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3.
Instr Course Lect ; 69: 405-414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017742

RESUMO

Abuse of opioids has had and continues to have a devastating impact on public health and safety in the United States, and the use of opioids has increased dramatically in the last two decades. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the roots of this tragic state of affairs and what may be done about it moving forward. The authors review the medical-legal risks physicians face when prescribing pain relieving medications for their patients. Strategies are offered for staying out of trouble while providing quality pain management for patients.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , Dor , Manejo da Dor , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estados Unidos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19004, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic tonsillectomy is associated with postoperative pain. Postoperative pain management remains to be improved in children. We aimed to investigate oxycodone preemptive analgesia in children undergoing endoscopic plasma total adenotonsillectomy. METHODS: 166 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy were recruited at Wuhan Children's Hospital between 08/2016 and 03/2017. They were randomly assigned to receive SPOA (postoperative sufentanil), SPEA+SPOA (preemptive sufentanil and postoperative sufentanil), and OPEA+SPOA (preemptive oxycodone and postoperative sufentanil). The primary endpoint was serum c-fos levels. The secondary endpoints were the response entropy (RE) value, Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) score, FLACC score, and adverse events. RESULTS: c-fos mRNA levels were increased significantly after surgery in the SPOA and SPEA+SPOA groups (P < .05). Postoperatively, c-fos mRNA levels were higher in the SPOA group compared with the OPEA+SPOA group (P = .044). The RE values increased in all groups after surgery (P < .05). At extubation, RE values were higher in the SPOA group compared with the SPEA+SPOA and OPEA+SPOA groups (P < .05). The PAED scores were higher in the SPOA group compared with the OPEA+SPOA group (P = .045). In the SPOA group, the FLACC scores were decreased at 24 h after surgery vs 4 hours (P = .044). Prediction probability (Pk) values indicated that RE and c-fos mRNA levels were quantitative predictors for early postoperative stress reaction after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The subanalgesic dose of oxycodone (0.1 mg/kg) as preemptive analgesia could improve pain after endoscopic plasma total adenotonsillectomy in children.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Tonsilectomia , Actinas/sangue , Adenoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Adenoidectomia/métodos , Criança , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sufentanil/uso terapêutico , Tonsilectomia/efeitos adversos , Tonsilectomia/métodos
5.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 26(S1): 6-7, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035004

RESUMO

No Abstract Available.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Manejo da Dor , Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18924, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000405

RESUMO

Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived cytokine that exerts its antiinflammatory effects by binding to 2 adiponectin receptors, adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2). However, the role of these adiponectin receptors on inflammatory pain remains unclear. We investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these genes and inflammatory pain, such as postoperative pain and cancer pain.We analyzed 17 SNPs of the ADIPOR1 gene and 27 SNPs of the ADIPOR2 gene in 56 adult patients with postlaparotomy pain. We compared these genotypes with pain intensity and opioid consumption, adjusting for multiple testing. We analyzed the genotypes of 88 patients with cancer pain and examined the association of the relevant SNP(s) with pain intensity and opioid consumption.One variant of the ADIPOR1 gene (rs12045862) showed significant association with postoperative pain intensity; patients with minor allele homozygote (n = 7) demonstrated significantly worse pain intensity than that of combined patient group exhibiting major allele homozygote or the heterozygote (n = 49; Mann-Whitney test, P < .00002), although their opioid consumptions were comparable. Cancer pain intensity between minor allele homozygote patients (n = 7) and other 2 genotype patients (n = 81) were comparable.The rs12045862 SNP of the ADIPOR1 gene was associated with postoperative pain but not cancer pain. This might result from functional alteration of the ADIPOR1 signalling pathways, which influence the inflammatory process. ADIPOR1 may be a novel potential target for developing analgesics of postoperative pain.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/genética , Dor Pós-Operatória/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Adiponectina/genética , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Laparotomia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 316e-323e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative use of opioids is common in surgical practice and frequently results in troublesome opioid-related side effects that often lead to suboptimal postsurgical outcomes. As such, multiple studies have sought to identify alternatives that may reduce reliance on opioid-based perioperative pain management. Recently, it has been shown that patient education and patient involvement in care positively impact surgical outcomes. This study evaluates how patient education regarding the role of endogenous beta-endorphins in reducing pain and the opposing effect of opioid analgesics impacts opioid consumption and mood after surgery. METHODS: Patients scheduled for breast augmentation were divided into two groups, A and B. Both groups received identical multimodal anesthesia regimens; however, only patients in group B were educated on the role of endogenous beta-endorphins in pain control and mood enhancement, and how opioids block their action. RESULTS: Patients in the group receiving preoperative education on the analgesic and mood-enhancing role of endogenous beta-endorphins and how opioids block their action consumed significantly less opioids and had better postsurgical outcomes as determined by self-reported measures of pain level and mood/sense of well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that opioid use was significantly reduced and patients' mood/sense of well-being was significantly enhanced when patients received preoperative education on the oppositional relationship between beta-endorphins and opioids. Such patient education may be linked to a significant reduction in opioid use and improved patient mood/sense of well-being, especially when combined with opioid-free multimodal anesthesia. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Mamoplastia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
JAMA ; 323(3): 237-247, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961419

RESUMO

Importance: For patients with painful chronic pancreatitis, surgical treatment is postponed until medical and endoscopic treatment have failed. Observational studies have suggested that earlier surgery could mitigate disease progression, providing better pain control and preserving pancreatic function. Objective: To determine whether early surgery is more effective than the endoscopy-first approach in terms of clinical outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ESCAPE trial was an unblinded, multicenter, randomized clinical superiority trial involving 30 Dutch hospitals participating in the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. From April 2011 until September 2016, a total of 88 patients with chronic pancreatitis, a dilated main pancreatic duct, and who only recently started using prescribed opioids for severe pain (strong opioids for ≤2 months or weak opioids for ≤6 months) were included. The 18-month follow-up period ended in March 2018. Interventions: There were 44 patients randomized to the early surgery group who underwent pancreatic drainage surgery within 6 weeks after randomization and 44 patients randomized to the endoscopy-first approach group who underwent medical treatment, endoscopy including lithotripsy if needed, and surgery if needed. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was pain, measured on the Izbicki pain score and integrated over 18 months (range, 0-100 [increasing score indicates more pain severity]). Secondary outcomes were pain relief at the end of follow-up; number of interventions, complications, hospital admissions; pancreatic function; quality of life (measured on the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]); and mortality. Results: Among 88 patients who were randomized (mean age, 52 years; 21 (24%) women), 85 (97%) completed the trial. During 18 months of follow-up, patients in the early surgery group had a lower Izbicki pain score than patients in the group randomized to receive the endoscopy-first approach group (37 vs 49; between-group difference, -12 points [95% CI, -22 to -2]; P = .02). Complete or partial pain relief at end of follow-up was achieved in 23 of 40 patients (58%) in the early surgery vs 16 of 41 (39%)in the endoscopy-first approach group (P = .10). The total number of interventions was lower in the early surgery group (median, 1 vs 3; P < .001). Treatment complications (27% vs 25%), mortality (0% vs 0%), hospital admissions, pancreatic function, and quality of life were not significantly different between early surgery and the endoscopy-first approach. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with chronic pancreatitis, early surgery compared with an endoscopy-first approach resulted in lower pain scores when integrated over 18 months. However, further research is needed to assess persistence of differences over time and to replicate the study findings. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Identifier: ISRCTN45877994.


Assuntos
Cálculos/terapia , Drenagem , Endoscopia , Litotripsia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ductos Pancreáticos/cirurgia , Pancreatite Crônica/terapia , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Cálculos/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Pancreatite Crônica/complicações , Pancreatite Crônica/cirurgia
10.
BMJ ; 368: l6968, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the distribution and patterns of opioid prescribing in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: National private insurer covering all 50 US states and Washington DC. PARTICIPANTS: An annual average of 669 495 providers prescribing 8.9 million opioid prescriptions to 3.9 million patients from 2003 through 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardized doses of opioids in morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) and number of opioid prescriptions. RESULTS: In 2017, the top 1% of providers accounted for 49% of all opioid doses and 27% of all opioid prescriptions. In absolute terms, the top 1% of providers prescribed an average of 748 000 MMEs-nearly 1000 times more than the middle 1%. At least half of all providers in the top 1% in one year were also in the top 1% in adjacent years. More than two fifths of all prescriptions written by the top 1% of providers were for more than 50 MMEs a day and over four fifths were for longer than seven days. In contrast, prescriptions written by the bottom 99% of providers were below these thresholds, with 86% of prescriptions for less than 50 MMEs a day and 71% for fewer than seven days. Providers prescribing high amounts of opioids and patients receiving high amounts of opioids persisted over time, with over half of both appearing in adjacent years. CONCLUSIONS: Most prescriptions written by the majority of providers are under the recommended thresholds, suggesting that most US providers are careful in their prescribing. Interventions focusing on this group of providers are unlikely to effect beneficial change and could induce unnecessary burden. A large proportion of providers have established relationships with their patients over multiple years. Interventions to reduce inappropriate opioid prescribing should be focused on improving patient care, management of patients with complex pain, and reducing comorbidities rather than seeking to enforce a threshold for prescribing.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/normas , Médicos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Médicos/classificação , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 507-516, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cleft repair requires multiple operations from infancy through adolescence, with repeated exposure to opioids and their associated risks. The authors implemented a quality improvement project to reduce perioperative opioid exposure in their cleft lip/palate population. METHODS: After identifying key drivers of perioperative opioid administration, quality improvement interventions were developed to address these key drivers and reduce postoperative opioid administration from 0.30 mg/kg of morphine equivalents to 0.20 mg/kg of morphine equivalents. Data were retrospectively collected from January 1, 2015, until initiation of the quality improvement project (May 1, 2017), tracked over the 6-month quality improvement study period, and the subsequent 14 months. Metrics included morphine equivalents of opioids received during admission, administration of intraoperative nerve blocks, adherence to revised electronic medical record order sets, length of stay, and pain scores. RESULTS: The final sample included 624 patients. Before implementation (n =354), children received an average of 0.30 mg/kg of morphine equivalents postoperatively. After implementation (n = 270), children received an average of 0.14 mg/kg of morphine equivalents postoperatively (p < 0.001) without increased length of stay (28.3 versus 28.7 hours; p = 0.719) or pain at less than 6 hours (1.78 versus 1.74; p = 0.626) or more than 6 hours postoperatively (1.50 versus 1.49; p = 0.924). CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative opioid administration after cleft repair can be reduced in a relatively short period by identifying key drivers and addressing perioperative education, standardization of intraoperative pain control, and postoperative prioritization of nonopioid medications and nonpharmacologic pain control. The authors' quality improvement framework has promise for adaptation in future efforts to reduce opioid use in other surgical patient populations. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Derivados da Morfina/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Anestesia por Condução/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição da Dor , Satisfação do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e97, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992376

RESUMO

AIMS: Prescription opioid misuse (POM) contributes to a larger opioid crisis in the US and Canada, with over 17 000 US POM-related overdose deaths in 2017. Our aims were to (1) identify specific profiles of respondents based on POM motives using the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and (2) compare profile respondents on sociodemographics, substance use and mental and physical health outcomes. METHODS: Analyses included 2017-18 NSDUH respondents with data on POM motives (n = 4810). POM was defined as prescription opioid use in a way not intended by the prescriber, including use without a prescription, in larger amounts or more frequently. Nine POM motives for the most recent episode were assessed, including 'to relieve physical pain' and 'to get high'. Latent classes, based on POM motives, were estimated. Classes were compared on sociodemographics, substance use and physical and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: Eight latent classes were identified (in order of prevalence): pain relief only, relax-pain relief, sleep-pain relief, multi-motive, high, experimenter, emotional coping and dependent/hooked. Compared to the pain relief only group, the high and multi-motive classes had higher odds of all substance use outcomes, with the dependent/hooked class having higher odds on all but one outcome. Six of the eight classes had higher odds of past-year mental health treatment and suicidal ideation than the pain relief only class. CONCLUSIONS: Screening for pain, pain conditions, problematic substance use and psychopathology are recommended in those with any POM. While those in the dependent/hooked, multi-motive and emotional coping classes are most likely to have prescription opioid use disorder (OUD), screening for OUD symptoms in all individuals with POM is also warranted.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(676-7): 8-11, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961074

RESUMO

This article describes a new form of administration of inhaled prescribed heroin currently under investigation. It underlines the particularity of opioid agonist prescription in jail and presents new perspectives in using psilocybin in addiction medicine treatment. A brief literature review about vaping confirms its interest in quitting cigarette, with a cost of addiction to vaping and recent worrisome reports of chemical pneumonia. Finally, the withdrawal of WHO guidelines on opiates use in pain management, in the context of a suspicion of conflict of interest, underlines the sensible balance between over- and under- prescription of opiates in analgesic treatment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , Manejo da Dor
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110137, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927248

RESUMO

Seizures of synthetic opioids have increased since 2012, with a 45 % increase in synthetic opioid related deaths between 2016 and 2017 in US. Recently, concerns have arisen around these substances and their illicit use also in several European countries. Our aim was to develop and validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 16 synthetic opioids in segmented hair, including fentanyl, norfentanyl, acetylfentanyl, U-47700, AH-7921, acrylfentanyl, crotonylfentanyl, butyrylfentanyl, methoxacetylfentanyl, U-49900, valeryfentanyl, 4-fluoro-iso-butyrylfentanyl, ocfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl, and alfetanyl. Sample preparation involved washing the hair in dichloromethane, water and methanol, and extraction in methanol, followed by solid phase extraction clean-up. This method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification (LLOQ), precision and bias, selectivity, stability, matrix effects, extraction efficiency of the clean up procedure, and carryover. LLOQs ranged from 0.15-1pg/mg, and the calibration ranged from the LLOQ up to 500pg/mg. Intra and inter-day precision were evaluated at low and high concentrations, with spiked QCs, during 8 days and the results were satisfactory with RSD<15 % for all the compounds except for norfentanyl (22 %) and alfentanyl (19 %). Two external certified QCs containing fentanyl at 11 and 105pg/mg were also analysed within each batch and the RSD and bias were lower than 16 % and 10 %, respectively. Matrix effects compensated by internal standard fentanyl-d5 (MEIS), were between 77-115 % (RSD<10 %) and extraction efficiency of the clean-up procedure was between 66-93 % (RSD<21 %). Processed sample stability and carryover were acceptable for all of the compounds. The method was applied to 17 authentic hair samples (body or head hair) from US fentanyl analogue users. When head hair was available, the hair strands were analysed in 1cm/segment. Concentrations ranges were as follows: fentanyl (n=16) 2->ULOQ (500) pg/mg, norfentanyl (n=14) 1-38pg/mg, acetylfentanyl (n=7) 0.6->ULOQ (250) pg/mg, furanylfentanyl (n=5) 2-123pg/mg, tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl (n=1) 0.5-63pg/mg and valerylfentanyl (n=1) 2.1->ULOQ (50) pg/mg, along the hair strands. To our knowledge, this is the first time where concentrations of tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl, and valerylfentanyl in hair are reported. The same samples were also analysed for the determination of other drugs of abuse using our routine method (also in 1cm/segment for head hair when available). The results demonstrated poly-drug use in these fentanyl-analogue users population (mean drugs: n=5): amphetamine and/or methamphetamine (n=10), buprenorphine (n=5), cocaine (n=8), methadone (n=8), 6-MAM (n=17), meperidine (n=1), oxycodone (n=11), tramadol (n=3). Evaluation of the concentrations of these drugs, together with the fentanyl analogues is discussed in the present paper. Two authentic samples from two Belgian post-mortem cases, were also analysed showing fentanyl use and in one case polydrug use. The results demonstrated multi-analyte quantitative methods, including fentanyl analogues, are becoming useful in forensic laboratories involved in hair analysis, and in particular when polydrug use is suspected.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/análise , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Fentanila/análise , Cabelo/química , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Medicamentos Sintéticos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
20.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 109-112, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2016 an increase has been observed in the availability of new synthetic opioids (NSO) in Europe. Cyclopropylfentanyl is a very potent and selective µ-opioid agonist, which was reported for the first time in August 2017 in Europe. METHODS: The case was included in a prospective observational study of patients treated in emergency departments after the intake of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Clinical features were acquired using a structured questionnaire for physicians. Serum and/or urine samples of ED patients were analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) screening methods for NPS. CASE REPORT: Within 10 min after intranasal intake of fentanyl, a 25-year-old male developed nausea, profuse sweating and dyspnoe. Because soon afterwards coma and respiratory insufficiency was noticed, the patient was admitted to hospital. After administration of naloxone (0.8 mg) breathing stabilized. However, the patient displayed recurrent decreases of oxygen saturation for 12 h. The intake of cyclopropylfentanyl was analytically confirmed. CONCLUSION: The constantly growing diversity of NSO still poses a high risk for drug users and can be a challenging task for clinicians and forensic toxicologists. Clinicians treating opioid overdoses should be aware of the potentially long lasting respiratory depression induced by fentanyl analogs.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Aerossóis , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/fisiopatologia , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/envenenamento , Humanos , Masculino , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Resultado do Tratamento
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