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1.
Food Chem ; 401: 134156, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099826

RESUMO

Influences of conventional thermal and innovative non-thermal extraction methods on the physicochemical characteristics and properties of pectic polysaccharides from Choerospondias axillaris peels were investigated. Results showed that ultrasound-assisted extracted polysaccharides (UP) had a heterogeneous nature with lower molecular weight (127.7 kDa) and lower neutral sugar content (35.1%) but higher contents of protein (4.8%) and phenolic compounds (5.1%) than those of polysaccharides extracted by hot water (HP). Additionally, the monosaccharide composition results showed that glucose (77.8%) was the most abundant monosaccharide in HP, while arabinose (67.1%) was the most abundant monosaccharide in UP. The ultrasound significantly induced the degradation of polysaccharide chains but reduced the thermal degradation of phenolics. Finally, we found that UP had higher apparent viscosity, interfacial, emulsifying and antioxidant activity but lower α-glucosidase inhibition activity than those of HP. The results indicated that we could obtain polysaccharides with different functional and biological properties by using different extraction methods.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Pectinas , Pectinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Arabinose , Anacardiaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos , Água/química , Fenóis , Glucose
2.
Food Chem ; 403: 134347, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179636

RESUMO

The effect of adding pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) fruits during sardines canning to minimize cholesterol oxidation were investigated. Canning resulted in an exchange of fatty acids, cholesterol and cholesterol oxides between fish muscle and liquid medium (soybean oil). It also induced lipid oxidation, which was demonstrated by the degradation of fatty acids and the formation of cholesterol oxides. Cholesterol oxides increased from 39.53 ± 2.14 µg/g (raw sardines) to 116.04 ± 0.78 µg/g (control sardines) after canning. However, lower levels were found in samples with pink pepper. Additionally, chromatographic analyses showed the migration of compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes) from pink pepper to sardines, indicating the constituents that could have contributed to its antioxidant properties. Thus, pink pepper may be highlighted as a suitable additive to reduce the intake of cholesterol oxides, minimizing the loss of nutritional quality in canned fish.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Piper nigrum , Animais , Anacardiaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Óxidos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Colesterol
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115817, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228889

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Preparations from the bark and leaves of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi are commonly used to treat toothaches and sore throats. The use of medications based on leaves of this plant has also been reported for pain of arthritis, toothache, and sore throat. Some evidence indicated that the lectin SteLL is an antinociceptive agent from leaves. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study evaluated the antinociceptive activity of S. terebinthifolia leaf lectin (SteLL) using mouse models of peripheral and central nociception. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were treated intraperitoneally with SteLL at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. An acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test was performed to screen for the antinociceptive effect of the lectin. Next, the formalin test was used to assess the effects of SteLL on neurogenic (first phase) and inflammatory (second phase) pain, as well as to investigate the involvement of the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of SteLL and opioid receptors in the antinociceptive effect. The tail immersion test was performed to assess the central antinociception. Additionally, a rotarod test was performed to evaluate the effects of lectin on motor coordination in mice. RESULTS: SteLL reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 83.5-100.0%. In the first phase of the formalin test, SteLL reduced paw licking time by 49.4-50.5%, while in the second phase, SteLL reduced paw licking time by 80.5-82.6%. This antinociceptive effect was reversed by the previous incubation of the lectin with ovalbumin (indicating the possible involvement of the CRD) and by the administration of naloxone, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist. When testing selective antagonists of opioid receptors (µ, δ, and κ), only naltrindole, a selective δ receptor antagonist, blocked the antinociceptive action of SteLL during the second phase of the formalin test. In the tail immersion test, SteLL (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) administration reduced sensitivity to thermal stimulus, which was observed even after 2 h. SteLL (10 mg/kg) did not affect animal motor coordination in rotarod test when compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: SteLL has peripheral and central analgesic action involving opioid receptor modulation without affecting the motor coordination of animals. These results provide new perspectives for developing analgesic agents using lectins.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Lectinas , Animais , Camundongos , Analgésicos , Carboidratos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta , Receptores Opioides
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115786, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206869

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is rich in essential oil, distinguished by a predominance of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, it being widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammations. AIM OF STUDY: This study's objective was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of S. terebinthifolia (EOST) collected in six states of Brazil, evaluate its anti-inflammatory effects in mice, and analyze the histochemistry and micromorphology of leaves and stems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aerial parts of S. terebinthifolia were collected in six states of Brazil, and the essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The histochemistry and micromorphology of leaves and stems were performed using standard reagents, light and field emission scanning electron microscopy, beyond energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The EOST were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity and hyperalgesia using the carrageenan-induced paw edema methodology. RESULTS: The EOST showed variation across the six states in its yield (0.40%-0.86%) and chemical composition: hydrocarbon monoterpenes (28.76%-47.73%), sesquiterpenes, (31.43%-41.76%), oxygenated monoterpenes (14.31%-19.57%), and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.87%-14.38%). Both α-pinene and limonene were predominant constituents of essential in five regions, except for one state where α-phellandrene and limonene were the dominant components. A comprehensive description of the leaf and stem micromorphology and histochemistry was performed. In the in vivo testing, all EOST samples exerted antiedematogenic and anti-hyperalgesic effects, when tested in a carrageenan-induced paw inflammation (mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia) model with oral doses of 30 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the EOST samples collected in six Brazilian states differed in their chemical composition but not their anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic effects, which was correlated with the synergistic effect of its components, collaborating the etnhopharmacologycal use of this plant due to its an anti-inflammatory effect. Also, micromorphology and histochemistry of leaves and stems presented in this study provide anatomical and microchemical information, which aids species identification.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos , Camundongos , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Limoneno/análise , Carragenina , Anacardiaceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Hiperalgesia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364146

RESUMO

Schinus molle is a plant traditionally used in Mexico to treat gastric disorders. However, no scientific evidence has been reported on its gastroprotective effect. The aim of the current contribution was to conduct a bioassay-guided study on S. molle to evaluate its gastroprotective activity in a model of Wistar rats given ethanol orally to induce gastric lesions. The hexane and dichloromethane extracts from the tested plant showed over 99% gastroprotection at a dose of 100 mg/kg. From the hexane extract, two of the three fractions (F1 and F2) afforded over 99% gastroprotection. The F1 fraction was subjected to column chromatography, which revealed a white solid. Based on the ESI-MS analysis, the two main compounds in this solid were identified. The predominant compound was probably a triterpene. This mixture of compounds furnished about 67% gastroprotection at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Pretreatment with L-NAME, indomethacin, and NEM was carried out to explore the possible involvement of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and/or sulfhydryl groups, respectively, in the gastroprotective activity of the white solid. We found evidence for the participation of all three factors. No antisecretory activity was detected (tested by pylorus ligation). In conclusion, evidence is herein provided for the first time of the gastroprotective effect of S. molle.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Antiulcerosos , Úlcera Gástrica , Ratos , Animais , Prostaglandinas/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Antiulcerosos/química , Hexanos/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Mucosa Gástrica
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277439, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395193

RESUMO

The term circa situm has been used to describe different conservation strategies within agricultural landscapes. Circa situm conserves planted or remnant species in farmlands, where natural vegetation has been modified through anthropogenic intervention. It has been proposed that trees planted or retained under circa situm conditions may contribute to maintaining genetic diversity, however information on the role of this strategy in preserving genetic diversity is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of genetic diversity and structure, and mating patterns in planted and unmanaged stands of the tropical fruit tree Spondias purpurea L. in north western Costa Rica. In three localities, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci and genotyped 201 adults and 648 seeds from planted and wild stands. We found no differences in genetic diversity among planted and wild stands. Genetic structure analysis revealed that gene flow occurs among planted and wild stands within localities. Clones were present and their diversity and evenness were both high and similar between planted and wild stands. The number of pollen donors per progeny array was low (Nep = 1.01) which resulted in high levels of correlated paternity (rp = 0.9). Asexual seeds were found in 4.6% of the progeny arrays, which had multilocus genotypes that were identical to the maternal trees. Our results show that although planted stands under circa situm conditions can maintain similar levels of genetic diversity than wild stands, the low number of sires and asexual seed formation could threaten the long term persistence of populations.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Árvores , Árvores/genética , Anacardiaceae/genética , Costa Rica , Frutas/genética , Variação Genética , Florestas , Reprodução Assexuada
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19086, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411297

RESUMO

How do large-bodied frugivores contribute to seed dispersal of large-diaspore plants? This study examined seed dispersal effectiveness for two large-diaspore tree species, Astrotrichilia asterotricha (AA) and Abrahamia deflexa (AD), in a Madagascan forest. I evaluated fruit removal rates through focal tree observations and factors affecting seedling recruitment up to the 2-year-old seedling stage. I confirmed brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus) as the sole disperser, removing 58.8% and 26.0% of fruits produced by AA and AD. Brown lemurs frequently visited large-crowned AA trees with high density of fallen fruits and more adjacent fruiting trees during seasons with low fruit diversity. Most AA seedlings were removed by predators, although canopy openness slightly improved seedling establishment. Although AD seeds were severely attacked by predators under mother trees, the seedlings survived under dispersal conditions distant from the mother trees, and with low density of diaspores. AD had a higher cumulative probability from fruit removal to seedling recruitment (6.5%) than AA (1.5%) in the first rainy season. This study clarifies the significance of seed dispersal to tree recruitment strategies, which vary among different combinations of tree species and large frugivores, i.e. quantitative dispersal to reach suitable microhabitats, and qualitative dispersal to escape from dangerous zones near mother trees.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Lemuridae , Meliaceae , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Plântula
8.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(10): 1521-1530, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184462

RESUMO

Currently, bioactive compounds derived from nature have been thought to be promising anti-acne substances owing to the variety of potential biological effects. This study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Bouea macrophylla Griffth seed extract against bacteria-induced acne inflammation for the first time in terms of antibacterial effects against acne-inducing bacteria, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Initially, extracting procedures were optimized and five different extracts were obtained. Considering their antibacterial activities against Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, ethanolic and ethyl acetate fractions exerted a notable effect which were highly superior above those of polyphenol standards. Additionally, these two extracts presented outstanding antioxidant capacities in terms of DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation which also play a role in the exacerbation of acne inflammation. Besides, inhibition on lipid peroxidation and reducing power of ethanolic fraction were significantly (p<0.05) better than those of ethyl acetate fraction which was corresponding to their phenolic and ellagic acid contents. However, flavonoids found in ethyl acetate fraction might play an important role in its potentials. After that, the anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts were elucidated by means of inhibition on nitric oxide production from LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell lines at which the effects of both extracts were dosedependency. Taken together, our findings have apparently proven that B. macrophylla seed extracts exerted a variety of potential properties including antioxidation, anti-acne-inducing bacteria, and anti-inflammatory effects which could serve as a promising anti-acne agent for cosmeceutical applications.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Cosmecêuticos , Acetatos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cosmecêuticos/farmacologia , Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Óxido Nítrico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Propionibacterium acnes
9.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235273

RESUMO

Schinus molle (SM) was investigated as a primary source of cellulose with the aim of discovering resources to generate cellulose nanofibers (CNF). The SM was put through a soda pulping process to purify the cellulose, and then, the fiber was treated with an enzymatic treatment. Then, a twin-screw extruder and/or masuko were utilized to help with fiber delamination during the nanofibrillation process. After the enzymatic treatment, the twin-screw extruder and masuko treatment give a yield of 49.6 and 50.2%, respectively. The optical and atomic force microscopy, morfi, and polymerization degrees of prepared cellulosic materials were established. The pulp fibers, collected following each treatment stage, demonstrated that fiber characteristics such as length and crystallinity varied according to the used treatment (mechanical or enzymatic treatment). Obviously, the enzymic treatment resulted in shorter fibers and an increased degree of polymerization. However, the CNF obtained after enzymatic and extrusion treatment was achieved, and it gave 19 nm as the arithmetic width and a Young's modulus of 8.63 GPa.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Nanofibras , Celulose , Módulo de Elasticidade , Polimerização
10.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220063, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sporothrix brasiliensis is the causative agent of zoonotic cases of sporotrichosis in Brazil and is associated with atypical and severe presentations in cats, dogs, and humans. Sporotrichosis treatment is usually time- and cost-consuming, sometimes with poor response and host toxicity. Schinus terebinthifolius has proven efficacy against bacteria and fungi of clinical interest. OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vitro activity of S. terebinthifolius against S. brasiliensis. METHODS: Five S. brasiliensis isolates and three reference strains were subjected to a hydroethanol extract derived from the leaves of S. terebinthifolius and its fractions. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth microdilution method according to the M38-A2 CLSI guidelines. Also, the fungicidal/fungistatic activity of the extract and fractions was studied. FINDINGS: The crude extract of S. terebinthifolius inhibited the growth of S. brasiliensis (MIC: 0.5-1.0 µg/mL), while the partitioned extracts dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol demonstrated growth inhibition at 8 µg/mL due to a fungistatic activity. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Due to its in vitro efficacy against S. brasiliensis and its known pharmacological safety, S. terebinthifolius is a candidate to be tested using in vivo models of sporotrichosis.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Sporothrix , Esporotricose , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Brasil , Butanóis/uso terapêutico , Gatos , Misturas Complexas/uso terapêutico , Cães , Humanos , Cloreto de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Esporotricose/microbiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17245, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241638

RESUMO

Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi is a species with several potential uses; selecting the proper substrate and fertilizer rate can be vital for seedling production in a nursery environment. This study aims to evaluate two substrates, namely: (i) sewage sludge (SS) from Ilha WWTP; (ii) a commercial substrate (CS) made of organic materials (mainly sphagnum peat). Increasing rates of controlled-release fertilizer - CRF (0, 3, 6, and 12 kg m-3) were applied. The experiment was completely randomized with a factorial 2 × 4 scheme (substrates × rates). The seedlings' growth, biomass, and quality were evaluated. The treatments were compared by Tukey test and regression analysis, where linear, quadratic, and cubic models were considered. Principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were performed. The CRF rates showed non-significant effects for most of the investigated variables in the SS substrate. In the CS, a 7.8 kg m-3 rate of CRF showed the best growth performance. The multivariate analysis of the morphological parameters proved suitable as a complementary approach to evaluate the seedlings' quality. Seedlings reached recommended values for height, diameter, and quality in the 100% SS substrate without chemical fertilizers; thus, Schinus terebinthifolia production in the SS from Ilha is recommended. Besides the growth advantage, the SS can promote nursery cost savings with commercial substrates and chemical fertilizers.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Esgotos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Fertilizantes , Plântula , Solo
12.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 194: 107827, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108793

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti transmits arbovirus, which is a public health concern. Certain filamentous fungi have the potential to control the disease. Here, the effects of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. CG 153, Beauveria bassiana s.l. CG 206 and Schinus molle L. were investigated against Aedes aegypti larvae. In addition, the effect of essential oil on fungal development was analyzed. Fungal germination was assessed after combination with essential oil at 0.0025 %, 0.0075 %, 0.005 %, or 0.01 %; all of the oil concentrations affected germination except 0.0025 % (v/v). Larvae were exposed to 0.0025 %, 0.0075 %, 0.005 %, or 0.01 % of the essential oil or Tween 80 at 0.01 %; however, only the essential oil at 0.0025 % achieved similar results as the control. Larvae were exposed to fungi at 107 conidia mL-1 alone or in combination with the essential oil at 0.0025 %. Regardless of the combination, M. anisopliae reduced the median survival time of mosquitoes more than B. bassiana. The cumulative survival of mosquitoes exposed to M. anisopliae alone or in combination with essential oil was 7.5 % and 2 %, respectively, and for B. bassiana, it was 75 % and 71 %, respectively. M. anisopliae + essential oil had a synergistic effect against larvae, whereas B. bassiana + essential oil was antagonistic. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and histopathology confirmed that the interaction of M. anisopliae was through the gut and hemocoel. In contrast, the mosquito's gut was the main route for invasion by B. bassiana. Results from gas chromatography studies demonstrated sabinene and bicyclogermacrene as the main compounds of S. molle, and the in-silico investigation found evidence that both compounds affect a wide range of biological activity. For the first time, we demonstrated the potential of S. molle and its interaction with both fungal strains against A. aegypti larvae. Moreover, for the first time, we reported that S. molle might be responsible for significant changes in larval physiology. This study provides new insights into host-pathogen interplay and contributes to a better understanding of pathogenesis in mosquitoes, which have significant consequences for biological control strategies.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anacardiaceae , Beauveria , Metarhizium , Óleos Voláteis , Aedes/microbiologia , Animais , Beauveria/fisiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Metarhizium/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Polissorbatos/farmacologia
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(9)2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099168

RESUMO

Introduction. Plants have been used as medicines for centuries to treat human diseases. Studies with plants are extremely important for the development of future drugs that can benefit the human population.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. With the emergence of pathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents, there is an urgent need to direct research towards the discovery of new antimicrobials.Aim. In this study, Spondias purpurea L. (Anacardiaceae) was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity.Methodology. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the MIC using the 96-well plate microdilution technique of ethanolic, hexanic and dicloromethanic extracts of dried S. purpurea leaves against bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) method. To evaluate the safety of extracts, a cytotoxicity study against HaCat, J774 and HepG2 cells was performed.Results. The extracts had no activity against the bacteria at the maximum concentration of 5.0 mg ml-1, but showed fungistatic action against Candida species and dermatophytes. The ethanolic extract showed 88 % antioxidant activity and showed no significant cytotoxicity against the previously mentioned cells.Conclusion. This study showed that the 100 % ethanolic (EtOH) extract was favourable for antifungal and antioxidant activities and did not present significant cytotoxicity against the three studied cell lines, indicating that S. purpurea leaves are promising for the development of new antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Chempluschem ; 87(8): e202200109, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922385

RESUMO

The anti-tyrosinase activity of the leaf extract of Schinus terebinthifolius, also known as Brazilian peppertree, was evaluated using multiple in silico approaches, such as molecular homology, molecular docking, MM-GBSA, molecular dynamics, MM-PBSA, QSAR, and skin permeability predictions. With these computational tools, the compounds that downregulate tyrosinase enzyme activity could be evaluated, and more potent molecules could be identified. The results indicated that various compounds, especially luteolin, are accountable for the anti-tyrosinase activity of S. terebinthifolius. For cosmetic application, further studies with luteolin are especially recommended, for having presented a good performance both in theoretical inhibition (30.92 kJ mol-1 ) and skin permeability (LogKp=-6.62 cm-1 ).


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Humanos , Luteolina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Acta Trop ; 234: 106617, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914566

RESUMO

Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease mainly caused by the nematode parasite Strongyloides stercoralis. Current treatment consists in the administration of ivermectin or, alternatively, albendazole (or analogues). Concerns regarding these drugs' irregular cure rates and side effects, raise a need for therapeutic alternatives. In this study, we tested the in vitro effect of Spondias mombin L. ethanolic extract against the laboratory model for strongyloidiasis, Strongyloides venezuelensis. The ethanolic extract was further fractionated and each fraction was also tested. Tested fractions were analyzed through thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography (GC/MS). Our results showed that S. mombin extract and fractions had a better in vitro effect than ivermectin, particularly fraction 4 which showed the better results causing 100% mortality in 4 h after exposure to an extract concentration of 400 µg/mL of RPMI medium and caused 100% mortality 12 h after exposure to an extract concentration of 50 µg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy showed that this fraction caused both wrinkling and peeling of the parasites cuticle, whilst ivermectin only caused wrinkling. GC/MS showed a high percentage of monoaromatic phenolic lipids (3-R phenol and 3-R1 phenol), which were likely responsible for the anti-Strongyloides effect. The use of polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced the efficiency, thus raising a need for alertness when using this excipient. Our results suggest that S. mombin is a potential source of compounds that could be used for stongyloidiasis treatment.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Strongyloides stercoralis , Estrongiloidíase , Anacardiaceae/química , Animais , Humanos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 185: 105134, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772837

RESUMO

During the storage of Prosopis alba pods, substantial quantitative and qualitative losses were observed. One of the main factors is the seed beetle Rhipibruchus picturatus. A key strategy to develop new pest control management is the use of essential oils (EOs) due they are efficient, less toxic, and less persistent in the environment compared to synthetic pesticides. In this context, seeds and leaves of Schinus areira L. (Anacardiaceae) EOs and Citrus spp. EO were studied in the present work. In the leaves of S. areira EO, 1-epi-cadinol, sesquiterpenoid alcohol, was the major compound. On the other hand, the main compounds of the EO extracted from S. areira seeds are the monoterpenes sabinene, and α-pinene. Finally, in the Citrus EO, limonene is the principal component. The three EOs obtained exhibited insecticidal activity against R. picturatus, being the first report of the use of EOs against this insect pest. The best insecticidal results were obtained with the leaves of S. areira EO. Moreover, this EO inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in vitro assays. Molecular docking studies on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) suggest that the main components of the leaves of S, areira EOs, bind to the active site of the enzyme, in good agreement with in vitro competitive inhibition against AChE observed for this EO. The data obtained demonstrate the potential use of Schinus areira EOs in the development of new storage pest control strategies.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Besouros , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Acetilcolinesterase , Anacardiaceae/química , Animais , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10896, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764663

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pneumonia-like disease with a pattern of acute respiratory symptoms, currently remains a significant public health concern causing tremendous human suffering. Although several approved vaccines exist, vaccine hesitancy, limited vaccine availability, high rate of viral mutation, and the absence of approved drugs account for the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infections. The investigation of possibly repurposing of phytochemical compounds as therapeutic alternatives has gained momentum due to their reported affordability and minimal toxicity. This study investigated anti-viral phytochemical compounds from ethanolic leaf extracts of Spondias mombin L as potential inhibitor candidates against SARS-CoV-2. We identified Geraniin and 2-O-Caffeoyl-(+)-allohydroxycitric acid as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor candidates targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent polymerase receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 viral S-protein and the 3C-like main protease (3CLpro). Geraniin exhibited binding free energy (ΔGbind) of - 25.87 kcal/mol and - 21.74 kcal/mol towards SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent polymerase and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 viral S-protein respectively, whereas 2-O-Caffeoyl-(+)-allohydroxycitric acid exhibited a ΔGbind of - 32 kcal/mol towards 3CLpro. Molecular Dynamics simulations indicated a possible interference to the functioning of SARS-CoV-2 targets by the two identified inhibitors. However, further in vitro and in vivo evaluation of these potential SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic inhibitor candidates is needed.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , COVID-19 , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteínas Virais/química
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(53): 80910-80925, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729379

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to assess the potential cardiopreventive effect of the methanolic extract of S. molle L. (MESM) on isoproterenol-induced infarction in rats. The biomolecules content was evaluated using HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS analysis. On the 29th and 30th days, two successive injections of isoproterenol (ISO) were given to Wistar rats to provoke myocardial infarction following pretreatment with either MESM (60 mg/kg b.w) or Pidogrel (Pid; 2 mg/kg b.w.). A total of sixteen phenolics were identified with masazino-flavanone as the most prevalent compound (1726.12 µg/g dm). Results showed that MESM offered cardioprevention by normalizing the ST segment and reducing the elevated cardiac risk parameters. The altered lipid biomarkers together with the plasma ionic levels were improved. Additionally, MESM inhibited the cardiac oxidative stress generated by ISO injection though enhancing antioxidant enzymes (GSH, CAT, SOD and GPX) which reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. MESM reduced myocardial apoptosis by significantly repressing mRNA expressions of Caspase-3 and Bax, with an upregulated Bcl-2 expression. Moreover, MESM reduced DNA fragmentation as well as the infarct size observed by TTC staining. In addition, MESM exhibited an antifibrotic effect by downregulating TGF-1ß expression and reducing collagen deposition in myocardial tissue, as confirmed by Trichrom Masson analysis. The histopathological findings revealed less muscle separation and fewer inflammatory cells in the ISO + MESM-treated rats. Results of the docking simulation indicated that catechin in MESM was inhibitory mainly due to hydrogen bonding interactions with PDI, ACE and TGF-ß1 proteins which could highlight the antithrombotic and antifibrotic capacity of MESM.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Catequina , Infarto do Miocárdio , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Ratos , Anacardiaceae/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Lipídeos/toxicidade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 4261741, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711520

RESUMO

The study evaluated the antifungal activities of the 70% ethanol extracts of Sclerocarya birrea leaves (SBL) and stem bark (SBB) against C. albicans strains and fluconazole-resistant isolates, their antifungal effects in combination with conventional antifungals as well as their effects on the biofilms of the C. albicans strains and isolates. UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis was then carried out to investigate the metabolite profile of the extracts and UPLC fingerprints developed for their routine identification as part of quality control measures. The extracts exhibited considerable antifungal activity with MIC ranging from 12.21 to 97.66 µg/mL and MFC from 12.21 to 390.63 µg/mL against the C. albicans strains and isolates. The antifungal activity of the stem bark extract was higher than the leaf extract. SBL and SBB also significantly inhibited biofilm formation (IC50 = 12.49 to 164.42 µg/mL) and the mature biofilms (IC50 = 91.50 to 685.20 µg/mL) of the strains and isolates of the C. albicans and demonstrated potential for their use in combination therapies with currently used antifungals especially the stem bark extract with nystatin. Metabolite profiling identified the presence of polyphenolic compounds in both leaves and stem bark mostly flavonoids, their derivatives, and proanthocyanidins, which contribute in part to the bioactivity of the plant. Whereas flavonoids like quercetin, myricetin, and their derivatives were abundant in the leaves, epicatechin monomers with their condensed tannins, including procyanidin B2 and procyanidin C, were abundant in the stem bark. Fingerprints of SBL and SBB were developed and validated and could be used as qualitative tools to authenticate the plant. The outcomes of the study show the promise of the leaf and stem bark extracts of S. birrea to be studied further and developed as antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Antifúngicos , Anacardiaceae/química , Antifúngicos/análise , Candida albicans , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35744961

RESUMO

This work presents the first report on the phytochemical investigation of Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. gum exudate. A known cardanol, 3-heptadec-12'-Z-enyl phenol (1) and three new alk(en)ylhydroxycyclohexanes, namely, (1R,3R)-1,3-dihydroxy-3-[heptadec-12'(Z)-enyl]cyclohexane (2) (1S,2S,3S,4S,5R)-1,2,3,4,5-pentahydroxy-5-[octadec-13'(Z)-enyl]cyclohexane (3) and (1R,2S,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxy-4-[heptadec-12'(Z)-enyl]cyclohexane (4) were isolated from the gum. The structures of the compounds were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS data. The ethanolic extract of the gum was found to be the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor with IC50 of 11.32 µg/mL while compounds 2 and 3, with IC50 values of 24.90 and 26.99 µg/mL, respectively, were found to be potential anti-tyrosinase candidates from the gum. Gum exudate may be a potential source for non-destructive harvesting of selective pharmacologically active compounds from plants. The results also provide evidence that H. caffrum gum may find application in cosmetics as a potential anti-tyrosinase agent.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Cicloexanos , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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