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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48578, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116102

RESUMO

Objetivo: conhecer a experiência dos pais como estratégia de avaliação da qualidade da assistência de enfermagem. Método: pesquisa descritiva com abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvida na Unidade Neonatal de um Hospital do sul do Brasil. A coleta de dados foi realizada através de entrevistas, utilizando a técnica do incidente crítico (TIC), com 18 pais que estavam com seus filhos internados por 20 dias ou mais e que tinham previsão e plano de alta hospitalar. Após, os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Resultados: a análise revelou fragilidades no cuidado prestado pela equipe de enfermagem em relação à administração de medicamentos, ao uso de equipamentos, à monitorização e ao posicionamento dos bebês, aos cuidados com a pele e à higiene de mãos. Conclusão: a experiência dos pais revelou elementos que integram a avaliação da assistência em enfermagem, destacando-os como pilares para a segurança do paciente.


Objective: to learn the parents' experience as a strategy for assessing the quality of nursing care. Method: in this qualitative, descriptive study at the Neonatal Unit of a hospital in southern Brazil, data were collected by critical incident (CI) interviews of 18 parents whose children had been hospitalized for 20 days or more, and whose discharge was scheduled and planned for. The data subsequently underwent content analysis. Results: data analysis revealed weaknesses in the care provided by the nursing staff as regards administration of medication, use of equipment, monitoring and positioning of babies, skin care and hand hygiene. Conclusion: The parents' experience revealed elements that enter into evaluation of nursing care, revealing parents to be mainstays of patient safety.


Objetivo: conocer la experiencia de los padres como estrategia para evaluar la calidad de la atención de enfermería. Método: en este estudio cualitativo y descriptivo en la Unidad Neonatal de un hospital en el sur de Brasil, los datos fueron recolectados por entrevistas de incidentes críticos (IC) de 18 padres cuyos hijos habían estado hospitalizados durante 20 días o más, y cuyo alta fue programada y planificada para. Los datos posteriormente se sometieron a análisis de contenido. Resultados: el análisis de datos reveló debilidades en la atención brindada por el personal de enfermería en lo que respecta a la administración de medicamentos, uso de equipos, monitoreo y posicionamiento de bebés, cuidado de la piel e higiene de manos. Conclusión: la experiencia de los padres reveló elementos que entran en la evaluación de la atención de enfermería, revelando que los padres son pilares de la seguridad del paciente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Pais , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Equipe de Enfermagem/normas , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Brasil , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Dano ao Paciente/prevenção & controle
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to propose a novel method of evaluating the degree of rhythmic irregularity during repetitive tasks in Parkinson's disease (PD) by using autocorrelation to extract serial perturbation in the periodicity of body part movements as recorded by objective devices. METHODS: We used publicly distributed sequential joint movement data recorded during a leg agility task or pronation-supination task. The sequences of body part trajectory were processed to extract their short-time autocorrelation (STACF) matrices; the sequences of single task conducted by participants were then divided into two clusters according to their similarity in terms of their STACF representation. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sub-score rated for each task was compared with cluster membership to obtain the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the discrimination performance of the clustering. We compared the AUC with those obtained from the clustering of the raw sequence or short-time Fourier transform (STFT). RESULTS: In classifying the pose estimator-based trajectory data of the knee during the leg agility task, the AUC was the highest when the STACF sequence was used for clustering instead of other types of sequences with up to 0.815, being comparable to the results reported in the original analysis of the data using an approach different from ours. In addition, in classifying another dataset of accelerometer-based trajectory data of the wrist during a pronation-supination task, the AUC was again highest up to 0.785 when clustering was performed using the STACF rather than other types of sequence. CONCLUSION: Our autocorrelation-based method achieved a fair performance in detecting sequences with irregular rhythm, suggesting that it might be used as another evaluation strategy that is potentially widely applicable to qualify the disordered rhythm of PD regardless of the kinds of task or the modality of devices, although further refinement is needed.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Acelerometria , Área Sob a Curva , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diagnóstico por Computador , Análise de Fourier , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/classificação , Pronação/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Espacial , Supinação/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027252

RESUMO

Melanopic stimuli trigger diverse non-image-forming effects. However, evidence of a melanopic contribution to acute effects on alertness and performance is inconclusive, especially under common lighting situations. Effects on cognitive performance are likely mediated by effort-related physiological changes. We assessed the acute effects of lighting in three scenarios, at two times of day, on effort-related changes to cardiac contraction as indexed by the cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP). In a within-subject design, twenty-seven participants performed a cognitive task thrice during a morning and a late-afternoon session. We set the lighting at 500 lux in all three lighting scenarios, measured horizontally at the desk level, but with 54 lux, 128 lux, or 241 lux melanopic equivalent daylight illuminance at the eye level. Impedance cardiography and electrocardiography measurements were used to calculate PEP, for the baseline and task period. A shorter PEP during the task represents a sympathetic heart activation and therefore increased effort. Data were analysed with linear mixed-effect models. PEP changes depended on both the light scene and time of day (p = 0.01 and p = 0.002, respectively). The highest change (sympathetic activation) occurred for the medium one of the three stimuli (128 lux) during the late-afternoon session. However, effect sizes for the singular effects were small, and only for the combined effect of light and time of day middle-sized. Performance scores or self-reported scores on alertness and task demand did not change with the light scene. In conclusion, participants reached the same performance most efficiently at both the highest and lowest melanopic setting, and during the morning session. The resulting U-shaped relation between melanopic stimulus intensity and PEP is likely not dependent solely on intrinsic ipRGC stimuli, and might be moderated by extrinsic cone input. Since lighting situations were modelled according to current integrative lighting strategies and real-life indoor light intensities, the result has implications for artificial lighting in a work environment.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/fisiologia , Iluminação , Função Ventricular/fisiologia , Adulto , Cardiografia de Impedância , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Miocárdica , Sonolência , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Temperatura , Adulto Jovem
4.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 154, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009959

RESUMO

The purpose was to determine if increasing serum 25(OH)D and calcium in postmenopausal women increased skeletal muscle size, strength, balance, and functional task performance while decreasing muscle fatigue. PCSA of the vastus lateralis increased and ascent of stairs time decreased after 6 months of increased serum 25(OH)D. PURPOSE: The Institute of Medicine recommends ≥ 20 ng/ml of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] for bone and overall health. Serum 25(OH)D levels have been associated with physical performance, postural sway, and falls. The purpose of this study was to determine if increasing postmenopausal women's serum 25(OH)D levels from 20-30 ng/ml to 40-50 ng/ml improved skeletal muscle size, strength, balance, and functional performance while decreasing skeletal muscle fatigue. METHODS: Twenty-six post-menopausal women (60-85 years old) with baseline serum 25(OH)D levels between 20 and 30 ng/ml were recruited. Oral over-the-counter (OTC) vitamin D3 and calcium citrate were prescribed to increase subjects' serum 25(OH)D to levels between 40 and 50 ng/ml, serum calcium levels above 9.2 mg/dl, and PTH levels below 60 pg/ml, which were confirmed at 6 and 12 weeks. Outcome measures assessed at baseline and 6 months included muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), muscle strength, postural balance, time to perform functional tasks, and muscle fatigue. Repeated measures comparisons between baseline and follow-up were performed. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects completed the study. One individual could not afford the time commitment for the repeated measures. Three individuals did not take their vitamin D as recommended. Two subjects were lost to follow-up (lack of interest), and one did not achieve targeted serum 25(OH)D. Vastus lateralis PCSA increased (p = 0.007) and ascent of stair time decreased (p = 0.042) after 6 months of increasing serum 25(OH)D levels from 20-30 ng/ml to 40-50 ng/ml. Isometric strength was unchanged. Anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) excursion and COP path length decreased (p < 0.1) albeit non-significantly, suggesting balance may improve from increased serum 25(OH)D and calcium citrate levels. CONCLUSIONS: Several measures of muscle structure and function were sensitive to elevated serum 25(OH)D and calcium levels indicating that further investigation of this phenomenon in post-menopausal women is warranted.


Assuntos
Citrato de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/sangue , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Citrato de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
5.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1081-1088, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Declines in muscle morphology and function are commonly reported as a consequence of aging. However, few studies have investigated the influence of age on a comprehensive set of muscle function-related measures (i.e., reactive strength, power, etc.) that focuses on a dynamic performance task such as the vertical jump across the adult life span. This study aimed to examine the effects of age on muscle morphology characteristics (muscle cross-sectional area [CSA] and echo intensity [EI]) and vertical jump height, power, and reactive strength index (RSI) in females. METHODS: Twenty-six young (22±2 years), 30 middle-aged (36±5 years), and 23 older (71±5 years) females participated in this study. Muscle CSA and EI were determined from ultrasound scans of the vastus lateralis. Countermovement jumps were used to assess jump height, RSI, movement time, and peak power (Pmax). RESULTS: Muscle CSA, jump height, and Pmax were higher for the young compared to the old and middle-aged (P≤0.027) and for the middle-aged compared to the old (P<0.001). Movement time and EI values were lower (P≤0.004) and RSI values were higher (P<0.001) for the young and middle-aged compared to the old; however, no differences were observed between the young and middle-aged (P=0.367-0.620). CONCLUSIONS: Of all the variables assessed in this study, RSI exhibited the greatest decline (76%) between the young and old females. Such findings highlight the importance of reactive strength when assessing age-related changes in neuromuscular performance.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico , Músculo Quadríceps/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237914, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886684

RESUMO

Factors beyond a person's control, such as demographic characteristics at birth, often influence the availability of rewards an individual can expect for their efforts. We know surprisingly little how such differences in opportunities impact human motivation. To test this, we designed a study in which we arbitrarily varied the reward offered to each participant in a group for performing the same task. Participants then had to decide whether or not they were willing to exert effort to receive their reward. Across three experiments, we found that the unequal distribution of offers reduced participants' motivation to pursue rewards even when their relative position in the distribution was high, and despite the decision being of no benefit to others and reducing the reward for oneself. Participants' feelings partially mediated this relationship. In particular, a large disparity in rewards was associated with greater unhappiness, which was associated with lower willingness to work-even when controlling for absolute reward and its relative value, both of which also affected decisions to work. A model that incorporated a person's relative position and unfairness of rewards in the group fit better to the data than other popular models describing the effects of inequality. Our findings suggest opportunity-gaps can trigger psychological dynamics that hurt productivity and well-being of all involved.


Assuntos
Motivação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867306

RESUMO

This study examined postural control during single leg stance test with progressively increased balance-task difficulty in soccer players with unilateral transfemoral amputation (n = 11) compared to able-bodied soccer players (n = 11). The overall stability index (OSI), the anterior/posterior stability index, and the medial/lateral stability index during three balance tasks with increasing surface instability were estimated. The oculomotor and visuomotor contribution to postural control in disabled athletes was analyzed. Oculomotor function, simple and choice reaction times, and peripheral perception were assessed in a series of visuomotor tests. The variation in OSI demonstrated significantly greater increases during postural tests with increased balance-task difficulty in the able-bodied soccer players compared to amputees (F(2,40) = 3.336, p < 0.05). Ocular mobility index correlated (p < 0.05) with OSI in conditions of increasing balance-task difficulty. Moreover, speed of eye-foot reaction has positive influence (p < 0.05) on stability indexes in tasks with an unstable surface. Amputee soccer players displayed comparable postural stability to able-bodied soccer players. Disabled athletes had better adaptability in restoring a state of balance in conditions of increased balance-task difficulty than the controls. The speed of visuomotor processing, characterized mainly by speed of eye-foot reaction, significantly contributed to these results.


Assuntos
Amputação , Atletas , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Oculomotores , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898150

RESUMO

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive functional brain imaging technique. NIRS is suitable for monitoring brain activation during social interactions. One of the omnipresent social interactions for employees is saying thank you and being thanked. It has been demonstrated that expressing and receiving gratitude leads to employees' well-being and performance. To date, there have been no neuroimaging studies that monitor brain activity when receiving gratitude. Thus, we designed an experiment using NIRS to monitor brain function while listening to a letter of gratitude read by a coworker. We hypothesized that listening to a letter of gratitude read aloud by a co-worker in a face-to-face setting would have different effects on PFC activity than listening to a conversation about a neutral topic. We recruited 10 pairs of healthy right-handed employees. They were asked to write a letter of gratitude to their partner 1 week before the experiment. In the experiment, each pair sat face-to-face and read their letters aloud to each other. We evaluated changes in mood state before and after the experiment. NIRS was measured in each participant while they listened to their peers in the experimental condition (gratitude letter) and control condition (talking about the weather and date). The results suggested that negative mood state decreased after the experiment. Moreover, there were interaction effects between conditions and periods. Although further studies are needed to confirm the interpretation, our findings suggested that experience of being thanked was accompanied by prefrontal cortex activation.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Leitura , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946493

RESUMO

Humans can innately track a moving target by anticipating its future position from a brief history of observations. While ballistic trajectories can be readily extrapolated, many natural and artificial systems are governed by more general nonlinear dynamics and, therefore, can produce highly irregular motion. Yet, relatively little is known regarding the behavioral and physiological underpinnings of prediction and tracking in the presence of chaos. Here, we investigated in lab settings whether participants could manually follow the orbit of a paradigmatic chaotic system, the Rössler equations, on the (x,y) plane under different settings of a control parameter, which determined the prominence of transients in the target position. Tracking accuracy was negatively related to the level of unpredictability and folding. Nevertheless, while participants initially reacted to the transients, they gradually learned to anticipate it. This was accompanied by a decrease in muscular co-contraction, alongside enhanced activity in the theta and beta EEG bands for the highest levels of chaoticity. Furthermore, greater phase synchronization of breathing was observed. Taken together, these findings point to the possible ability of the nervous system to implicitly learn topological regularities even in the context of highly irregular motion, reflecting in multiple observables at the physiological level.


Assuntos
Dinâmica não Linear , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Cinética , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Movimento (Física) , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4783, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963219

RESUMO

Relations between task elements often follow hidden underlying structural forms such as periodicities or hierarchies, whose inferences fosters performance. However, transferring structural knowledge to novel environments requires flexible representations that are generalizable over particularities of the current environment, such as its stimuli and size. We suggest that humans represent structural forms as abstract basis sets and that in novel tasks, the structural form is inferred and the relevant basis set is transferred. Using a computational model, we show that such representation allows inference of the underlying structural form, important task states, effective behavioural policies and the existence of unobserved state-trajectories. In two experiments, participants learned three abstract graphs during two successive days. We tested how structural knowledge acquired on Day-1 affected Day-2 performance. In line with our model, participants who had a correct structural prior were able to infer the existence of unobserved state-trajectories and appropriate behavioural policies.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915874

RESUMO

Assistive products outcomes are needed globally to inform policy, practice, and drive investment. The International Society of Wheelchair Professionals developed a Minimum Uniform Dataset (MUD) for wheelchair services worldwide with the intent to gather data that is comparable globally. The MUD was developed with the participation of members from around the globe and its feasibility piloted at 3 sites. Three versions of the MUD are now available-a short form with 29 data points (available in English, Spanish, and French) and a standard version with 38 data points in English. Future work is to validate and complete the translation cycles followed by promoting the use of the MUD globally so that the data can be leveraged to inform policy, practice and direct investments.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/normas , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Cadeiras de Rodas/normas , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Tradução
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4040, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788583

RESUMO

Children from lower income backgrounds tend to have poorer memory and language abilities than their wealthier peers. It has been proposed that these cognitive gaps reflect the effects of income-related stress on hippocampal structure, but the empirical evidence for this relationship has not been clear. Here, we examine how family income gaps in cognition relate to the anterior hippocampus, given its high sensitivity to stress, versus the posterior hippocampus. We find that anterior (but not posterior) hippocampal volumes positively correlate with family income up to an annual income of ~$75,000. Income-related differences in the anterior (but not posterior) hippocampus also predicted the strength of the gaps in memory and language. These findings add anatomical specificity to current theories by suggesting a stronger relationship between family income and anterior than posterior hippocampal volumes and offer a potential mechanism through which children from different income homes differ cognitively.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Renda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Grupos Minoritários , Tamanho do Órgão , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1007983, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745096

RESUMO

Many large-scale functional connectivity studies have emphasized the importance of communication through increased inter-region correlations during task states. In contrast, local circuit studies have demonstrated that task states primarily reduce correlations among pairs of neurons, likely enhancing their information coding by suppressing shared spontaneous activity. Here we sought to adjudicate between these conflicting perspectives, assessing whether co-active brain regions during task states tend to increase or decrease their correlations. We found that variability and correlations primarily decrease across a variety of cortical regions in two highly distinct data sets: non-human primate spiking data and human functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Moreover, this observed variability and correlation reduction was accompanied by an overall increase in dimensionality (reflecting less information redundancy) during task states, suggesting that decreased correlations increased information coding capacity. We further found in both spiking and neural mass computational models that task-evoked activity increased the stability around a stable attractor, globally quenching neural variability and correlations. Together, our results provide an integrative mechanistic account that encompasses measures of large-scale neural activity, variability, and correlations during resting and task states.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurônios/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 627-638, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744846

RESUMO

Optimal performance in many tasks requires minimizing the impact of both visual distraction and mind-wandering. Yet, so far, these two types of distraction have been studied in isolation and it remains unclear whether they act in similar or dissociable ways across age groups. Here, we studied the impact of visual distraction and mind-wandering on performance in a go/no-go task in young and older adults. Older adults reported higher task focus than young, which was associated with a specific age-related reduction in mind-wandering, rather than to thoughts triggered by the task. Older adults exhibited fewer no-go errors, higher mean reaction time (RT) and reduced RT variability compared to young adults. In contrast, visual distraction was associated with a disproportionate effect in older versus young adults on go accuracy, mean RT, and RT variability. Decreasing task focus was similarly associated with reduced go- and no-go accuracy and increased RT variability across age groups. In summary, our results suggest that whereas older adults are disproportionately affected by visual distraction compared to young, they exhibit a reduction in mind-wandering frequency. Moreover, the impact of decreasing task focus on task performance is similar across age groups. Our results suggest a dissociation of the impact of visual distraction and mind-wandering as a function of age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both laparoscopic surgery and computer games make similar demands on eye-hand coordination and visuospatial cognitive ability. A possible connection between both areas could be used for the recruitment and training of future surgery residents. AIM: The goal of this study was to investigate whether gaming skills are associated with better laparoscopic performance in medical students. METHODS: 135 medical students (55 males, 80 females) participated in an experimental study. Students completed three laparoscopic tasks (rope pass, paper cut, and peg transfer) and played two custom-designed video games (2D and 3D game) that had been previously validated in a group of casual and professional gamers. RESULTS: There was a small significant correlation between performance on the rope pass task and the 3D game, Kendall's τ(111) = -.151, P = .019. There was also a small significant correlation between the paper cut task and points in the 2D game, Kendall's τ(102) = -.180, P = .008. Overall laparoscopic performance was also significantly correlated with both the 3D game, Kendall's τ(112) = -.134, P = .036, and points in the 2D game, Kendall's τ(113) = -.163, P = .011. However, there was no significant correlation between the peg transfer task and both games (2D and 3D game), P = n.s.. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that gaming skills may be an advantage when learning laparoscopic surgery.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Laparoscopia , Cirurgiões , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Laparoscopia/psicologia , Curva de Aprendizado , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Desempenho Psicomotor , Fatores Sexuais , Processamento Espacial , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychol Aging ; 35(6): 881-893, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816506

RESUMO

The present study investigated age-related differences in the ability to constrain attention to the current task, without contamination (bleeding) from an upcoming decision. Each experiment included two blocks of trials. During Block 1, participants initially incidentally encoded a list of high- and low-frequency words, after which they pronounced aloud the studied words intermixed with a new set of words during a test phase. Block 2 was identical to Block 1 with the exception that after pronouncing each word aloud, participants made an additional decision (episodic recognition decision in Experiments 1 and 2 and animacy decision in Experiment 3). In the first two experiments, older adults showed disproportionate slowing in their response times to pronounce the words when they additionally had to make a recognition judgment afterward (Block 2) compared to when they only pronounced the words aloud (Block 1). Importantly, the difference between high-frequency and low-frequency words (the word frequency effect) was disproportionately attenuated for older adults in Block 2 compared to Block 1 and compared to younger adults. These results suggest that older adults experience greater cross-task bleeding than younger adults because word frequency has opposing effects in pronunciation and recognition tasks. As predicted, this age modulation of the word frequency effect in pronunciation performance was not replicated in Experiment 3 when participants made an animacy judgment, wherein word frequency effects act in concert with those of the pronunciation task. Discussion focuses on age-related differences in the ability to constrain attention to a current task. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Idioma , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238022, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845918

RESUMO

Working memory (WM) is the key process linking perception to action. Several lines of research have, accordingly, highlighted WM's engagement in sensori-motor associations between retrospective stimuli and future behavior. Using human fMRI we investigated whether prior information about the effector used to respond in a WM task would have an impact on the way the same sensory stimulus is maintained in memory despite a behavioral response could not be readily planned. We focused on WM-related activity in posterior parietal cortex during the maintenance of spatial items for a subsequent match-to-sample comparison, which was reported either with a verbal or with a manual response. We expected WM activity to be higher for manual response trials, because of posterior parietal cortex's engagement in both spatial WM and hand movement preparation. Increased fMRI activity for manual response trials in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus confirmed our expectations. These results imply that the maintenance of sensory material in WM is optimized for motor context, i.e. for the effector that will be relevant in the upcoming behavioral responses.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Luminosa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237912, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857813

RESUMO

The present study examined the role of exogenous and endogenous attention in task relevant visual perceptual learning (TR-VPL). VPL performance was assessed by examining the learning to a trained stimulus feature and transfer of learning to an untrained stimulus feature. To assess the differential role of attention in VPL, two types of attentional cues were manipulated; exogenous and endogenous. In order to assess the effectiveness of the attentional cue, the two types of attentional cues were further divided into three cue-validity conditions. Participants were trained, on a novel task, to detect the presence of a complex gabor patch embedded in fixed Gaussian contrast noise while contrast thresholds were varied. The results showed initial differences were found prior to training, and so the magnitude of learning was assessed. Exogenous and endogenous attention were both found to facilitate learning and feature transfer when investigating pre-test and post-test thresholds. However, examination of training data indicate attentional differences; with endogenous attention showing consistently lower contrast thresholds as compared to exogenous attention suggesting greater impact of training with endogenous attention. We conclude that several factors, including the use of stimuli that resulted in rapid learning, may have contributed to the generalization of learning found in the present study.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ann Surg ; 272(4): 648-657, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of multitasking and time pressure on surgeons' brain function during laparoscopic suturing. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent neuroimaging evidence suggests that deterioration in surgical performance under time pressure is associated with deactivation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area important for executive functions. However, the effect of multitasking on operator brain function remains unknown. METHODS: Twenty-nine surgical residents performed an intracorporeal suturing task under four conditions: 1) self-paced suturing, 2) time-pressured suturing, 3) self-paced suturing plus decision-making, and 4) time-pressured suturing plus decision-making. Subjective workload was quantified using the Surgical Task Load Index. Technical skill was objectively assessed using task progression scores, error scores, leak volumes, and knot tensile strengths. PFC activation was measured using optical neuroimaging. RESULTS: Compared with self-paced suturing, subjective workload (au) was significantly greater in time-pressured suturing (146.0 vs 196.0, P < 0.001), suturing with decision-making (146.0 vs 182.0, P < 0.001), and time-pressured suturing with decision-making (146.0 vs 227.0, P < 0.001). Technical performance during combined suturing and decision-making tasks was inferior to suturing alone under time pressure or self-paced conditions (P < 0.001). Significant dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) activations were observed during self-paced suturing, and ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) deactivations were identified during time-pressured suturing. However, suturing in conjunction with decision-making resulted in significant deactivation across both the VLPFC and DLPFC (P < 0.05). Random effects regression analysis confirmed decision-making predicts VLPFC and DLPFC deactivation (z = -2.62, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Performance degradation during high workload conditions is associated with deactivation of prefrontal regions important for attentional control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, particularly during tasks involving simultaneous motor and cognitive engagement.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Comportamento Multitarefa , Estresse Ocupacional/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Sutura , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo , Carga de Trabalho
20.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 945-952, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606636

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the prevalence of falls, physical performance, and dual-task cost during walking between cognitively healthy and impaired older adults at high risk of falling. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 670 community-dwelling older adults who were considered at high risk of falling, operationalized as 1) having fallen at least once in the preceding 12 months and having a health-care practitioner's referral indicating that the participant was at risk of falls or 2) having impaired mobility as evidenced by a Timed Up and Go (TUG) result ≥13.5 s. Participants (mean age = 77.7 years, SD = 5.6) were divided into cognitively healthy (n = 461) or cognitively impaired (n = 209) groups using a cutoff score of <23 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test. Assessment included self-reported number of falls over the previous 12 months, functional reach, TUG, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and single- and dual-task walk performance. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression to estimate the prevalence ratios of falls and analysis of variance to examine between-group differences on physical performance and dual-task cost during walking performance. Results: In the analysis, 82.3% of older adults with cognitive impairment and 69.4% of unimpaired older adults reported 1 or more falls in the previous 12 months. Compared with cognitively healthy participants, those with cognitive impairment were 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17 to 3.05) times more likely to have any fall and 2.33 (95% CI = 1.95 to 2.78) times more likely to have multiple falls. Older adults with cognitive impairment performed worse on functional reach (mean difference [MD] = -2.33 cm, 95% CI = -3.21 to -1.46), TUG (MD = 3.05 s, 95% CI = 2.22 to 3.88), and SPPB (MD = -1.24 points, 95% CI = -1.55 to -0.92) and showed increase in dual-task costs (MD = 6.59%, 95% CI = 4.19 to 9.03) compared to those without cognitive impairment. Conclusion: Older adults at high risk for falls and who have cognitive impairment are associated with a greater risk for falls and decrements in physical and dual-task performance.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Equilíbrio Postural , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo
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