an independent review committee. Secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety. RESULTS: In the first 105 consecutively enrolled patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received at least platinum-based chemotherapy, the percentage with an objective response was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54 to 73). The median duration of response was 17.5 months (95% CI, 12.0 to could not be evaluated), and 63% of the responses were ongoing at a median follow-up of 12.1 months. Among 39 previously untreated patients, the percentage with an objective response was 85% (95% CI, 70 to 94), and 90% of the responses were ongoing at 6 months. Among 11 patients with measurable central nervous system metastasis at enrollment, the percentage with an objective intracranial response was 91% (95% CI, 59 to 100). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were hypertension (in 14% of the patients), an increased alanine aminotransferase level (in 12%), an increased aspartate aminotransferase level (in 10%), hyponatremia (in 6%), and lymphopenia (in 6%). A total of 12 of 531 patients (2%) discontinued selpercatinib because of a drug-related adverse event. CONCLUSIONS: Selpercatinib had durable efficacy, including intracranial activity, with mainly low-grade toxic effects in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received platinum-based chemotherapy and those who were previously untreated. (Funded by Loxo Oncology and others; LIBRETTO-001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03157128.).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/análise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Transaminases/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD009716, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Antiplatelet agents are considered to be the cornerstone for secondary prevention of stroke, but the role of using multiple antiplatelet agents early after stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) to improve outcomes has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of initiating, within 72 hours after an ischaemic stroke or TIA, multiple antiplatelet agents versus fewer antiplatelet agents to prevent stroke recurrence. The analysis explores the evidence for different drug combinations. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 6 July 2020), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 7 of 12, 2020) (last searched 6 July 2020), MEDLINE Ovid (from 1946 to 6 July 2020), Embase (1980 to 6 July 2020), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO ICTRP. We also searched the reference lists of identified studies and reviews and used the Science Citation Index Cited Reference search for forward tracking of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the use of multiple versus fewer antiplatelet agents initiated within 72 hours after stroke or TIA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data from eligible studies for the primary outcomes of stroke recurrence and vascular death, and secondary outcomes of myocardial infarction; composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death; intracranial haemorrhage; extracranial haemorrhage; ischaemic stroke; death from all causes; and haemorrhagic stroke. We computed an estimate of treatment effect and performed a test for heterogeneity between trials. We analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis and assessed bias for all studies. We rated the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 RCTs with a total of 17,091 participants. Compared with fewer antiplatelet agents, multiple antiplatelet agents were associated with a significantly lower risk of stroke recurrence (5.78% versus 7.84%, risk ratio (RR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 0.82; P < 0.001; moderate-certainty evidence) with no significant difference in vascular death (0.60% versus 0.66%, RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.45; P = 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). There was a higher risk of intracranial haemorrhage (0.42% versus 0.21%, RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.50; P = 0.03; low-certainty evidence) and extracranial haemorrhage (6.38% versus 2.81%, RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.88 to 2.70; P < 0.001; high-certainty evidence) with multiple antiplatelet agents. On secondary analysis of dual versus single antiplatelet agent therapy, benefit for stroke recurrence (5.73% versus 8.06%, RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.80; P < 0.001; moderate-certainty evidence) was maintained as well as risk of extracranial haemorrhage (1.24% versus 0.40%, RR 3.08, 95% CI 1.74 to 5.46; P < 0.001; high-certainty evidence). The composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death (6.37% versus 8.77%, RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.82; P < 0.001; moderate-certainty evidence) and ischaemic stroke (6.30% versus 8.94%, RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.81; P < 0.001; high-certainty evidence) were significantly in favour of dual antiplatelet therapy, whilst the risk of intracranial haemorrhage became less significant (0.34% versus 0.21%, RR 1.53, 95% CI 0.76 to 3.06; P = 0.23; low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Multiple antiplatelet agents are more effective in reducing stroke recurrence but increase the risk of haemorrhage compared to one antiplatelet agent. The benefit in reduction of stroke recurrence seems to outweigh the harm for dual antiplatelet agents initiated in the acute setting and continued for one month. There is lack of evidence regarding multiple versus multiple antiplatelet agents. Further studies are required in different populations to establish comprehensive safety profiles and long-term outcomes to establish duration of therapy.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Viés , Causas de Morte , Intervalos de Confiança , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-third of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are inappropriate. We evaluated a distance learning program's effectiveness for reducing outpatient antibiotic prescribing for ARTI visits. METHODS: In this stepped-wedge clinical trial run from November 2015 to June 2018, we randomly assigned 19 pediatric practices belonging to the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network or the NorthShore University HealthSystem to 4 wedges. Visits for acute otitis media, bronchitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory infection for children 6 months to <11 years old without recent antibiotic use were included. Clinicians received the intervention as 3 program modules containing online tutorials and webinars on evidence-based communication strategies and antibioti c prescribing, booster video vignettes, and individualized antibiotic prescribing feedback reports over 11 months. The primary outcome was overall antibiotic prescribing rates for all ARTI visits. Mixed-effects logistic regression compared prescribing rates during each program module and a postintervention period to a baseline control period. Odds ratios were converted to adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for interpretability. RESULTS: Among 72 723 ARTI visits by 29 762 patients, intention-to-treat analyses revealed a 7% decrease in the probability of antibiotic prescribing for ARTI overall between the baseline and postintervention periods (aRR 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.96). Second-line antibiotic prescribing decreased for streptococcal pharyngitis (aRR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.87) and sinusitis (aRR 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44-0.77) but not for acute otitis media (aRR 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.03). Any antibiotic prescribing decreased for viral ARTIs (aRR 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70). CONCLUSIONS: This program reduced antibiotic prescribing during outpatient ARTI visits; broader dissemination may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Bronquite/tratamento farmacológico , Bronquite/virologia , Chicago , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Intervalos de Confiança , Educação a Distância/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Enfermagem Pediátrica/educação , Enfermagem Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatras/educação , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/microbiologia , Faringite/virologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
15.
N Engl J Med ; 383(4): 309-320, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baloxavir marboxil (baloxavir) is a polymerase acidic protein (PA) endonuclease inhibitor with clinical efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated influenza, including in outpatients at increased risk for complications. The postexposure prophylactic efficacy of baloxavir in the household setting is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the postexposure prophylactic efficacy of baloxavir in household contacts of index patients with confirmed influenza during the 2018-2019 season in Japan. The participants were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a single dose of baloxavir or placebo. The primary end point was clinical influenza, as confirmed by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction testing, over a period of 10 days. The occurrence of baloxavir-selected PA substitutions associated with reduced susceptibility was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 752 household contacts of 545 index patients were randomly assigned to receive baloxavir or placebo. Among the index patients, 95.6% had influenza A virus infection, 73.6% were younger than 12 years of age, and 52.7% received baloxavir. Among the participants who could be evaluated (374 in the baloxavir group and 375 in the placebo group), the percentage in whom clinical influenza developed was significantly lower in the baloxavir group than in the placebo group (1.9% vs. 13.6%) (adjusted risk ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.30; P<0.001). Baloxavir was effective in high-risk, pediatric, and unvaccinated subgroups of participants. The risk of influenza infection, regardless of symptoms, was lower with baloxavir than with placebo (adjusted risk ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.58). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups (22.2% in the baloxavir group and 20.5% in the placebo group). In the baloxavir group, the viral PA substitutions I38T/M or E23K were detected in 10 (2.7%) and 5 (1.3%) participants, respectively. No transmission of these variants from baloxavir-treated index patients to participants in the placebo group was detected; however, several instances of transmission to participants in the baloxavir group could not be ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose baloxavir showed significant postexposure prophylactic efficacy in preventing influenza in household contacts of patients with influenza. (Funded by Shionogi; Japan Primary Registries Network number, JapicCTI-184180.).


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Tiepinas/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Endonucleases/antagonistas & inibidores , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Tiepinas/administração & dosagem , Tiepinas/efeitos adversos , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/efeitos adversos
16.
N Engl J Med ; 383(5): 440-451, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uterine fibroids, the most common type of tumor among women of reproductive age, are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding, abdominal discomfort, subfertility, and a reduced quality of life. For women who wish to preserve their uterus and who have not had a response to medical treatment, myomectomy and uterine-artery embolization are therapeutic options. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial to evaluate myomectomy, as compared with uterine-artery embolization, in women who had symptomatic uterine fibroids and did not want to undergo hysterectomy. Procedural options included open abdominal, laparoscopic, or hysteroscopic myomectomy. The primary outcome was fibroid-related quality of life, as assessed by the score on the health-related quality-of-life domain of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) questionnaire (scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a better quality of life) at 2 years; adjustment was made for the baseline score. RESULTS: A total of 254 women, recruited at 29 hospitals in the United Kingdom, were randomly assigned: 127 to the myomectomy group (of whom 105 underwent myomectomy) and 127 to the uterine-artery embolization group (of whom 98 underwent embolization). Data on the primary outcome were available for 206 women (81%). In the intention-to-treat analysis, the mean (±SD) score on the health-related quality-of-life domain of the UFS-QOL questionnaire at 2 years was 84.6±21.5 in the myomectomy group and 80.0±22.0 in the uterine-artery embolization group (mean adjusted difference with complete case analysis, 8.0 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 14.1; P = 0.01; mean adjusted difference with missing responses imputed, 6.5 points; 95% CI, 1.1 to 11.9). Perioperative and postoperative complications from all initial procedures, irrespective of adherence to the assigned procedure, occurred in 29% of the women in the myomectomy group and in 24% of the women in the uterine-artery embolization group. CONCLUSIONS: Among women with symptomatic uterine fibroids, those who underwent myomectomy had a better fibroid-related quality of life at 2 years than those who underwent uterine-artery embolization. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment program; FEMME Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN70772394.).


Assuntos
Leiomioma/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Embolização da Artéria Uterina , Miomectomia Uterina , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Histeroscopia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Laparoscopia , Leiomioma/terapia , Tempo de Internação , Menorragia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reserva Ovariana , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolização da Artéria Uterina/efeitos adversos , Miomectomia Uterina/efeitos adversos , Miomectomia Uterina/métodos , Neoplasias Uterinas/terapia , Útero/cirurgia
17.
BMJ ; 370: m2397, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of food supplementation on improving working memory and additional measures including cerebral blood flow in children at risk of undernutrition. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: 10 villages in Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1059 children aged 15 months to 7 years; children younger than 4 were the primary population. INTERVENTIONS: Supervised isocaloric servings (≈1300 kJ, five mornings each week, 23 weeks) of a new food supplement (NEWSUP, high in plant polyphenols and omega 3 fatty acids, within a wide variety and high fortification of micronutrients, and a high protein content), or a fortified blended food (FBF) used in nutrition programs, or a control meal (traditional rice breakfast). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was working memory, a core executive function predicting long term academic achievement. Additional outcomes were hemoglobin concentration, growth, body composition, and index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi). In addition to an intention-to-treat analysis, a predefined per protocol analysis was conducted in children who consumed at least 75% of the supplement (820/925, 89%). The primary outcome was assessed by a multivariable Poisson model; other outcomes were assessed by multivariable linear mixed models. RESULTS: Among children younger than 4, randomization to NEWSUP increased working memory compared with the control meal (rate ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.41, P=0.03), with a larger effect in the per protocol population (1.25, 1.06 to 1.47, P=0.009). NEWSUP also increased hemoglobin concentration among children with anemia (adjusted mean difference 0.65 g/dL, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 1.07, P=0.003) compared with the control meal, decreased body mass index z score gain (-0.23, -0.43 to -0.02, P=0.03), and increased lean tissue accretion (2.98 cm2, 0.04 to 5.92, P=0.046) with less fat (-5.82 cm2, -11.28 to -0.36, P=0.04) compared with FBF. Additionally, NEWSUP increased CBFi compared with the control meal and FBF in both age groups combined (1.14 mm2/s×10-8, 0.10 to 2.23, P=0.04 for both comparisons). Among children aged 4 and older, NEWSUP had no significant effect on working memory or anemia, but increased lean tissue compared with FBF (4.31 cm2, 0.34 to 8.28, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood undernutrition is associated with long term impairment in cognition. Contrary to current understanding, supplementary feeding for 23 weeks could improve executive function, brain health, and nutritional status in vulnerable young children living in low income countries. Further research is needed to optimize nutritional prescriptions for regenerative improvements in cognitive function, and to test effectiveness in other vulnerable groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03017209.


Assuntos
Anemia/dietoterapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/provisão & distribução , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento/métodos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/provisão & distribução , Medição de Risco
19.
N Engl J Med ; 383(2): 141-150, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nemolizumab is a subcutaneously administered humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-31 receptor A, which is involved in pruritus and inflammation in atopic dermatitis. In phase 2 studies, nemolizumab lessened the severity of atopic dermatitis. METHODS: In a 16-week, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned Japanese patients with atopic dermatitis and moderate-to-severe pruritus and an inadequate response to topical agents in a 2:1 ratio to receive subcutaneous nemolizumab (60 mg) or placebo every 4 weeks until week 16, with concomitant topical agents. The primary end point was the mean percent change in the visual-analogue scale (VAS) score for pruritus (range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating worse pruritus) from baseline to week 16. Secondary end points included the time course of change in the VAS score for pruritus up to week 4, the change in the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score (range, 0 to 72, with higher scores indicating greater severity), a score of 4 or less on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI; range, 0 to 30, with higher scores indicating a greater effect on daily life), a score of 7 or less on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI; range, 0 to 28, with higher scores indicating greater severity), and safety. RESULTS: A total of 143 patients were randomly assigned to receive nemolizumab and 72 to receive placebo. The median VAS score for pruritus at baseline was 75. At week 16, the mean percent change in the VAS score was -42.8% in the nemolizumab group and -21.4% in the placebo group (difference, -21.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -30.2 to -12.7; P<0.001). The mean percent change in the EASI score was -45.9% with nemolizumab and -33.2% with placebo. The percentage of patients with a DLQI score of 4 or less was 40% in the nemolizumab group and 22% in the placebo group; the percentage of patients with an ISI score of 7 or less was 55% and 21%, respectively. The incidence of injection-related reactions was 8% with nemolizumab and 3% with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In this 16-week trial, the use of subcutaneous nemolizumab in addition to topical agents for atopic dermatitis resulted in a greater reduction in pruritus than placebo plus topical agents. The incidence of injection-site reactions was greater with nemolizumab than with placebo. Longer and larger trials are necessary to determine whether nemolizumab has a durable effect and is safe for atopic dermatitis. (Funded by Maruho; JapicCTI number, 173740.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prurido/etiologia , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
20.
N Engl J Med ; 383(3): 240-251, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill patients, many of whom receive renal-replacement therapy. However, the most effective timing for the initiation of such therapy remains uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a multinational, randomized, controlled trial involving critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an accelerated strategy of renal-replacement therapy (in which therapy was initiated within 12 hours after the patient had met eligibility criteria) or a standard strategy (in which renal-replacement therapy was discouraged unless conventional indications developed or acute kidney injury persisted for >72 hours). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 90 days. RESULTS: Of the 3019 patients who had undergone randomization, 2927 (97.0%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (1465 in the accelerated-strategy group and 1462 in the standard-strategy group). Of these patients, renal-replacement therapy was performed in 1418 (96.8%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 903 (61.8%) in the standard-strategy group. At 90 days, death had occurred in 643 patients (43.9%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 639 (43.7%) in the standard-strategy group (relative risk, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.09; P = 0.92). Among survivors at 90 days, continued dependence on renal-replacement therapy was confirmed in 85 of 814 patients (10.4%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 49 of 815 patients (6.0%) in the standard-strategy group (relative risk, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.43). Adverse events occurred in 346 of 1503 patients (23.0%) in the accelerated-strategy group and in 245 of 1489 patients (16.5%) in the standard-strategy group (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury, an accelerated renal-replacement strategy was not associated with a lower risk of death at 90 days than a standard strategy. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; STARRT-AKI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02568722.).


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/efeitos adversos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
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