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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 100-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638481

RESUMO

A common practice in resistance training is to perform sets of exercises at, or close to failure, which can alter movement dynamics. This study examined ankle, knee, hip, and lumbo-pelvis dynamics during the barbell back squat under a moderate-heavy load (80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM)) when performed to failure. Eleven resistance trained males performed three sets to volitional failure. Sagittal plane movement dynamics at the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbo-pelvis were examined; specifically, joint moments, joint angles, joint angular velocity, and joint power. The second repetition of the first set and the final repetition of the third set were compared. Results showed that while the joint movements slowed (p < 0.05), the joint ranges of motion were not altered There were significant changes in most mean joint moments (p < 0.05), indicating altered joint loading. The knee moment decreased while the hip and lumbo-pelvis moments underwent compensatory increases. At the knee and hip, there were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in concentric power output (p < 0.05). Whilst performing multiple sets to failure altered some joint kinetics, the comparable findings in joint range ofmotion suggest that technique was not altered. Therefore, skilled individuals appear to maintain technique when performing to failure.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 94-99, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648607

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that providing learners with self-control over some aspect of practice enhances motor learning (for a review see Wulf, 2007). One explanation for the self-control effect is that learners engage in deeper information processing when they are allowed to make choices during practice. Recent research has supported this line of thinking by showing that the self-control effect was eliminated for learners who engaged in a cognitive load task during the interval following completion of discrete task trials (Carter & Ste-Marie, 2017). The current study tested the effects of imposing a cognitive load task during the completion of continuous task trials. Participants (N = 48) were divided into self-control (SC), self-control with load (SCL), and two corresponding yoked (YK, YKL) groups. Participants learned a continuous tracing task and then performed 24-hour retention and transfer tests. Retention and transfer test movement times were significantly faster for SC compared to YK participants within the No Load condition but did not differ between these participants within the Load condition. Errors were similar among all groups in retention and transfer. These results provide support for the importance of information processing in regards to the self-controlled learning benefit.


Assuntos
Cognição , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Movimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 62-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623527

RESUMO

This study investigated whether using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) can identify different walking conditions, including level walking (LW), descent (DC) and ascent (AC) slope walking as well as downstairs (DS) and upstairs (US) walking. Thirty healthy participants performed walking under five conditions. The IMU was stabilised on the exterior of the left shoe. The data from IMU were used to establish a customised prediction model by cut point and a prediction model by using deep learning method. The accuracy of both prediction models was evaluated. The customised prediction model combining the angular velocity of dorsi-plantar flexion in the heel-strike (HS) and toe-off (TO) phases can distinctly determine real conditions during DC and AC slope, DS, and LW (accuracy: 86.7-96.7%) except for US walking (accuracy: 60.0%). The prediction model established by deep learning using the data of three-axis acceleration and three-axis gyroscopes can also distinctly identify DS, US, and LW with 90.2-90.7% accuracy and 84.8% and 82.4% accuracy for DC and AC slope walking, respectively. In conclusion, inertial measurement units can be used to identify walking patterns under different conditions such as slopes and stairs with customised prediction model and deep learning prediction model.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Aprendizado Profundo , Subida de Escada/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Surg Res ; 245: 57-63, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand how surgeon expectation of case difficulty relates to workload for colon and rectal procedures and to identify possible surgeon-perceived drivers contributing to case difficulty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 3 mo, surgeons were asked to complete a modified NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire following each surgical case. Questions included items on distractions, fatigue, procedural difficulty, and expectation plus the validated NASA-TLX items. All but expectation were rated on a 20-point scale (0 = low, 20 = high). Expectation was rated on a 3-point scale (i.e., more difficult than expected, as expected, less difficult than expected). Surgeons also reported perceived drivers contributing to case ease or difficulty. Patient and procedural data were analyzed for procedures with completed surveys. RESULTS: Seven surgeons (three female) rated 122 procedures over the research period using a modified NASA-TLX survey. Mean surgeon-perceived workload was highest for effort (mean [M] = 10.83, standard deviation [SD] = 5.66) followed by mental demand (M = 10.18, SD = 5.17), and physical demand (M = 9.19, SD = 5.60). Procedural difficulty varied significantly by procedure type (P < 0.001). Thirty-five percent of cases were considered more difficult than expected. Surgeon-perceived workload and most subscales differed significantly according to expectation level. There was no significant difference in patient factors by expectation level. Surgeons most frequently reported patient anatomy, body habitus, and operative team characteristics as drivers to difficulty and ease of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Procedural difficulty significantly differed across procedure type. More than one-third of cases were more difficult than expected, during which surgeons attributed this to operative team characteristics as well as issues in patient anatomy and body habitus.


Assuntos
Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Protectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Competência Clínica , Colectomia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/psicologia , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Protectomia/psicologia , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105346, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710957

RESUMO

Pedestrian distraction is a growing road safety concern worldwide. While there are currently no studies linking distraction and pedestrian crash risk, distraction has been shown to increase risky behaviours in pedestrians, for example, through reducing visual scanning before traversing an intersection. Illuminated in-ground Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) embedded into pathways are an emerging solution to address the growing distraction problem associated with mobile use while walking. The current study sought to determine if such an intervention was effective in attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. We conducted a controlled laboratory study (N = 24) to evaluate whether pedestrians detected the activation of flashing LEDs when distracted by a smartphone more accurately and efficiently when the lights were located on the floor compared to a control position on the wall. Eye gaze movements via an eye tracker and behavioural responses via response times assessed the detection of these flashing LEDs. Distracted participants were able to detect the activation of the floor and wall-mounted LEDs with accuracies above 90%. The visual and auditory distraction tasks increased reaction times by 143 and 124 ms, respectively. Even when distracted, performance improved with floor LEDs close to participants, with reaction time improvements by 43 and 159 ms for the LEDs 2 and 1 ms away from the participant respectively. The addition of floor LED lights resulted in a performance similar to the one observed for wall-mounted LEDs in the non-distracted condition. Moreover, participants did not necessarily need to fixate on the LEDs to detect their activation, thus were likely to have detected them using their peripheral vision. The findings suggest that LEDs embedded in pathways are likely to be effective at attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. Further research needs to be conducted in the field to confirm these findings, and to evaluate the actual effects on behaviour under real-world conditions.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Ambiente Construído , Pedestres/psicologia , Smartphone , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Iluminação , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Segurança , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
6.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 147-148: 90-96, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were the translation and a first reflection of the psychometric properties of the Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), a multidimensional instrument to measure workload in general practice. METHODS: During April and September 2015, the NASA-TLX was translated and evaluated. For this purpose, a questionnaire composed of the NASA-TLX items and others items related to demographic data, was developed. Postgraduate family medicine trainees and family physicians were then asked to assess patient consultations by applying the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the NASA-TLX were identified using explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α. RESULTS: Overall, 16 participants completed 769 surveys after a single patient consultation. The highest average was observed for the item 'mental demand' (mean 6.9 ± 5.4), followed by the item 'effort' (mean 6.6 ± 5.5). Factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution with an explained variance of 56.9 %. The German version of NASA-TLX demonstrated a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.84). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that there was an acceptable consistency between the expected unidimensional structure and the data. CONCLUSIONS: The German version of NASA-TLX provides preliminary indications of psychometric properties and presents an important tool to evaluate family physicians' workload in direct patient contact.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Psicometria , Carga de Trabalho , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
7.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 871-875, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590189

RESUMO

High amounts of sitting increase the risk of non-communicable disease and mortality. Treadmill desks make it possible to reduce sitting during the desk-based worker's day. This study investigated the acute effect on postural stability of interrupting prolonged sitting with an accumulated 2-h of light-intensity treadmill desk walking. Twenty-one sedentary adults participated in this randomized acute crossover trial, with two 6.5 h conditions: 1) uninterrupted sitting and 2) interrupted sitting with accumulated 2 h light-intensity treadmill desk walking. Pre- and post-condition, participants performed four postural stability tests on a pressure plate (bipedal and unipedal standing stance, eyes open and eyes closed). Anteroposterior center of pressure amplitude showed a significant condition x time interaction in bipedal eyes closed (F(1,20)=4.62, p=0.046) and unipedal eyes open (F(1,20)=9.42, p=0.006) tests, and mediolateral center of pressure amplitude in bipedal eyes closed (F(1,20)=6.12, p=0.023) and bipedal eyes open (F(1,12)=5.55, p=0.029) tests. In the significant interactions, amplitude increased pre to post condition in the uninterrupted sitting condition. The accumulated 2 h light-intensity treadmill desk walking ameliorated the negative effect of 6.5 h prolonged sitting on postural sway, supporting workplace treadmill desk use.


Assuntos
Ergometria/instrumentação , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Postura Sentada , Caminhada/fisiologia , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
8.
Gait Posture ; 74: 200-204, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to increased sedentary workstyles, active workstations have shown the ability to increase activity while only moderately affecting work ability. However, previous examinations have not examine fine motor mousing tasks on tripping descriptors. RESEARCH QUESTION: What affect do mousing tasks of varying target size have on tripping descriptors during walking workstation use? METHODS: Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected while participants used a walking workstation completing one baseline and three mousing conditions of varying target sizes. RESULTS: Target size main effects (p < 0.001) detected decreased stride length in all experimental conditions, which were supported by moderate effect sizes, and decreased stance width and time in double limb support (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). Stance width differences resulted in large effect sizes between baseline and all conditions, while only moderate effect sizes were observed between time in double limb support in baseline compared to all conditions. No changes in knee flexion range of motion were observed in response to target size (p = 0.278). SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that walking workstation users shorten their stride length and decrease their base of support while completing mousing tasks. The placement of the upper extremities on the workstation desk likely acted as the primary mechanism to increase stability. It is concluded that performing mousing tasks of varying target size using a walking workstation does not pose greater risk for adverse gait events.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychol Aging ; 34(7): 933-953, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535870

RESUMO

Age-related decline in ability to bind and remember conjunctions of features has been proposed as an explanation for the pronounced decline of visual working memory (WM) in healthy aging. However, evidence that older adults exhibit greater visual feature-binding deficits than younger adults has been mixed. Binding deficits in older adults are often observed using paradigms with easy-to-label features. Labeling and rehearsing single features may result in apparent binding deficits if older adults rely on comparatively intact verbal memory to compensate for declining visual WM. This strategy would be more useful for single features (e.g., "red"), than for conjunctions of features (e.g., "red triangle"), which are more cumbersome to rehearse, and thus visual feature-binding paradigms that do not prevent verbal strategies may unintentionally measure verbal load differences. Across 3 experiments (total N = 150), we investigated the role of verbal rehearsal by manipulating ease of stimulus labeling for visually presented single features and conjunctions of 2 features. Overall, visual memory for difficult-to-label, noncategorical, visual information appeared especially limited for older adults, likely because it impedes engagement of other systems, such as verbal WM or long-term memory. Therefore, comparing younger- and older-adult task performance may not straightforwardly reveal age-related visual WM decline, but instead reflect applications of different strategies that tap different cognitive mechanisms. We discuss implications for the feature-binding literature and the wider visual WM literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
10.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 25(3): 260-270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548793

RESUMO

Background: The effectiveness of dual-task training has been reported in individuals with cognitive impairments. To date, there is no clear evidence on the incorporation of dual-task training in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who have intact cognitive functions but have various degrees of sensorimotor dysfunction. Objectives: To compare the immediate effects of dual-task obstacle crossing (DTOC) and single-task obstacle crossing (STOC) training on functional and cognitive abilities in chronic ambulatory participants with SCI. Methods: This is a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design with blinded assessors. Twenty-two participants were randomly trained using a 30-minute DTOC and STOC training program with a 2-day washout period. Outcomes, including 10-Meter Walk Tests (single- and dual-task tests), percent of Stroop Color and Word Test task errors, Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and five times sit-to-stand test, were measured immediately before and after each training program. Results: Participants showed significant improvement in all outcomes following both training programs (p < .05), except percent of Stroop Color and Word Test task errors after STOC training. Obvious differences between the training programs were found for the percent of Stroop task errors and TUG (ps = .014 and .06). Conclusion: Obstacle crossing is a demanding task, thus the obvious improvement was found immediately after both training programs in participants with long post-injury time (approximately 5 years). However, the findings primarily suggest the superior effects of DTOC over STOC on a complex motor task and cognitive activity. A further randomized control trial incorporating a complex dual-task test is needed to strengthen evidence for the benefit of DTOC for these individuals.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/psicologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
11.
Exp Psychol ; 66(4): 266-280, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530246

RESUMO

Research on implicit sequence learning with the Serial Reaction Task (SRT) has demonstrated that people automatically acquire knowledge about fixed repeating sequences of responses and can transfer response sequence knowledge to novel stimuli. Such demonstrations are, however, mostly limited to setups with visual stimuli and manual responses. Here we systematically follow up on scarce attempts to demonstrate implicit sequence learning in word reading. While the literature on implicit sequence learning can be taken to suggest that sequence knowledge is acquired and affecting performance in word reading, we show that neither is the case in a series of four experiments. Sequence knowledge was acquired and affecting performance in color naming but not in word reading. On the one hand, we observed slowing of voice-onset times in off-sequence as compared to regularly sequenced trials when people named the color of a centrally presented disk. Yet, hardly any effect was observed when the very same sequence of words was verbalized in word reading instead. Transfer of sequence knowledge to and from color naming was not observed, either. This contrasts with sequence learning studies with manual responses, which have been taken to suggest that a fixed and repeating sequence of responses is sufficient for learning to occur even in fast choice reaction tasks and to transfer across stimuli as long as the sequence of responses remains intact. Rather, in line with dimensional action accounts of task performance, the results underline the role of translation between processing streams for implicit sequence learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Leitura , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(11): 104337, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522886

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to determine the effects of repeated use of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) with immediate knowledge of results (KR) on the walking capacity by comparing fast and slow walkers in patients with chronic hemiparesis. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects were allocated to 2 groups depending on their walking speed1: Group 1 (fast walkers, n1 = 11): greater than equal to .8 m/s and2 Group 2 (slow walkers, n2 = 14): less than .8 m/s. All subjects underwent the 6MWT once a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks (a total of 20 sessions). The 6MWT was performed on a 30-m path with immediate KR; subjects informed the time taken to walk each 30-m path. Outcome measures included the 6MWT and 10-meter walk test (10MWT). Measurements were taken before and after 4 weeks. Results of within-group comparisons showed significant improvements in the 10MWT and 6MWT for both groups pre- and post-test (P < .05). Furthermore, in between-group comparison, results of Group 1 differences were greater between pre- and post-test in the 10MWT and 6MWT values as compared to Group 2 (P < .05). These findings indicate that repeated use of the 6MWT with immediate KR may be beneficial to enhance walking capacity in patients with chronic stroke, with more favorable changes in better poststroke walking speed.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Psicológica , Paresia/diagnóstico , Paresia/reabilitação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Teste de Caminhada , Velocidade de Caminhada , Doença Crônica , Avaliação da Deficiência , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/etiologia , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Gait Posture ; 74: 135-141, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The main role of the upper limb is to position the hand in order to carry out varied activities requiring coordinated multi-joint movement, which requires mobility and stability at the glenohumeral joint. This is made possible by the interaction between active and passive structures as well as the integration of information coming from multiple systems. This interaction can be compromised by factors such as muscle fatigue and lack of visual feedback, leading to decreased performance. Several studies have investigated their isolated effect without looking at their combined effect. OBJECTIVE: To measure the specific and the combined effects of shoulder muscles fatigue and of lack of visual feedback on shoulder motor control during a reaching task with the arm in an elevated position. METHODS: 60 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: 1) control with visual feedback; 2) control without visual feedback; 3) fatigue with visual feedback; 4) fatigue without visual feedback. Subjects had to perform 10 trials of a reaching task in the KINARM robotic arm. Kinematic variables of interest were time taken to complete the task, final error, initial angle of deviation and area under curve. Non-parametric ANOVAs were used. RESULTS: Analyses showed that there were statistically significant differences (p < 0,01) for the time taken to complete the task (1.15 s compared to 0.70 s), the area under the curve (0.015m2 compared to 0.009m2) and the final error (0.025 m compared to 0,011 m) between those who had visual feedback and those who did not. No statistically significant fatigue or feedback X fatigue interaction effects were found for all kinematic variables. CONCLUSION: Findings show that lack of visual feedback had an impact on the reaching task performance while fatigue did not. In addition, fatigue did not increase the effect of the lack of visual feedback.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
14.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180181, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482997

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure listening effort using of a dual-task paradigm of working memory and analyze the clinical significance of the normal-hearing individuals' performance. METHODS: Participants were 10 young adults with similar socio-cultural level, aged 18-30 years, of both genders, classified as normal-hearing individuals based on the quadritonal average (500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz). The participants were submitted to audiological anamnesis, meatoscopy, and pure tone audiometry. Listening effort was measured using a dual-task paradigm comprising the tasks of speech perception and working memory with logatomes, real words, and meaningless sentences. Prior to measurement, the dual-task paradigm was carried out in audiometric booth in order to train the participants to perform the tasks properly. After the training stage, this paradigm was conducted under two different hearing situations with white noise: signal-to-noise ratios of +5 and -5dB. RESULTS: Performance comparison per ear, right or left, for the two signal-to-noise ratios significantly influenced the speech perception tasks with logatomes and meaningless sentences in both ears; however, significant difference was observed only for the right ear in the tasks of listening effort and working memory. CONCLUSION: Listening effort can be measured using the paradigm proposed, and this instrument was proven sensitive for the quantification of this auditory parameter.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Valores de Referência , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Codas ; 31(4): e20170241, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of two levels of noise on the performance of young students of three educational levels and tested their ability to maintain attentional focus in reading and writing tasks. METHODS: 162 school children in the third, fourth and fifth grades were placed in three groups according to their educational level: Control Group (CG), Experimental Group A (GEA) and Experimental Group B (GEB). All groups were submitted to a Sustained Attention Test, Reading Assessment and Isolated Words Test and Writing Dictation Sub-test (part of the International Dyslexia Test). The GEA and GEB performed the tests in a noisy environment: 20dB and 40dB, respectively. The CG was assessed in the usual school environmental noise at the same time of the day. The data was submitted to an ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The higher the score on the Sustained Attention Test, the shorter the time spent reading and fewer errors in the dictation task. There were no differences across the three grades within the GEA (lower levels of noise) with regard to the effect of noise on attention and in the reading and writing task performance. The higher levels of noise for the GEB, however, decreased the attention levels, therefore increasing mistakes on the dictation test. Comparing the performance across educational levels on the reading tasks, the fourth grade presented decreased reading time, while the third and fifth grades spent more time reading. CONCLUSION: Auditory interference can influence the ability to focus attention as well as worsen performance in reading and writing tasks at more intense noise levels.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Ruído , Leitura , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Redação , Análise de Variância , Criança , Humanos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes
16.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 5086-5099, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489540

RESUMO

We assessed the association between dynamic changes in pupil response in the context of visual perception and quantitative measures of the autism phenotype in healthy adults. Using Navon stimuli in a task-switching paradigm, participants were instructed to identify global or local information based on a cue. Multiple pupil response trajectories across conditions were identified. We combined trajectory patterns for global and local conditions and used data-driven methods to identify three distinct pupil trajectory sub-groups. We report higher scores on quantitative measures of autism features in individuals who demonstrated an increased change in pupil diameter across both conditions. Results demonstrate the use of individualized pupil response trajectories in order to quantitatively characterize visual perception associated with the broader autism phenotype (BAP).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Movimentos Oculares , Pupila , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
17.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(5): 7305205060p1-7305205060p9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine how Parkinson's disease (PD) affects functional cognition as assessed by the Complex Task Performance Assessment (CTPA) and to examine the associations of CTPA performance with other indicators of executive function in people with PD. METHOD: Volunteers with PD without dementia (n = 20) and community control participants (n = 19) completed neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcome measures, and the CTPA. RESULTS: There were no group differences for CTPA performance accuracy; however, the PD group took longer to complete the CTPA than did the control group. In the PD group, inefficient CTPA performance correlated with poorer cognitive flexibility and worse reported everyday shifting and task monitoring. CONCLUSION: Decreased executive function, namely cognitive flexibility and attentional control, may impair functional cognition in people with PD. Future studies with larger, more diverse samples are warranted to determine the discriminant validity and sensitivity of the CTPA. Use of performance-based assessments such as the CTPA may increase the understanding of functional cognition in people with PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Cognição , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
18.
Gait Posture ; 73: 291-298, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) do not differ from neurologically healthy individuals in obstacle circumvention during walking, therefore they are able to use visual feedback adequately to control motor behavior in this task. However, individuals are often distracted by the secondary task when circumventing an obstacle. An increased cognitive load can require prolonged gaze fixation time on a location of interest to compensate for longer information processing duration. RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate the effects of cognitive dual tasking (DT) on gaze behavior during waking with obstacle circumvention in people with PD and control group, and to determine the impact of gaze behavior on motor strategy. METHODS: Fifteen individuals with PD (PD-group) and 15 neurologically healthy individuals walked at a self-selected speed over a walkway and circumvented an obstacle centered in the walkway. The experimental conditions (5 trials each one) included obstacle circumvention without DT (OC) and obstacle circumvention with DT (OCDT). In the cognitive task, the participant mentally counted the number of times a target number appeared in an audio recording. We analyzed gaze behavior (i.e. number of gaze fixations and duration on the ground and obstacle), standard gait measures and DT cost. Two-way ANOVAs were completed for gait parameters and moment of fixation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in DT cost between groups and no obstacle contacts. The participants performed a longer mean duration of fixations on the ground during OCDT compared to OC. Group x condition interactions indicated that the PD-group delayed the obstacle fixation relative to the NHI for OCDT (p < 0.001) and presented greater medial-lateral body clearance (p < 0.001) and longer double support time (p < 0.001) during OCDT compared to OC. SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study suggest that deficits in locomotion during DT in PD-group may be caused, at least in part, by a reduced ability to fixate gaze at appropriate times during walking.


Assuntos
Cognição , Fixação Ocular , Marcha , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Feminino , Humanos , Locomoção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
19.
J Sports Sci ; 37(24): 2774-2782, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402759

RESUMO

To prepare their teams for upcoming matches, analysts in professional soccer watch and manually annotate up to three matches a day. When annotating matches, domain experts try to identify and improve suboptimal movements based on intuition and professional experience. The high amount of matches needing to be analysed manually result in a tedious and time-consuming process, and results may be subjective. We propose an automatic approach for the realisation of effective region-based what-if analyses in soccer. Our system covers the automatic detection of region-based faulty movement behaviour, as well as the automatic suggestion of possible improved alternative movements. As we show, our approach effectively supports analysts and coaches investigating matches by speeding up previously time-consuming work. We enable domain experts to include their domain knowledge in the analysis process by allowing to interactively adjust suggested improved movement, as well as its implications on region control. We demonstrate the usefulness of our proposed approach via an expert study with three invited domain experts, one being head coach from the first Austrian soccer league. As our results show that experts most often agree with the suggested player movement (83%), our proposed approach enhances the analytical capabilities in soccer and supports a more efficient analysis.


Assuntos
Movimento , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Futebol , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos
20.
Australas Phys Eng Sci Med ; 42(3): 789-801, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372900

RESUMO

Bio-signal based assessment for upper-limb functions is an attractive technology for rehabilitation. In this work, an upper-limb function evaluator is developed based on biological signals, which could be used for selecting different robotic training protocols. Interaction force (IF) and participation level (PL, processed surface electromyography (sEMG) signals) are used as the key bio-signal inputs for the evaluator. Accordingly, a robot-based standardized performance testing (SPT) is developed to measure these key bio-signal data. Moreover, fuzzy logic is used to regulate biological signals, and a rules-based selector is then developed to select different training protocols. To the authors' knowledge, studies focused on biological signal-based evaluator for selecting robotic training protocols, especially for robot-based bilateral rehabilitation, has not yet been reported in literature. The implementation of SPT and fuzzy logic to measure and process key bio-signal data with a rehabilitation robot system is the first of its kind. Five healthy participants were then recruited to test the performance of the SPT, fuzzy logic and evaluator in three different conditions (tasks). The results show: (1) the developed SPT has an ability to measure precise bio-signal data from participants; (2) the utilized fuzzy logic has an ability to process the measured data with the accuracy of 86.7% and 100% for the IF and PL respectively; and (3) the proposed evaluator has an ability to distinguish the intensity of biological signals and thus to select different robotic training protocols. The results from the proposed evaluator, and biological signals measured from healthy people could also be used to standardize the criteria to assess the results of stroke patients later.


Assuntos
Robótica , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
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