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3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 202-207, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571180

RESUMO

Deaths involving synthetic opioids other than methadone (synthetic opioids), which largely consist of illicitly manufactured fentanyl; psychostimulants with abuse potential (e.g., methamphetamine); and cocaine have increased in recent years, particularly since 2013 (1,2). In 2019, a total of 70,630 drug overdose deaths occurred, corresponding to an age-adjusted rate of 21.6 per 100,000 population and a 4.3% increase from the 2018 rate (20.7) (3). CDC analyzed trends in age-adjusted overdose death rates involving synthetic opioids, psychostimulants, cocaine, heroin, and prescription opioids during 2013-2019, as well as geographic patterns in synthetic opioid- and psychostimulant-involved deaths during 2018-2019. From 2013 to 2019, the synthetic opioid-involved death rate increased 1,040%, from 1.0 to 11.4 per 100,000 age-adjusted (3,105 to 36,359). The psychostimulant-involved death rate increased 317%, from 1.2 (3,627) in 2013 to 5.0 (16,167) in 2019. In the presence of synthetic opioid coinvolvement, death rates for prescription opioids, heroin, psychostimulants, and cocaine increased. In the absence of synthetic opioid coinvolvement, death rates increased only for psychostimulants and cocaine. From 2018 to 2019, the largest relative increase in the synthetic opioid-involved death rate occurred in the West (67.9%), and the largest relative increase in the psychostimulant-involved death rate occurred in the Northeast (43.8%); these increases represent important changes in the geographic distribution of drug overdose deaths. Evidence-based prevention and response strategies including substance use disorder treatment and overdose prevention and response efforts focused on polysubstance use must be adapted to address the evolving drug overdose epidemic.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Medicamentos Sintéticos/envenenamento , Geografia , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 85, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mu-opioid agonist methadone is administered orally and used in opioid detoxification and in the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain. Acute oral methadone-use and -abuse have been associated with inflammatory and toxic central nervous system (CNS) damage in some cases and cognitive deficits can develop in long-term methadone users. In contrast, reports of intravenous methadone adverse effects are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a patient who developed acute bilateral hearing loss, ataxia and paraparesis subsequently to intravenous methadone-abuse. While the patient gradually recovered from these deficits, widespread magnetic resonance imaging changes progressed and delayed-onset encephalopathy with signs of cortical dysfunction persisted. This was associated with changes in the composition of monocyte and natural killer cell subsets in the cerebrospinal fluid. CONCLUSION: This case suggests a potential bi-phasic primary toxic and secondary inflammatory CNS damage induced by intravenous methadone.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Ataxia/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/induzido quimicamente , Metadona/envenenamento , Paraparesia/induzido quimicamente , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Administração Intravenosa , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Edema Encefálico/induzido quimicamente , Edema Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Encefálico/imunologia , Edema Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/imunologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Monócitos/imunologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/imunologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/fisiopatologia , Paraparesia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMJ ; 372: m4957, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine county level associations between the prevalence of medical and recreational cannabis stores (referred to as dispensaries) and opioid related mortality rates. DESIGN: Panel regression methods. SETTING: 812 counties in the United States in the 23 states that allowed legal forms of cannabis dispensaries to operate by the end of 2017. PARTICIPANTS: The study used US mortality data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention combined with US census data and data from Weedmaps.com on storefront dispensary operations. Data were analyzed at the county level by using panel regression methods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measures were the log transformed, age adjusted mortality rates associated with all opioid types combined, and with subcategories of prescription opioids, heroin, and synthetic opioids other than methadone. The associations of medical dispensary and recreational dispensary counts with age adjusted mortality rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: County level dispensary count (natural logarithm) is negatively related to the log transformed, age adjusted mortality rate associated with all opioid types (ß=-0.17, 95% confidence interval -0.23 to -0.11). According to this estimate, an increase from one to two storefront dispensaries in a county is associated with an estimated 17% reduction in all opioid related mortality rates. Dispensary count has a particularly strong negative association with deaths caused by synthetic opioids other than methadone (ß=-0.21, 95% confidence interval -0.27 to -0.14), with an estimated 21% reduction in mortality rates associated with an increase from one to two dispensaries. Similar associations were found for medical versus recreational storefront dispensary counts on synthetic (non-methadone) opioid related mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Higher medical and recreational storefront dispensary counts are associated with reduced opioid related death rates, particularly deaths associated with synthetic opioids such as fentanyl. While the associations documented cannot be assumed to be causal, they suggest a potential association between increased prevalence of medical and recreational cannabis dispensaries and reduced opioid related mortality rates. This study highlights the importance of considering the complex supply side of related drug markets and how this shapes opioid use and misuse.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Maconha Medicinal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 218: 108355, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expanding access to and utilization of naloxone is a vitally important harm reduction strategy for preventing opioid overdose deaths, particularly in vulnerable populations like Medicaid beneficiaries. The objective of this study was to characterize the landscape of monthly prescription fill limit policies in Medicaid programs and their potential implications for expanding naloxone use for opioid overdose harm reduction. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-modal online and telephonic data collection strategy was used to identify and describe the presence and characteristics of monthly prescription fill limit policies across state Medicaid programs. Contextual characteristics were described regarding each state's Medicaid enrollment, opioid prescribing rates, and overdose death rates. Data collection and analysis occurred between February and May 2020. RESULTS: Medicaid-covered naloxone fills are currently subject to monthly prescription fill limit policies in 10 state Medicaid programs, which cover 20 % of the Medicaid population nationwide. Seven of these programs are located in states ranking in the top 10 highest per-capita opioid prescribing rates in the country. However, 8 of these programs are located in states with opioid overdose death rates below the national average. CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid beneficiaries at high risk of opioid overdose living in states with monthly prescription fill limits may experience significant barriers to obtaining naloxone. Exempting naloxone from Medicaid prescription limit restrictions may help spur broader adoption of naloxone for opioid overdose mortality prevention, especially in states with high opioid prescribing rates. Achieving unfettered naloxone coverage in Medicaid is critical as opioid overdoses and Medicaid enrollment increase amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374820

RESUMO

With the introduction of fentanyl to illegal markets in 2013 and an overall rise in rates of synthetic opioid use, opioid-related deaths have increased significantly. A similar trend has been observed for sexually transmitted infections, homicides, and poor mental health outcomes. In this paper, we explore the spatiotemporal relationship between opioid death rates and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates in counties from the Northeast region of the United States between the years 2012-2017. We hypothesized that rates for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) would all be positively associated with opioid death rates and that there would be a similar association between the STI rates and later time periods relative to earlier time periods. A negative binomial mixed-effects regression model was employed to assess these associations. Contrary to the study hypothesis, opioid death rates were not found to be significantly associated with the STI rates after accounting for other demographic and socioeconomic variables, with the exception of opioid deaths and gonorrhea in urban counties. Additionally, the regression demonstrated a significant association between infection rate and time period beyond the included socioeconomic variables and opioid deaths. Overall, this study indicates that declining sexual health outcomes may parallel rising opioid death, though both trends may be explained by similar underlying factors related to time period.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , New England/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
10.
N C Med J ; 81(6): 355-362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Deaths from unintentional opioid overdose have increased markedly over the last decade in North Carolina. In 2017 the state created a North Carolina Opioid Action Plan, which laid out a multisectoral response to the crisis that included the medical community, law enforcement, emergency medical services, and treatment professionals. It also created a website providing county-level data associated with the crisis. Using this publicly available data, we examine trends and associations between opioid-related mortality and strategies to reduce opioid prescriptions, reduce fatality of overdose, and improve treatment and recovery.METHOD We examine yearly trends from 2010-2017 for statewide unintentional opioid-related death rates, prescription of opioid pills, buprenorphine prescription rates, naloxone administrations, and number of Certified Peer Support Specialists. We compare recent opioid-related death rates for 2015-2017 with an earlier period (2010-2012) at the county level, and examine the association between death rates and rates of the supply, treatment, and recovery metrics.RESULTS Trends for all metrics increased from 2010-2017, although the number of opioid pills per capita has declined since 2015. Between 2010 and 2017, 84 of the state's 100 counties experienced an increase in opioid-related mortality. County-level mortality was positively associated with opioid prescription rate (r = +0.12, P = 0.24) and with naloxone administrations (r = +0.20, P = 0.05). Prescription of buprenorphine was associated with a reduction in opioid mortality (r = -0.27, P = 0.01). The effect of Certified Peer Support Specialists was not discernable.LIMITATIONS Data are available for only eight years and aggregated at the county level. Mortality data are based on death certificates using ICD-10 codes from the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, Vital Statistics, which may not capture all opioid-related fatalities. Drug-related deaths may involve multiple non-opioid substances; in addition, determining the intent of the deceased individual may be difficult (suicide versus unintentional). Naloxone administration data only includes data from emergency medical services, not community-administered naloxone, because that data was only available for 2013 and later and is based only on self-reports.CONCLUSIONS The potential efficacy of buprenorphine is promising and should be further explored. All interventions should be monitored.


Assuntos
Epidemia de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Benchmarking , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Epidemia de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Epidemia de Opioides/tendências
11.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 119: 108153, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032862

RESUMO

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will exacerbate the negative health outcomes associated with the concurrent opioid overdose crisis in North America. COVID-19 brings unique challenges for practitioners who provide opioid use disorder (OUD) care. The majority of overdose deaths in the Canadian province of British Columbia occur in housing environments. Some supportive housing environments in Vancouver, British Columbia, have on-site primary care and substance use disorder treatment clinics. Some of these housing environments also include supervised consumption services. These housing environments needed to make adjustments to their care to adhere to COVID-19 physical distancing measures. Such adjustments included a pandemic withdrawal management program to provide patients with a pharmaceutical grade alternative to the toxic illicit drug supply, which allow patients to avoid the heightened overdose risk while using illicit drugs alone or potentially exposing themselves to COVID-19 while using drugs in a group setting. Other modifications to the OUD care continuum included modified supervised injection spaces to adhere to physical distancing, the use of personal protective equipment for overdose response, virtual platforms for clinical encounters, writing longer prescriptions, and providing take-home doses to promote opioid agonist treatment retention. These strategies aim to mitigate indoor overdose risk while also addressing COVID-19 risks.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/provisão & distribução , Colúmbia Britânica , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Habitação , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento , Drogas Ilícitas/provisão & distribução , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Risco , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(35): 1189-1197, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881854

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Provisional estimates indicate that drug overdose deaths increased in 2019 after a slight decrease in 2018. In 2018, overdose deaths primarily involved opioids, with continued increases in deaths involving illicitly manufactured fentanyls (IMFs). Deaths involving stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine are also increasing, mainly in combination with opioids. METHODS: CDC analyzed data on drug overdose deaths during January-June 2019 from 24 states and the District of Columbia (DC) in the State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System to describe characteristics and circumstances of opioid- and stimulant-involved overdose deaths. RESULTS: Among 16,236 drug overdose deaths in 24 states and DC, 7,936 (48.9%) involved opioids without stimulants, 5,301 (32.6%) involved opioids and stimulants, 2,056 (12.7%) involved stimulants without opioids, and 943 (5.8%) involved neither opioids nor stimulants. Approximately 80% of overdose deaths involved one or more opioid, and IMFs were involved in three of four opioid-involved overdose deaths. IMFs, heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine (alone or in combination) were involved in 83.8% of overdose deaths. More than three in five (62.7%) overdose deaths had documentation of at least one potential opportunity for overdose prevention intervention. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Identifying opportunities to intervene before an overdose death and implementing evidence-based prevention policies, programs, and practices could save lives. Strategies should address characteristics of overdoses involving IMFs, such as rapid overdose progression, as well as opioid and stimulant co-involvement. These efforts should be complemented by efforts to prevent initiation of prescription opioid and stimulant misuse and illicit drug use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(4): 489-496, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study we assess whether changes in ZIP code-level density of medical marijuana facilities are related to changes in rates of opioid poisonings and opioid use disorder hospitalizations in California. METHOD: A panel study using California hospital discharge data was conducted to assess the relationship between density of medical marijuana dispensaries and opioid poisonings and use disorder. There were 8,536 space-time units at the ZIP code level. Outcome measures included ZIP code counts of opioid poisonings and opioid use disorder; independent variables were local- and adjacent-area medical marijuana dispensaries and demographic and economic characteristics. RESULTS: Independent of effects for covariates, densities of medical marijuana dispensaries were positively related to opioid use disorder (RR = 1.05, CI [1.03, 1.06]) and opioid poisonings (RR = 1.04, CI [1.02, 1.05]) in local areas, but negatively related to opioid misuse in spatially adjacent areas (RR = 0.91, CI [0.88, 0.94] for opioid use disorder, RR = 0.89, CI [0.86, 0.93] for opioid poisonings). CONCLUSIONS: Although state-level studies suggest that more liberal marijuana policies may result in fewer opioid overdose deaths, our results within one state suggest that local availability of medical marijuana may not reduce those deaths. The relationship appears to be more complex, possibly based on socioeconomic conditions within and adjacent to areas with higher densities of medical marijuana dispensaries.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Adulto , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750079

RESUMO

The United States suffered a dramatic and well-documented increase in drug-related deaths from 2000 to 2018, primarily driven by prescription and non-prescription opioids, and concentrated in white and working-class areas. A growing body of research focuses on the causes, both medical and social, of this opioid crisis, but little work as yet on its larger ramifications. Using novel public records of accidental opioid deaths linked to behavioral political outcomes, we present causal analyses showing that opioid overdoses have significant political ramifications. Those close to opioid victims vote at lower rates than those less affected by the crisis, even compared to demographically-similar friends and family of other unexpected deaths. Moreover, among those friends and family affected by opioids, Republicans are 25% more likely to defect from the party than the statewide average Republican, while Democrats are no more likely to defect; Independents are moderately more likely to register as Democrats. These results illustrate an important research design for inferring the effects of tragic events and speak to the broad social and political consequences of what is becoming the largest public health crisis in modern United States history.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas , Política , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 214: 108176, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with opioid use disorder may be at heightened risk of opioid overdose during the COVID-19 period of social isolation, economic distress, and disrupted treatment services delivery. This study evaluated changes in daily number of Kentucky emergency medical services (EMS) runs for opioid overdose between January 14, 2020 and April 26, 2020. METHODS: We evaluated the statistical significance of the changes in the average daily EMS opioid overdose runs in the 52 days before and after the COVID-19 state of emergency declaration, March 6, 2020. RESULTS: Kentucky EMS opioid overdose daily runs increased after the COVID-19 state emergency declaration. In contrast, EMS daily runs for other conditions leveled or declined. There was a 17% increase in the number of EMS opioid overdose runs with transportation to an emergency department (ED), a 71% increase in runs with refused transportation, and a 50% increase in runs for suspected opioid overdoses with deaths at the scene. The average daily EMS opioid overdose runs with refused transportation increased significantly, doubled to an average of 8 opioid overdose patients refusing transportation every day during the COVID-19-related study period. CONCLUSIONS: This Kentucky-specific study provides empirical evidence for concerns that opioid overdoses are rising during the COVID-19 pandemic and calls for sharing of observations and analyses from different regions and surveillance systems with timely data collection (e.g., EMS data, syndromic surveillance data for ED visits) to improve our understanding of the situation, inform proactive response, and prevent another big wave of opioid overdoses in our communities.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Coleta de Dados , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos
17.
J Anal Toxicol ; 44(7): 672-678, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542332

RESUMO

To evaluate trends related to accidental overdose deaths in Oklahoma, with a focus on opioids and methamphetamine. All accidental drug overdose deaths in the state of Oklahoma from 2002 to 2017 were reviewed. Opioids were grouped into the following categories: all opioids, prescription opioids, synthetic opioids and heroin. Age-adjusted death rates for methamphetamine and each opioid category were calculated and analyzed. Accidental overdoses accounted for 9,936 deaths during the study period. Of these, opioids were seen in 62.9%, with prescription opioids comprising 53.8%, synthetic opioids 10.3% and heroin 2.8%. Synthetic opioids, despite a recent upward nationwide trend, showed a slight overall decrease (-6.8%) from 2009 to 2017. In contrast, methamphetamine showed a 402.2% increase from 2009 to 2017 and an overall increase of 1,526.7%. Methamphetamine was involved in the most overdoses (1,963), followed by oxycodone (1,724). Opioid-related deaths were most common among white individuals (90.3%) and showed a slight male predilection (56.9%). With the intent of assessing the opioid epidemic as it relates to accidental overdoses in Oklahoma, this study suggests that opioid-related overdoses have slowed in recent years amidst a sharp increase in methamphetamine deaths.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Feminino , Heroína/envenenamento , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina/envenenamento , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Oxicodona/envenenamento
18.
Public Health ; 185: 8-14, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Opioid overdose death rates have continued to spike exponentially from the start of the 21st century, creating what is known to be one of the worst public health crises in the United States. Simultaneously, as more states began passing medical cannabis laws (MCLs), the idea that marijuana was the solution to the opioid crisis began to spread nationwide. As some states have maintained strict medical marijuana policies, others-such as Colorado-have expanded their statutes to allow recreational marijuana sales within their state. Researchers have been able to provide sense of the public health implications resulting from MCLs, but little is known about the effects of this marijuana policy expansion. This preliminary study will focus on exploring the statewide effects of Colorado's recreational marijuana policy on the state's opioid overdose death rates. STUDY DESIGN: Because Colorado has existing panel data for opioid overdose death rates, we can use statistical software to define and create an optimal control group to adequately resemble Colorado's outcome variable of interest. This process known as the synthetic control method can provide a valid counterfactual for Colorado's opioid overdose outcomes in the absence of this policy-a Colorado that did not expand marijuana policy to the point recreational dispensaries were established. METHODS: Opioid overdose death rate data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) will be used to construct a synthetic control unit composed of a donor pool of states resembling Colorado's regulatory environment pertaining to marijuana before legalization. The synthetic control unit allows for a comparative observation of overdose rate trends in Colorado and its synthetic counterpart for the years 1999-2017, all while including a set of predictor variables for robustness checks. A difference-in-difference estimate will then help us observe the effects of the treatment given to Colorado. Inference tests will be conducted to evaluate the method's predictive power and significance of the results. RESULTS: The results of the synthetic control model and its outcomes showed that the estimated negative 5% drop in overdose death rates was deemed insignificant on conducting a placebo in-space analysis, meaning there is not enough evidence to prove that opening recreational dispensaries as a result of recreational marijuana legislation was instrumental in reducing Colorado's ongoing opioid crisis depicted through opioid overdose deaths. CONCLUSION: Owing to the lack of additional post-treatment data and captured lagged effects, it is too soon to dismiss this policy as inadequate in combating the opioid epidemic. Once additional post-treatment data become available, the study can be reproduced to obtain more robust results and achieve a clearer understanding of the policy implications shown.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Cannabis , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Colorado/epidemiologia , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Maconha Medicinal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemia de Opioides , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Análise Espacial , Estados Unidos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20033, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481373

RESUMO

Though overall death from opioid overdose are increasing in the United States, the death rate in some states and population groups is stabilizing or even decreasing. Several states have enacted a Naloxone Accessibility Laws to increase naloxone availability as an opioid antidote. The extent to which these laws permit layperson distribution and possession varies. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in provisions of Naloxone Accessibility Laws by states mainly in the Northeast and West regions, and the impact of naloxone availability on the rates of drug overdose deaths.This cross-sectional study was based on the National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death mortality files. The average changes in drug overdose death rates between 2013 and 2017 in relevant states of the Northeast and West regions were compared according to availability of naloxone to laypersons.Seven states in the Northeast region and 10 states in the Western region allowed layperson distribution of naloxone. Layperson possession of naloxone was allowed in 3 states each in the Northeast and the Western regions. The average drug overdose death rates increased in many states in the both regions regardless of legalization of layperson naloxone distribution. The average death rates of 3 states that legalized layperson possession in the West region decreased (-0.33 per 100,000 person); however, in states in the West region that did not allow layperson possession and states in the Northeast region regardless of layperson possession increased between 2013 and 2017.The provision to legalize layperson possession of naloxone was associated with decreased average opioid overdose death rates in 3 states of the West region.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Naloxona/provisão & distribução , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/provisão & distribução , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
20.
J Opioid Manag ; 16(3): 219-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421843

RESUMO

Pain management in advanced cancer patients using opioids like morphine is challenging due to presence of predisposing factors like renal insufficiency, hepatic insufficiency, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and anemia that can easily precipitate inadvertent toxic effects. We report a case morphine toxicity in an elderly patient of lung cancer with concomitant presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and recent onset renal impairment. Opioid analgesic overdose is a lethal but at the same time, a preventable and treatable condition. We managed the case using naloxone infusion. However, we emphasize early anticipation and recognition of predisposing factors followed by timely intervention to manage this life-threatening condition.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Dor Irruptiva , Dor do Câncer , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Irruptiva/tratamento farmacológico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , Morfina , Neoplasias , Manejo da Dor
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