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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): 1240-1249, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) reduces prostate cancer mortality but can lead to adverse outcomes. We aimed to compare a traditional screening approach with a diagnostic strategy of blood-based risk prediction combined with MRI-targeted biopsies. METHODS: We did a prospective, population-based, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial (STHLM3-MRI) in Stockholm county, Sweden. Men aged 50-74 years were randomly selected by Statistics Sweden and invited by mail to participate in screening; those with an elevated risk of prostate cancer, defined as either a PSA of 3 ng/mL or higher or a Stockholm3 score of 0·11 or higher were eligible for randomisation. Men with a previous prostate cancer diagnosis, who had undergone a prostate biopsy within 60 days before the invitation to participate, with a contraindication for MRI, or with severe illness were excluded. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (2:3) using computer-generated blocks of five, stratified by clinically significant prostate cancer risk, to receive either systematic prostate biopsies (standard group) or biparametric MRI followed by MRI-targeted and systematic biopsy in MRI-positive participants (experimental group). The primary outcome was the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer at prostate biopsy, defined as a Gleason score of 3 + 4 or higher. We used a margin of 0·78 to assess non-inferiority for the primary outcome. Key secondary outcome measures included the proportion of men with clinically insignificant prostate cancer (defined as a Gleason score of 3 + 3), and the number of any prostate MRI and biopsy procedures done. We did two comparisons: Stockholm3 (using scores of 0·11 and 0·15 as cutoffs) versus PSA in the experimental group (paired analyses) and PSA plus standard biopsy versus Stockholm3 plus MRI-targeted and systematic biopsy (unpaired, randomised analyses). All analyses were intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03377881. FINDINGS: Between Feb 5, 2018, and March 4, 2020, 49 118 men were invited to participate, of whom 12 750 were enrolled and provided blood specimens, and 2293 with elevated risk were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=1372) or the standard group (n=921). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer was 0·76 (95% CI 0·72-0·80) for Stockholm3 and 0·60 (0·54-0·65) for PSA. In the experimental group, a Stockholm3 of 0·11 or higher was non-inferior to a PSA of 3 ng/mL or higher for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (227 vs 192; relative proportion [RP] 1·18 [95% CI 1·09-1·28], p<0·0001 for non-inferiority), and also detected a similar number of low-grade prostate cancers (50 vs 41; 1·22 [0·96-1·55], p=0·053 for superiority) and was associated with more MRIs and biopsies. Compared with PSA of 3 ng/mL or higher, a Stockholm3 of 0·15 or higher provided identical sensitivity to detect clinically significant cancer, and led to fewer MRI procedures (545 vs 846; 0·64 [0·55-0·82]) and fewer biopsy procedures (311 vs 338; 0·92 (0·86-1·03). Compared with screening using PSA and systematic biopsies, a Stockholm3 of 0·11 or higher combined with MRI-targeted and systematic biopsies was associated with higher detection of clinically significant cancers (227 [3·0%] men tested vs 106 [2·1%] men tested; RP 1·44 [95% CI 1·15-1·81]), lower detection of low-grade cancers (50 [0·7%] vs 73 [1·4%]; 0·46 [0·32-0·66]), and led to fewer biopsy procedures. Patients randomly assigned to the experimental group had a lower incidence of prescription of antibiotics for infection (25 [1·8%] of 1372 vs 41 [4·4%] of 921; p=0·0002) and a lower incidence of admission to hospital (16 [1·2%] vs 31 [3·4%]; p=0·0003) than those in the standard group. INTERPRETATION: The Stockholm3 test can inform risk stratification before MRI and targeted biopsies in prostate cancer screening. Combining the Stockholm3 test with an MRI-targeted biopsy approach for prostate cancer screening decreases overdetection while maintaining the ability to detect clinically significant cancer. FUNDING: The Swedish Cancer Society, the Swedish Research Council, and Stockholm City Council.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Curva ROC , Distribuição Aleatória , Medição de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
3.
N Engl J Med ; 385(6): 526-538, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis, it is uncertain whether decompression surgery alone is noninferior to decompression with instrumented fusion. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, multicenter, noninferiority trial involving patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis that had not responded to conservative management and who had single-level spondylolisthesis of 3 mm or more. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo decompression surgery (decompression-alone group) or decompression surgery with instrumented fusion (fusion group). The primary outcome was a reduction of at least 30% in the score on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI; range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more impairment) during the 2 years after surgery, with a noninferiority margin of -15 percentage points. Secondary outcomes included the mean change in the ODI score as well as scores on the Zurich Claudication Questionnaire, leg and back pain, the duration of surgery and length of hospital stay, and reoperation within 2 years. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was approximately 66 years. Approximately 75% of the patients had leg pain for more than a year, and more than 80% had back pain for more than a year. The mean change from baseline to 2 years in the ODI score was -20.6 in the decompression-alone group and -21.3 in the fusion group (mean difference, 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to 4.3). In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, 95 of 133 patients (71.4%) in the decompression-alone group and 94 of 129 patients (72.9%) in the fusion group had a reduction of at least 30% in the ODI score (difference, -1.4 percentage points; 95% CI, -12.2 to 9.4), showing the noninferiority of decompression alone. In the per-protocol analysis, 80 of 106 patients (75.5%) and 83 of 110 patients (75.5%), respectively, had a reduction of at least 30% in the ODI score (difference, 0.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -11.4 to 11.4), showing noninferiority. The results for the secondary outcomes were generally in the same direction as those for the primary outcome. Successful fusion was achieved with certainty in 86 of 100 patients (86.0%) who had imaging available at 2 years. Reoperation was performed in 15 of 120 patients (12.5%) in the decompression-alone group and in 11 of 121 patients (9.1%) in the fusion group. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who underwent surgery for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, most of whom had symptoms for more than a year, decompression alone was noninferior to decompression with instrumented fusion over a period of 2 years. Reoperation occurred somewhat more often in the decompression-alone group than in the fusion group. (NORDSTEN-DS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02051374.).


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral , Espondilolistese/cirurgia , Idoso , Dor nas Costas , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Perna (Membro) , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(7): 595-608, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective long-acting injectable agents for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are needed to increase the options for preventing HIV infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial to compare long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB-LA, an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor [INSTI]) at a dose of 600 mg, given intramuscularly every 8 weeks, with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for the prevention of HIV infection in at-risk cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and in at-risk transgender women who have sex with men. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive one of the two regimens and were followed for 153 weeks. HIV testing and safety evaluations were performed. The primary end point was incident HIV infection. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 4566 participants who underwent randomization; 570 (12.5%) identified as transgender women, and the median age was 26 years (interquartile range, 22 to 32). The trial was stopped early for efficacy on review of the results of the first preplanned interim end-point analysis. Among 1698 participants from the United States, 845 (49.8%) identified as Black. Incident HIV infection occurred in 52 participants: 13 in the cabotegravir group (incidence, 0.41 per 100 person-years) and 39 in the TDF-FTC group (incidence, 1.22 per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.62). The effect was consistent across prespecified subgroups. Injection-site reactions were reported in 81.4% of the participants in the cabotegravir group and in 31.3% of those in the TDF-FTC group. In the participants in whom HIV infection was diagnosed after exposure to CAB-LA, INSTI resistance and delays in the detection of HIV infection were noted. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: CAB-LA was superior to daily oral TDF-FTC in preventing HIV infection among MSM and transgender women. Strategies are needed to prevent INSTI resistance in cases of CAB-LA PrEP failure. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 083 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02720094.).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371861

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to promote fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption usually report intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis as the main outcome. These analyses compare the randomly assigned groups and accept that some individuals may not follow the recommendations received in their group. The ITT analysis is useful to quantify the global effect of promoting the consumption of FV in a population (effectiveness) but, if non-adherence is significant in the RCT, they cannot estimate the specific effect in the individuals that increased their FV consumption (efficacy). To calculate the efficacy of FV consumption, a per protocol analysis (PP) would have to be carried out, in which groups of individuals are compared according to their actual adherence to FV consumption, regardless of the group to which they were assigned; unfortunately, many RCTs do not report the PP analysis. The objective of this article is to apply a new method to estimate the efficacy of Meta-analysis (MA) PP which include RCTs of effectiveness by ITT, without estimates of adherence. The method is based on generating Monte Carlo simulations of percentages of adherence in each allocation group from prior distributions informed by expert knowledge. We illustrate the method reanalyzing a Cochrane Systematic Review (SR) of RCTs on increased FV consumption reported with ITT, simulating 1000 times the estimation of a PP meta-analyses, and obtaining means and ranges of the potential PP effects. In some cases, the range of estimated PP effects was clearly more favourable than the effect calculated with the original ITT assumption, and therefore this corrected analysis must be considered when estimating the true effect of the consumption of a certain food.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Frutas , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Método de Monte Carlo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Verduras
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121867, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448866

RESUMO

Importance: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) occurring after cardiac surgery is associated with adverse outcomes. Whether POAF persists beyond discharge is not well defined. Objective: To determine whether continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring enhances detection of POAF among cardiac surgical patients during the first 30 days after hospital discharge compared with usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted at 10 Canadian centers. Enrollment spanned from March 2017 to March 2020, with follow-up through September 11, 2020. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, enrollment stopped on July 17, 2020, at which point 85% of the proposed sample size was enrolled. Cardiac surgical patients with CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, female sex) score greater than or equal to 4 or greater than or equal to 2 with risk factors for POAF, no history of preoperative AF, and POAF lasting less than 24 hours during hospitalization were enrolled. Interventions: The intervention group underwent continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring with wearable, patch-based monitors for 30 days after randomization. Monitoring was not mandated in the usual care group within 30 days after randomization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was cumulative AF and/or atrial flutter lasting 6 minutes or longer detected by continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring or by a 12-lead electrocardiogram within 30 days of randomization. Prespecified secondary outcomes included cumulative AF lasting 6 hours or longer and 24 hours or longer within 30 days of randomization, death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, non-central nervous system thromboembolism, major bleeding, and oral anticoagulation prescription. Results: Of the 336 patients randomized (163 patients in the intervention group and 173 patients in the usual care group; mean [SD] age, 67.4 [8.1] years; 73 women [21.7%]; median [interquartile range] CHA2DS2-VASc score, 4.0 [3.0-4.0] points), 307 (91.4%) completed the trial. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the primary end point occurred in 32 patients (19.6%) in the intervention group vs 3 patients (1.7%) in the usual care group (absolute difference, 17.9%; 95% CI, 11.5%-24.3%; P < .001). AF lasting 6 hours or longer was detected in 14 patients (8.6%) in the intervention group vs 0 patients in the usual care group (absolute difference, 8.6%; 95% CI, 4.3%-12.9%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In post-cardiac surgical patients at high risk of stroke, no preoperative AF history, and AF lasting less than 24 hours during hospitalization, continuous monitoring revealed a significant increase in the rate of POAF after discharge that would otherwise not be detected by usual care. Studies are needed to examine whether these patients will benefit from oral anticoagulation therapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02793895.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Alta do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Flutter Atrial/etiologia , COVID-19 , Canadá , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Hemorragia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tromboembolia
7.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 856-869, 2021 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine schedules could facilitate mass COVID-19 immunisation. However, we have previously reported that heterologous schedules incorporating an adenoviral vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, AstraZeneca; hereafter referred to as ChAd) and an mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech; hereafter referred to as BNT) at a 4-week interval are more reactogenic than homologous schedules. Here, we report the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous schedules with the ChAd and BNT vaccines. METHODS: Com-COV is a participant-blinded, randomised, non-inferiority trial evaluating vaccine safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity. Adults aged 50 years and older with no or well controlled comorbidities and no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection by laboratory confirmation were eligible and were recruited at eight sites across the UK. The majority of eligible participants were enrolled into the general cohort (28-day or 84-day prime-boost intervals), who were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive ChAd/ChAd, ChAd/BNT, BNT/BNT, or BNT/ChAd, administered at either 28-day or 84-day prime-boost intervals. A small subset of eligible participants (n=100) were enrolled into an immunology cohort, who had additional blood tests to evaluate immune responses; these participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to the four schedules (28-day interval only). Participants were masked to the vaccine received but not to the prime-boost interval. The primary endpoint was the geometric mean ratio (GMR) of serum SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG concentration (measured by ELISA) at 28 days after boost, when comparing ChAd/BNT with ChAd/ChAd, and BNT/ChAd with BNT/BNT. The heterologous schedules were considered non-inferior to the approved homologous schedules if the lower limit of the one-sided 97·5% CI of the GMR of these comparisons was greater than 0·63. The primary analysis was done in the per-protocol population, who were seronegative at baseline. Safety analyses were done among participants receiving at least one dose of a study vaccine. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, 69254139. FINDINGS: Between Feb 11 and Feb 26, 2021, 830 participants were enrolled and randomised, including 463 participants with a 28-day prime-boost interval, for whom results are reported here. The mean age of participants was 57·8 years (SD 4·7), with 212 (46%) female participants and 117 (25%) from ethnic minorities. At day 28 post boost, the geometric mean concentration of SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG in ChAd/BNT recipients (12 906 ELU/mL) was non-inferior to that in ChAd/ChAd recipients (1392 ELU/mL), with a GMR of 9·2 (one-sided 97·5% CI 7·5 to ∞). In participants primed with BNT, we did not show non-inferiority of the heterologous schedule (BNT/ChAd, 7133 ELU/mL) against the homologous schedule (BNT/BNT, 14 080 ELU/mL), with a GMR of 0·51 (one-sided 97·5% CI 0·43 to ∞). Four serious adverse events occurred across all groups, none of which were considered to be related to immunisation. INTERPRETATION: Despite the BNT/ChAd regimen not meeting non-inferiority criteria, the SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG concentrations of both heterologous schedules were higher than that of a licensed vaccine schedule (ChAd/ChAd) with proven efficacy against COVID-19 disease and hospitalisation. Along with the higher immunogenicity of ChAd/BNT compared with ChAD/ChAd, these data support flexibility in the use of heterologous prime-boost vaccination using ChAd and BNT COVID-19 vaccines. FUNDING: UK Vaccine Task Force and National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(8): 695-706, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atogepant is an oral, small-molecule, calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist that is being investigated for the preventive treatment of migraine. METHODS: In a phase 3, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned adults with 4 to 14 migraine days per month in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive a once-daily dose of oral atogepant (10 mg, 30 mg, or 60 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the mean number of migraine days per month across the 12 weeks. Secondary end points included headache days per month, a reduction from baseline of at least 50% in the 3-month average of migraine days per month, quality of life, and scores on the Activity Impairment in Migraine-Diary (AIM-D). RESULTS: A total of 2270 participants were screened, 910 were enrolled, and 873 were included in the efficacy analysis; 214 were assigned to the 10-mg atogepant group, 223 to the 30-mg atogepant group, 222 to the 60-mg atogepant group, and 214 to the placebo group. The mean number of migraine days per month at baseline ranged from 7.5 to 7.9 in the four groups. The changes from baseline across 12 weeks were -3.7 days with 10-mg atogepant, -3.9 days with 30-mg atogepant, -4.2 days with 60-mg atogepant, and -2.5 days with placebo. The mean differences from placebo in the change from baseline were -1.2 days with 10-mg atogepant (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.8 to -0.6), -1.4 days with 30-mg atogepant (95% CI, -1.9 to -0.8), and -1.7 days with 60-mg atogepant (95% CI, -2.3 to -1.2) (P<0.001 for all comparisons with placebo). Results for the secondary end points favored atogepant over placebo with the exceptions of the AIM-D Performance of Daily Activities score and the AIM-D Physical Impairment score for the 10-mg dose. The most common adverse events were constipation (6.9 to 7.7% across atogepant doses) and nausea (4.4 to 6.1% across atogepant doses). Serious adverse events included one case each of asthma and optic neuritis in the 10-mg atogepant group. CONCLUSIONS: Oral atogepant once daily was effective in reducing the number of migraine days and headache days over a period of 12 weeks. Adverse events included constipation and nausea. Longer and larger trials are needed to determine the effect and safety of atogepant for migraine prevention. (Funded by Allergan; ADVANCE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03777059.).


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
9.
N Engl J Med ; 385(8): 683-694, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with renal-cell carcinoma who undergo nephrectomy have no options for adjuvant therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence that have high levels of supporting evidence. METHODS: In a double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, patients with clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma who were at high risk for recurrence after nephrectomy, with or without metastasectomy, to receive either adjuvant pembrolizumab (at a dose of 200 mg) or placebo intravenously once every 3 weeks for up to 17 cycles (approximately 1 year). The primary end point was disease-free survival according to the investigator's assessment. Overall survival was a key secondary end point. Safety was a secondary end point. RESULTS: A total of 496 patients were randomly assigned to receive pembrolizumab, and 498 to receive placebo. At the prespecified interim analysis, the median time from randomization to the data-cutoff date was 24.1 months. Pembrolizumab therapy was associated with significantly longer disease-free survival than placebo (disease-free survival at 24 months, 77.3% vs. 68.1%; hazard ratio for recurrence or death, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.87; P = 0.002 [two-sided]). The estimated percentage of patients who remained alive at 24 months was 96.6% in the pembrolizumab group and 93.5% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.96). Grade 3 or higher adverse events of any cause occurred in 32.4% of the patients who received pembrolizumab and in 17.7% of those who received placebo. No deaths related to pembrolizumab therapy occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Pembrolizumab treatment led to a significant improvement in disease-free survival as compared with placebo after surgery among patients with kidney cancer who were at high risk for recurrence. (Funded by Merck Sharp and Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck; KEYNOTE-564 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03142334.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 1010-1020, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doxycycline is often used for treating COVID-19 respiratory symptoms in the community despite an absence of evidence from clinical trials to support its use. We aimed to assess the efficacy of doxycycline to treat suspected COVID-19 in the community among people at high risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We did a national, open-label, multi-arm, adaptive platform randomised trial of interventions against COVID-19 in older people (PRINCIPLE) across primary care centres in the UK. We included people aged 65 years or older, or 50 years or older with comorbidities (weakened immune system, heart disease, hypertension, asthma or lung disease, diabetes, mild hepatic impairment, stroke or neurological problem, and self-reported obesity or body-mass index of 35 kg/m2 or greater), who had been unwell (for ≤14 days) with suspected COVID-19 or a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community. Participants were randomly assigned using response adaptive randomisation to usual care only, usual care plus oral doxycycline (200 mg on day 1, then 100 mg once daily for the following 6 days), or usual care plus other interventions. The interventions reported in this manuscript are usual care plus doxycycline and usual care only; evaluations of other interventions in this platform trial are ongoing. The coprimary endpoints were time to first self-reported recovery, and hospitalisation or death related to COVID-19, both measured over 28 days from randomisation and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is ongoing and is registered with ISRCTN, 86534580. FINDINGS: The trial opened on April 2, 2020. Randomisation to doxycycline began on July 24, 2020, and was stopped on Dec 14, 2020, because the prespecified futility criterion was met; 2689 participants were enrolled and randomised between these dates. Of these, 2508 (93·3%) participants contributed follow-up data and were included in the primary analysis: 780 (31·1%) in the usual care plus doxycycline group, 948 in the usual care only group (37·8%), and 780 (31·1%) in the usual care plus other interventions group. Among the 1792 participants randomly assigned to the usual care plus doxycycline and usual care only groups, the mean age was 61·1 years (SD 7·9); 999 (55·7%) participants were female and 790 (44·1%) were male. In the primary analysis model, there was little evidence of difference in median time to first self-reported recovery between the usual care plus doxycycline group and the usual care only group (9·6 [95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI] 8·3 to 11·0] days vs 10·1 [8·7 to 11·7] days, hazard ratio 1·04 [95% BCI 0·93 to 1·17]). The estimated benefit in median time to first self-reported recovery was 0·5 days [95% BCI -0·99 to 2·04] and the probability of a clinically meaningful benefit (defined as ≥1·5 days) was 0·10. Hospitalisation or death related to COVID-19 occurred in 41 (crude percentage 5·3%) participants in the usual care plus doxycycline group and 43 (4·5%) in the usual care only group (estimated absolute percentage difference -0·5% [95% BCI -2·6 to 1·4]); there were five deaths (0·6%) in the usual care plus doxycycline group and two (0·2%) in the usual care only group. INTERPRETATION: In patients with suspected COVID-19 in the community in the UK, who were at high risk of adverse outcomes, treatment with doxycycline was not associated with clinically meaningful reductions in time to recovery or hospital admissions or deaths related to COVID-19, and should not be used as a routine treatment for COVID-19. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation, Department of Health and Social Care, National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Doxiciclina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diferença Mínima Clinicamente Importante , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
N Engl J Med ; 385(10): 908-920, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High rates of overdiagnosis are a critical barrier to organized prostate cancer screening. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with targeted biopsy has shown the potential to address this challenge, but the implications of its use in the context of organized prostate cancer screening are unknown. METHODS: We conducted a population-based noninferiority trial of prostate cancer screening in which men 50 to 74 years of age from the general population were invited by mail to participate; participants with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3 ng per milliliter or higher were randomly assigned, in a 2:3 ratio, to undergo a standard biopsy (standard biopsy group) or to undergo MRI, with targeted and standard biopsy if the MRI results suggested prostate cancer (experimental biopsy group). The primary outcome was the proportion of men in the intention-to-treat population in whom clinically significant cancer (Gleason score ≥7) was diagnosed. A key secondary outcome was the detection of clinically insignificant cancers (Gleason score 6). RESULTS: Of 12,750 men enrolled, 1532 had PSA levels of 3 ng per milliliter or higher and were randomly assigned to undergo biopsy: 603 were assigned to the standard biopsy group and 929 to the experimental biopsy group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, clinically significant cancer was diagnosed in 192 men (21%) in the experimental biopsy group, as compared with 106 men (18%) in the standard biopsy group (difference, 3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1 to 7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The percentage of clinically insignificant cancers was lower in the experimental biopsy group than in the standard biopsy group (4% [41 participants] vs. 12% [73 participants]; difference, -8 percentage points; 95% CI, -11 to -5). CONCLUSIONS: MRI with targeted and standard biopsy in men with MRI results suggestive of prostate cancer was noninferior to standard biopsy for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer in a population-based screening-by-invitation trial and resulted in less detection of clinically insignificant cancer. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; STHLM3-MRI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03377881.).


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(6): 1248-1255, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074828

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We assessed the performance of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected people who use drugs (PWUDs) in terms of sustained virological response (SVR) and adherence rates in comparison to a location-matched cohort of non-PWUD HCV patients. METHODS: All consecutive HCV RNA-positive PWUDs were enrolled between 2015 and 2019. All subjects underwent DAA treatment according to international guidelines and then followed, at least, up to 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). The SVR and adherence to treatment was compared with that of non-PWUD HCV patients observed at hepatological units of the CLEO platform. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 1,786 PWUDs who were followed up were available for assessment. Most PWUDs (85.4%) were managed inside the specialized outpatient addiction clinics (SerDs). The overall SVR rate was 95.4%. The SerDs group achieved an SVR rate of 96.2% compared with 91.6% of the non-SerDs group (P < 0.001). Comparison with the non-SerDs group and the control HCV group showed a significant difference in the dropout rate (0.6% in the SerDs group versus 2.8% in the non-SerDs group and 1.2% in the control group; P < 0.001). At multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with SVR were use of the most recent regimens (elbasvir/grazoprevir, glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir; odds ratio: 3.126; P = 0.000) and belonging to the SerDs group (odds ratio: 2.356; P = 0.002). DISCUSSION: The performance of DAAs in PWUD is excellent, if 2 conditions are met: (i) that the latest generation drugs are used and (ii) that the patients are managed within the SerDs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Resposta Viral Sustentada
13.
N Engl J Med ; 384(22): 2102-2114, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of adjuvant treatment in high-risk muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma after radical surgery is not clear. METHODS: In a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma who had undergone radical surgery to receive, in a 1:1 ratio, either nivolumab (240 mg intravenously) or placebo every 2 weeks for up to 1 year. Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy before trial entry was allowed. The primary end points were disease-free survival among all the patients (intention-to-treat population) and among patients with a tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression level of 1% or more. Survival free from recurrence outside the urothelial tract was a secondary end point. RESULTS: A total of 353 patients were assigned to receive nivolumab and 356 to receive placebo. The median disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population was 20.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5 to 27.6) with nivolumab and 10.8 months (95% CI, 8.3 to 13.9) with placebo. The percentage of patients who were alive and disease-free at 6 months was 74.9% with nivolumab and 60.3% with placebo (hazard ratio for disease recurrence or death, 0.70; 98.22% CI, 0.55 to 0.90; P<0.001). Among patients with a PD-L1 expression level of 1% or more, the percentage of patients was 74.5% and 55.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.55; 98.72% CI, 0.35 to 0.85; P<0.001). The median survival free from recurrence outside the urothelial tract in the intention-to-treat population was 22.9 months (95% CI, 19.2 to 33.4) with nivolumab and 13.7 months (95% CI, 8.4 to 20.3) with placebo. The percentage of patients who were alive and free from recurrence outside the urothelial tract at 6 months was 77.0% with nivolumab and 62.7% with placebo (hazard ratio for recurrence outside the urothelial tract or death, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.89). Among patients with a PD-L1 expression level of 1% or more, the percentage of patients was 75.3% and 56.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.79). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 17.9% of the nivolumab group and 7.2% of the placebo group. Two treatment-related deaths due to pneumonitis were noted in the nivolumab group. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with high-risk muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma who had undergone radical surgery, disease-free survival was longer with adjuvant nivolumab than with placebo in the intention-to-treat population and among patients with a PD-L1 expression level of 1% or more. (Funded by Bristol Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; CheckMate 274 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02632409.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
14.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2295-2305, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil are used to treat pemphigus vulgaris, but they have not been adequately compared in clinical trials. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled trial, we assigned patients with moderate-to-severe pemphigus vulgaris in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous rituximab (1000 mg on days 1, 15, 168, and 182) or oral mycophenolate mofetil (2 g per day), in addition to an oral glucocorticoid administered on the same tapering schedule in the two groups. The primary end point was sustained complete remission at week 52, defined as the healing of lesions with no new active lesions, as reflected by a Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) activity score of 0 (on a scale of 0 to 250, with higher scores indicating greater disease severity), for at least 16 weeks without the use of glucocorticoids. Secondary end points were the cumulative dose of glucocorticoids, the number of disease flares, and the change from baseline in the score on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI; scores range from 0 to 30, with higher scores indicating greater impairment). RESULTS: Of the 135 patients who underwent randomization, 67 were assigned to receive rituximab and 68 to receive mycophenolate mofetil. The primary outcome was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population: 62 patients in the rituximab group and 63 in the mycophenolate mofetil group. The median PDAI activity scores at baseline were 22.7 in the rituximab group and 18.3 in the mycophenolate mofetil group. At week 52, sustained complete remission was observed in 25 patients (40%) in the rituximab group and in 6 (10%) in the mycophenolate mofetil group (difference, 31 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 45; P<0.001). The mean cumulative glucocorticoid dose during the 52-week treatment period was 3545 mg in the rituximab group and 5140 mg in the mycophenolate mofetil group (difference, -1595 mg; 95% CI, -2838 to -353; P<0.001). There were 6 disease flares in the rituximab group and 44 in the mycophenolate mofetil group (adjusted rate ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.29; P<0.001). The mean change in DLQI score was -8.87 points and -6.00 points, respectively (difference, -2.87 points; 95% CI, -4.58 to -1.17; P = 0.001). Serious adverse events occurred in 15 of 67 patients (22%) in the rituximab group and in 10 of 68 (15%) in the mycophenolate mofetil group. CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab was superior to mycophenolate mofetil in producing sustained complete remission at 52 weeks in patients with pemphigus vulgaris. Rituximab resulted in a greater reduction in glucocorticoid use than mycophenolate mofetil, but more patients in the rituximab group had serious adverse events. Further trials are needed to determine the comparative efficacy and safety of rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil beyond 52 weeks of treatment. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche; PEMPHIX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02383589.).


Assuntos
Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Pênfigo/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/efeitos adversos
15.
N Engl J Med ; 384(25): 2418-2427, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rectal chlamydia is a common bacterial sexually transmissible infection among men who have sex with men. Data from randomized, controlled trials are needed to guide treatment. METHODS: In this double-blind trial conducted at five sexual health clinics in Australia, we randomly assigned men who have sex with men and who had asymptomatic rectal chlamydia to receive doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days) or azithromycin (1-g single dose). Asymptomatic chlamydia was selected as the trial focus because more than 85% of men with rectal chlamydia infection are asymptomatic, and clinical guidelines recommend a longer treatment course for symptomatic infection. The primary outcome was a negative nucleic acid amplification test for rectal chlamydia (microbiologic cure) at 4 weeks. RESULTS: From August 2016 through August 2019, we enrolled 625 men (314 in the doxycycline group and 311 in the azithromycin group). Primary outcome data were available for 290 men (92.4%) in the doxycycline group and 297 (95.5%) in the azithromycin group. In the modified intention-to-treat population, a microbiologic cure occurred in 281 of 290 men (96.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 94.9 to 98.9) in the doxycycline group and in 227 of 297 (76.4%; 95% CI, 73.8 to 79.1) in the azithromycin group, for an adjusted risk difference of 19.9 percentage points (95% CI, 14.6 to 25.3; P<0.001). Adverse events that included nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting were reported in 98 men (33.8%) in the doxycycline group and in 134 (45.1%) in the azithromycin group (risk difference, -11.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -19.5 to -3.2). CONCLUSIONS: A 7-day course of doxycycline was superior to single-dose azithromycin in the treatment of rectal chlamydia infection among men who have sex with men. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council; RTS Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614001125617.).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Infecções Assintomáticas , Austrália , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Doxiciclina/efeitos adversos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Doenças Retais/microbiologia , Reto/microbiologia
16.
N Engl J Med ; 385(2): 119-129, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion (FETO) has been associated with increased postnatal survival among infants with severe pulmonary hypoplasia due to isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side, but data are lacking to inform its effects in infants with moderate disease. METHODS: In this open-label trial conducted at many centers with experience in FETO and other types of prenatal surgery, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, women carrying singleton fetuses with a moderate isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side to FETO at 30 to 32 weeks of gestation or expectant care. Both treatments were followed by standardized postnatal care. The primary outcomes were infant survival to discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival without oxygen supplementation at 6 months of age. RESULTS: In an intention-to-treat analysis involving 196 women, 62 of 98 infants in the FETO group (63%) and 49 of 98 infants in the expectant care group (50%) survived to discharge (relative risk , 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99 to 1.63; two-sided P = 0.06). At 6 months of age, 53 of 98 infants (54%) in the FETO group and 43 of 98 infants (44%) in the expectant care group were alive without oxygen supplementation (relative risk, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.65). The incidence of preterm, prelabor rupture of membranes was higher among women in the FETO group than among those in the expectant care group (44% vs. 12%; relative risk, 3.79; 95% CI, 2.13 to 6.91), as was the incidence of preterm birth (64% vs. 22%, respectively; relative risk, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.94 to 4.34), but FETO was not associated with any other serious maternal complications. There were two spontaneous fetal deaths (one in each group) without obvious cause and one neonatal death that was associated with balloon removal. CONCLUSIONS: This trial involving fetuses with moderate congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side did not show a significant benefit of FETO performed at 30 to 32 weeks of gestation over expectant care with respect to survival to discharge or the need for oxygen supplementation at 6 months. FETO increased the risks of preterm, prelabor rupture of membranes and preterm birth. (Funded by the European Commission and others; TOTAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00763737.).


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/terapia , Traqueia/cirurgia , Adulto , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Terapias Fetais/efeitos adversos , Fetoscopia , Idade Gestacional , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/mortalidade , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante
17.
N Engl J Med ; 385(2): 107-118, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown that fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion (FETO) has been associated with increased survival among infants with severe pulmonary hypoplasia due to isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side, but data from randomized trials are lacking. METHODS: In this open-label trial conducted at centers with experience in FETO and other types of prenatal surgery, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, women carrying singleton fetuses with severe isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side to FETO at 27 to 29 weeks of gestation or expectant care. Both treatments were followed by standardized postnatal care. The primary outcome was infant survival to discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. We used a group-sequential design with five prespecified interim analyses for superiority, with a maximum sample size of 116 women. RESULTS: The trial was stopped early for efficacy after the third interim analysis. In an intention-to-treat analysis that included 80 women, 40% of infants (16 of 40) in the FETO group survived to discharge, as compared with 15% (6 of 40) in the expectant care group (relative risk, 2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 6.11; two-sided P = 0.009). Survival to 6 months of age was identical to the survival to discharge (relative risk, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.22 to 6.11). The incidence of preterm, prelabor rupture of membranes was higher among women in the FETO group than among those in the expectant care group (47% vs. 11%; relative risk, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.83 to 11.9), as was the incidence of preterm birth (75% vs. 29%; relative risk, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.59 to 4.52). One neonatal death occurred after emergency delivery for placental laceration from fetoscopic balloon removal, and one neonatal death occurred because of failed balloon removal. In an analysis that included 11 additional participants with data that were available after the trial was stopped, survival to discharge was 36% among infants in the FETO group and 14% among those in the expectant care group (relative risk, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.21 to 6.09). CONCLUSIONS: In fetuses with isolated severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia on the left side, FETO performed at 27 to 29 weeks of gestation resulted in a significant benefit over expectant care with respect to survival to discharge, and this benefit was sustained to 6 months of age. FETO increased the risks of preterm, prelabor rupture of membranes and preterm birth. (Funded by the European Commission and others; TOTAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01240057.).


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão , Terapias Fetais , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/terapia , Traqueia/cirurgia , Adulto , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Terapias Fetais/efeitos adversos , Fetoscopia , Idade Gestacional , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/mortalidade , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Gravidade do Paciente , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD008907, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review first published in 2011, and last updated in 2017. Most people with epilepsy have a good prognosis, but up to 30% of people continue to have seizures despite several regimens of antiepileptic drugs. In this review, we summarized the current evidence regarding eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) when used as an add-on treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ESL when used as an add-on treatment for people with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the following databases on 10 September 2020: Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web) and MEDLINE (Ovid). CRS Web includes randomized or quasi-randomized, controlled trials from Specialized Registers of Cochrane Review Groups including Epilepsy, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP. There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted the manufacturers of ESL and experts in the field for information about any unpublished or ongoing studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind add-on trials of ESL in people with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Outcomes investigated included 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency, seizure freedom, treatment withdrawal, adverse effects and drug interactions. Primary analyses were by intention to treat (ITT). The dose-response relationship was evaluated in regression models. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials (2185 participants, aged 2 to 77 years), which were at low or unclear risk of bias apart from a high risk of attrition bias; all studies were funded by the pharmaceutical company, BIAL. The overall risk ratio (RR) for 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency was 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34 to 1.83). For adults, the RR was 1.71 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.05; 5 studies, 1799 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); for children aged six to 18 years, the RR was 1.35 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.87; 2 studies, 322 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Dose regression analysis showed evidence that ESL reduced seizure frequency with an increase in efficacy with increasing doses of ESL. ESL was associated with seizure freedom (RR 3.16, 95% CI 1.73 to 5.78; 6 studies, 1922 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Participants were more likely to have ESL withdrawn for adverse effects (RR 2.72, 95% CI 1.66 to 4.46; 7 studies, 2185 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), but not for any reason (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.70; 7 studies, 2185 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The following adverse effects were associated with ESL: dizziness (RR 2.77, 99% CI 1.85 to 4.15); nausea (RR 2.55, 99% CI 1.39 to 4.67); somnolence (RR 1.75, 99% CI 1.18 to 2.61); diplopia (RR 4.07, 99% CI 1.86 to 8.89); and vomiting (RR 2.37, 99% CI 1.19 to 4.74). Overall, the certainty of the evidence was moderate due to a high discontinuation rate in studies of adults. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: ESL reduces seizure frequency when used as an add-on treatment for adults with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The trials included in this review were of short-term duration. In addition, this update found that ESL may reduce seizure frequency in children from 6 to 18 years of age; however the results are inconclusive.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Dibenzazepinas/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Viés , Criança , Dibenzazepinas/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 51(6): 314-315, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058836

RESUMO

This article describes the differences between common analyses for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses are common approaches, but readers may also encounter complier average causal effects (CACE) analysis, a newer method that is gaining popularity. Because these analyses answer slightly different research questions, the aim of this article is to help readers of RCTs understand why researchers conduct these different types of analyses and how to interpret the findings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2021;51(6):314-315. doi:10.2519/jospt.2021.0701.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos
20.
N Engl J Med ; 384(20): 1910-1920, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of endovascular therapy in patients with stroke caused by basilar-artery occlusion has not been well studied. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients within 6 hours after the estimated time of onset of a stroke due to basilar-artery occlusion, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive endovascular therapy or standard medical care. The primary outcome was a favorable functional outcome, defined as a score of 0 to 3 on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 to 6, with 0 indicating no disability, 3 indicating moderate disability, and 6 indicating death) at 90 days. The primary safety outcomes were symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 3 days after the initiation of treatment and mortality at 90 days. RESULTS: A total of 300 patients were enrolled (154 in the endovascular therapy group and 146 in the medical care group). Intravenous thrombolysis was used in 78.6% of the patients in the endovascular group and in 79.5% of those in the medical group. Endovascular treatment was initiated at a median of 4.4 hours after stroke onset. A favorable functional outcome occurred in 68 of 154 patients (44.2%) in the endovascular group and 55 of 146 patients (37.7%) in the medical care group (risk ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.50). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 4.5% of the patients after endovascular therapy and in 0.7% of those after medical therapy (risk ratio, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.9 to 53.0); mortality at 90 days was 38.3% and 43.2%, respectively (risk ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.12). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stroke from basilar-artery occlusion, endovascular therapy and medical therapy did not differ significantly with respect to a favorable functional outcome, but, as reflected by the wide confidence interval for the primary outcome, the results of this trial may not exclude a substantial benefit of endovascular therapy. Larger trials are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy for basilar-artery occlusion. (Funded by the Dutch Heart Foundation and others; BASICS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01717755; Netherlands Trial Register number, NL2500.).


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/complicações , Idoso , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/complicações , Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
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